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A  SAM.  A.  M<60Sm» 
















Vol-  IL 



BY  G.  «&  C.  &  H.  CARVILL— IN  BOSTON  BY 



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Ba  IT  usMBMBiESD,  that  on  the  tenth  day  of  Angnet,  in  the  fiftH'oQith  year  of  the  Indepeodenoe  of  the 
United  Sutee  of  America,  A.  D.  18Ei9,  Oaraf,  Lea  Ik  Carey,  of  the  eaid  district,  have  deimited  in  thia  oflloe 
the  title  of  a  book,  the  right  whereof  they  claim  ae  proprietors,  in  tlie  words  following,  to  wit : 

"  Eaevelopttdia  Amwicana.  A  Popnlar  Dietionai;^  of  Arts,  Seienees,  Literature,  Historr,  Folities  and 
Biograpby,  bcooriit  down  to  the  present  Time }  fakcloding  a  oopioos  Collection  of  Original  Articles  in  Ameriean 
Bioirapby }  on  tte  Basis  of  the  eeventh  Edition  of  the  German  Goaversations-Lexieo^  Edited  by  Fraoeis  Lieber, 
assStcdby  E.  Wigglesworth  > 

In  conformity  to  the  act  of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  entitled|  '<  An  Act  for  the  eocouragement  of 
learning,  by  securing  the  copies  of  maps,  charts  and  books  to  the  authors  and  proprietors  of  su^  copies, 
during  the  times  therein  mentioned :"  and  also  to  the  act,  entitled,  "  An  Act  supplementary  to  an  act,  entitled, 
*  An  Act  for  Uw  encooragement  of  learning,  by  securing  tho  copies  of  maps,  charts  and  books  to  the  authors 
and  preprietixs  of  such  copies,  during  the  times  therein  mentioood  t'  and  extending  the  benefits  thereof  to  tho 
aru  of  desigaioff  engraving  and  otcbrag  historical  aod  other  prinu." 

.     JK  CALDWELL, 

CUrk  tftkt  EMmm  DiUntt  ef  PMUWflMUM. 

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>  4. 

«*    m? 


Battle- Axe;  awcnponmuchusedin 
the  early  part  of  the  middle  ages,  particu- 
larly l^  the  people  who  fought  on  foot 
It  was  not  uncommon,  however,  among 
the  knights,  who  used  also  the  mace,  a 
species  of  iron  club  or  hammer.  Both 
are  to  he  seen  in  the  different  collections 
of  old  arms  in  Europe.  Both  these 
weapons,  and  another  kind,  called,  in 
Gennan,  Morgenttem  (morning  star^  con- 
sisting of  a  sta£^  having  an  uon  ball  at 
the  end,  with  cross  non  spikes,  served  to 
ffive  stunning  blows^  whose  fbfco  was 
felt  through  the  iron  annor  of  the  knights. 
Knights  used  chiefly  the  MorgensUm 
and  the  mace.  The  Ghneeks  and  Romans 
did  not  employ  the  batde-axe,  though  it 
.  was  found  among  contemporary  nations. 
In  ftct,  the  axe  is  one  of  the  earliest 
weapons,  its  use,  as  an  instrument  of  do- 
mestic industry,  naturally  sunesthig  its 
application  for  purposes  of  o^nce ;  but, 
at  the  same  time,  it  will  always  be  aban- 
doned as  soon  as  the  art  of  fencing,  at- 
tacking and  guarding  is  the  least  culti- 
vated; because  ihe  heavier  the  blow 
given  with  this  instrument,  the  more  will 
it  expose  the  fighter.  It  is  a  weapon 
whicii  affords  hardly  any  guard,  and  it 
never  would  have  remain^  so  long  in 
use  in  the  middle  ages,  had  it  not  £«en 
for  the  ux)n  armor,  which  protected  the 
body  from  every  thing  but  heavy  blow& 
In  England,  Ireland  and  Scotland,  the 
battle-axe  was  much  employed.  At  the 
battle  of  Bannockburn,  king  Kobert  Bruce 
clave  an  Engtish  champion  down  to  the 
dbine  with  one  btow  or  his  axe.  A  blow 
of  equal  force  was  given  by  a  Suabian 
knight,  in  the  Levant,  in  presence  of  the 
Qeraian  einperor.  The  Lochaber  axe 
ramained  a  lormidable  implement  of  de- 

struction in  the  hands  of  the  Highlanders 
nearly  to  the  present  period,  and  is  still 
used,  by  the  city-guard  of  Edinburgh,  in 
quelling  riots,  &c 

Battle-Piece  ;  a  painting  which  rep- 
resents a  battle,  exhibiting  large  masses 
of  men  in  action.  The  annor  of  the  an- 
cients, and  the  whole  array  and  action  of 
their  batdes,  afford  subjects  much  more 
iavorohle  to  the  artist  than  the  straight 
lines,  or  condensed  columns,  and  the  m^ 
arms  of  the  modems.  A  painter  of  bat- 
tloi'pieces  oiu^ht  to  have  an  accurata 
knowledge  of  the  appearance  of  horses 
and  men,  and,  if  possible,  to  have  seen  a 
battle,  as  few  persons  are  able  to  form 
£rom  hearsay  an  accurate  idea  of  sudi  a 
scene.  Some  of  the  greatest  pieces  of 
this  kind  are,  the  battle  of  Constantino, 
of  which  the  cartoons  were  drawn  by 
Raphael,  and  which  was  executed  bv 
Giuho  Romano ;  Lebrun's  battles  of  Al- 
exander, and  the  batdes  of  the  Amazons, 
by  Rubens.  From  these  may  be  distin- 
guished the  skirmishes,  surprises,  &c., 
which  are  represented  with  so  much 
skill  by  Antomo  Tempests,  John  Snel- 
link,  Jos.  van  der  Velde,  John  Asselvn, 
Peter  Sneyers,  Robert  von  Hoek,  Ful« 
cone,  called  oracolo  ddU  battagHtj  James 
Courtois,  Francis  van  der  Meulen,  Philip 
Wouvermann,  Charles  Brevdel,  Henry 
Verschuuring  and  George  Philip  Rugen- 

Battooes,  Battacks  ;  two  thin  sticks, 
with  which  crimmals  in  Russia  were 
formerly  beaten  upon  their  naked  backs. 
The  crimiiutl  was  laid  upon  the  ground, 
and  one  of  the  executioners  sat  upon  his 
head,  anotiier  upon  his  feet.  By  the  code 
of  Catherine  II,  this  punishment  was 

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Battuecas,  Las ;  two  valleys,  eDclosed 
bv  high  mounUuDS,  in  the  Spanish  king- 

^doii  of  Leon,  50  miles  from  Salamanca, 
about  a  Spanish  mile  long,  and  so  inac- 
cessible that  the  inhabitants  are  said  to 
have  been  unknown  to  the  Spaniards  for 
several  centuries.  However,  a  convent  of 
Carmelites  was  built  in  the  Battuecas  val- 
leys as  early  as  1559.  They  are  situated 
so  low,  that,  in  the  longest  days,  the  sun 
only  shines  there  for  four  hours.  The  com- 
mon account,  that  these  valleys  were  dis- 
covered in  the  16th  centuiy,  by  two  lovers, 
who  fled  there  to  escape  the  pursuit  of 
their  families,  has  been  declared  by  &ther 
Feyjoo  to  be  unfounded.  Madame  de 
Geimis  has  founded  upon  this  stoiy  her 
romance  Las  BathUcas  (Paris,  1816,  2 
vols.);  but  she  labors  under  a  mistake 

.  when  she  asserts  that  M.  de  Bourgoinf, 
in  his  Travels  through  Spain,  has  quoted, 
as  a  historical  fiict,  what  she  relates  of 
the  Battuecas. 

Baucis  ;  a  Phrygian  woman ;  the  wife 
of  Philemon.  They  received  Jupiter  and 
Mercunr  hospitably,  after  tliese  gods  had 
been  denied  hospitality  in  the  virhole 
country,  while  travelling  in  disguise.  A 
deluge  destroyed  the  remainder  of  tlie 
people,  but  Philemon  and  Baucis,  with 
their  cottage,  were  saved.  They  begged 
the  gods  to  make  their  cottage  a  temple. 

.  in  miich  thev  could  officiate  as  priest  and 
priestess,  and  that  they  might  die  togeth- 
er; which  was  granted.  Philemon  and 
Baucis  are  therefore  names  often  used  to 
indicate  feithfiil  and  attached  married 

Bavman  IsLA?a>8 ;  a  cluster  of  islands 
in  the  South  Pacific  ocean,  discovered,  in 
1722,  by  Bauman,  in  his  voyage  round 
the  world  with  Ro^ewein.  All  the  in- 
habitants, says  a  wnter,  are  white ;  some 
of  them  burned  by  the  sun :  they  are 
numerous,  and  armed  with  bows  and  ar- 
rows, but  represented  as  of  a  ^ntle  and 
humane  disposition,  and  friendly  to  stran- 
gers. The  largest  island  is  abiout  21  or 
22  miles  in  circumference,  withgood  an- 
chorage.   Lon.  173°  W. ;  lat  12^  S. 

Baumann's  Caversv  (in  German,  Bau- 
manruhohk) ;  an  interesting  natural  cavern 
in  the  Harz,  in  the  principality  of  Blan- 
kenbur^,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Bode, 
about  nve  miles  Scorn  Blankenburg,  in  a 
lime^one  mountain,  consisting  of  six 
principal  apartments,  besides  many  small- 
er on^  eveiy  where  covered  witli  stalac- 
tites. The  earthy  ingredients  of  these 
petrifactions  are  held  m  solution  by  the 
water,  which  penetrates  the  rock,  and 
deposits  a  calcarious  stc«e.    The  name 

of  tills  cavern  is  derived  from  a  miner, 
who  entered  it,  in  1672,  with  the  view  of 
finding  ore,  but  lost  his  way,  and  wander- 
ed about  for  two  days  before  he  could  find 
the  entrance.    He  soon  after  died. 

Bauhgarten,  Alexander  Gottlieb,  boni, 
in  1714,  at  Berlin,  an  acute  and  clear 
thinker,  of  the  school  of  Wolf^  studied  at 
Halle,  and  was,  for  a  time,  professor  ex- 
traordinary there.  In  1740,  he  was  made 
professor  of  philosophy  at  Fraukfoit  on  the 
Oder,  and  died  there  in  1762.  He  is  the 
founder  of  eesthetics  as  a  science,  and 
the  inventor  of  this  name.  He  derived 
the  rules  of  art  firom  the  works  of  art  and 
their  effects.  Herebv  he  distinguished 
himself  advantageously  from  the  theorists 
of  his  time.  (See  JEstheHcs,)  His  ideas  of 
this  science  he  first  developed  in  his  aca- 
demical discussion,  DtNonnuLlisadPoema 
periinenUbus  (Halle,  1735, 4to).  GeorgeFr. 
Meier's  Principles  of  all  Liberal  Sciences 
(8  vols.,  Halle,  1748—50)  originated  fi^m 
his  suggestions.  Eight  years  later,  B. 
published  his  Msthdica  (Frankfort  on  the 
Oder,  1750—58,  2  vols.),  a  work  which 
death  prevented  him  from  completing. 

Bause,  John  Frederic,  a  distinguished 
German  engraver,  bom  at  Halle,  in  1738, 
died  at  Weimar,  1814.  He  resided  chief- 
ly at  Leipsic,  where  he  executed  many 
highly  esteemed  engravings.  He  was  a 
member  of  several  academies  of  fine  arts. 

Bautzen,  or  BuDESsm;  capital  of  Up- 
per Lusatia,  in  the  port  belonging  to  the 
king  of  Saxonv,  upon  a  height  defended 
on  the  west  side  by  steep  rocks,  the  foot 
of  which  is  watered  by  the  Spree.  Among 
the  11,500  inhabitants,  who  are  princi- 
pally Lutherans,  there  are  a  great  number 
of  Wendes,  or  descendants  of  the  Vandals, 
who  worship  in  a  Lutheran  and  in  a 
Catholic  church,  in  their  ovm  language. 
The  German  part  of  the  population,  both 
Catholic  and  Protestant,  worsliip  together 
in  the  cathedral :  the  former  are  in  pos- 
session of  the  third  part  of  it,  including 
the  high  ahar,  sufficiently  large  for  the 
small  Catholic  congregation;  the  nave 
serves  tlie  Lutheran  community  as  their 
parish  church,  and  the  mutual  spirit  of 
toleration  in  both  parties  has,  in  recent 
times,  prevented  trouble  finom  such  an 
arrangemenu — ^Here  was  fought,  on  the 
20th  and  2l8t  of  May,  1813,  the  second 
great  battle  in  the  campaign  of  the  Prus- 
sians and  Russians  against  the  French. 
The  aUies  had  been  compelled,  after  the 
battle  of  Lutzen  (May  2, 1813),  to  retreat 
to  the  right  bank  of  the  Elbe,  and  pre- 
pared themselves,  near  Bautzen  on  the 
Spree,  for  a  new  engagement.    Although 

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the  army  of  Napoleon  was  far  superior  in 
number,  being  strengthened  by  rein- 
forcements from  France,  Italy  and  the 
troops  of  the  confederation  of  the  Rhine, 
80  as  to  amomit  to  about  148,000  men, 
yet  the  allies  determined  to  risk  a  battle, 
that  Prussia  might  gain  time  for  its  levies 
m  Slleaiatand  Napoleon  be  checked  in  his 
advance  as  much  as  possible.  It  was  also 
deaorable  that  the  wavering  troops  of  Aus- 
tria should  be  convinced  that  the  army  was 
able  to  make  a  stand  against  the  enemy, 
and  that  the  courage  of  the  new  Prussian 
recruits  should  not  be  damped  by  contin- 
ual retreat,  but,  on  the  contrary,  their 
wish  for  battle  gmtified.  On  the  morning 
of  May  20,  Napoleon  disclosed  his  plan 
of  attacks  In  the  evening,  the  French 
had  gained  the  city  of  Bautzen.  On  tlie 
21st,  the  fight  continued  until  4  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  when  the  allies  resolved 
on  a  retreat,  which  was  performed  in  such 
order,  that  Napoleon  was  not  able  to  gain 
any  immediate  advantage  from  his  victo- 
ry. The  field  of  battle,  was  covered  wkh 
the  dead,  and  was  lighted  by  30  burning 
villages.  The  French  loss  was  about 
8000  men  killed,  and  18,000  wounded; 
that  of  the  allies,  between  8  and  12,000. 
Napoleon,  to  encourage  his  troops,  assign- 
ed 25,000,000  fiimcs  tor  the  erection  of  a 
monument  upon  mount  Cenis,  as  a  token 
of  his  gratitude  towards  the  French  and 
Italian  troops.  The  rear  of  the  allies 
repulsed  two  serious  attacks,  and,  contrary 
to  the  expectations  of  Napoleon,  thev 
marched  to  the  intrenched  camp  of  Pm- 
zeu.  But  Lauriston  occupied  Breslau. 
The  petition  of  the  allies,  tiuneatening  the 
right  wing  of  the  French  army,  the  great 
loss  which  the  French  had  sufiered,  and 
tlie  detached  corps,  which  cut  off  Napo« 
Icon's  communication  with  Saxony,  in- 
duced him  to  accede  to  a  suspension  of 
amis  on  the  4th  of  June,  near  the  city  of 
Jauer.    (See  »7ir  o/ 1812— 1815.) 

Bavaria.  At  the  time  of  the  general 
migration  of  the  barbarians,  the  regions 
formerly  inhabited  by  the  Boii,  the  Celts 
of  the  Daimbe,  w^ere  taken  possession  of 
by  some  German  tribes.  This  coimtry, 
in  the  time  of  Ciesar,  had  been  a  waste, 
and,  in  the  time  of  Augustus,  a  Roman 
province  (Vindelicia  and  Noricum).  At 
the  end  of  the  fifth  century,  these  tnbes^ 
the  Ileruli,  the  Rugians,  the  Turcilingtans 
and  the  Skyres— formed  a  confederacy, 
like  those  of  the  Franks  and  the  Mar- 
coinanni,  under  the  name  Bcdoarians. 
They  spread  from  Noricum  westward  to 
the  Lech.  Ratisbon  woa  their  chief  seat. 
This  country  was  then  called  Mnctmh 

and,  according  to  Mannert,  was  never 
subjected  to  the  Ostrogoths.  When  the 
Franks  took  poaaession  of  Rhoetia,  the 
Baioarians  became  subject  to  them.  Thfe 
people,  however,  sdll  retamed  the  liberty 
of  ehooanjf  theur  own  rulers.  After  the 
divisitm  or  the  empire  of  Chariemagne, 
this  region  was  disturbed,  like  the  rest  of 
Europe,  by  the  conflicting  claims  of  rival 
dukes,  till  the  time  of  Otho  the  Great, 
count  palatine  of  Wittelsbach.  Otho,  the 
ancestor  of  the  present  dynasty,  died  in 
1183.  His  successor,  Louis  I,  enlarged 
tlie  Bavarian  territory,  and  acquired  the 
palatinate  of  the  Rhine.  He  was  mur- 
dered in  1231,  probably  at  the  instigation 
of  Henry,  whose  rebeltion  against  his 
father,  the  emperor  Frederic  II,  the  duke 
had  censured.  He  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Otho,  the  Illustrious,  palatine  of  the 
Rhme.  Under  his  reign,  the  bishops 
made  themselves  independent.  I^s  do- 
minions, however,  were  considerably  in- 
creased. His  attachment  to  the  emperor 
involved  him  in  the  excommunication 
pronounced  agonist  that  prince.  He  died 
m  1253,  His  sons,  Louis  and  Henry, 
reigned  fi>r  two  vears  in  conjunction.  jTn 
1255,  they  divided  the  temtories,  Louis 
receiving  Upper  and  Hen^  Lower  Ba- 
varia. The  line  of  the  ktter  became 
extinct  a  few  years  afterwards.  Tl;ie  in- 
heritance of  the  unhappy  Conrsdin  of 
Hohenstaufen  fell  into  tne  hands  of  these 
princes.  One  of  the  two  sons  of  Louis 
was  raised  to  the  imperial  dignity,  in 
1314,  under  the  tide  of  Ltmis  IV  (q.v.), 
called  the  Bavarian.  He  entered  into  an 
agreement  with  the  sons  of  his  brother 
(Pavia,  1329)  for  the  division  of  the  do- 
minions of  the  family.  In  consequence 
of  this  aj^ement,  kuiff  Maximilian  Jo- 
seph umted  all  die  dominions  of  the 
Wittelsbach  dynasnr  hi  17d9.  After  the 
extinction  of  the  Lower  Bavarian  hne, 
the  emperor  Louis,  by  the  desire  of  his 
states,  united  Lower  with  Upper  Bavaria. 
The  emperor  introduced  a  new  code  of 
laws  fiir  Upper  Bavaria,  a  new  or^^aniza- 
tion  of  the  courts  for  Lower  Bavano,  con- 
ferred the  privileges  of  a  city  on  Munich, 
and  reduced  to  order  tlie  internal  admin" 
istration.  He  died  Oct  11, 1347,  leaving 
six  sous  by  two  maniages.  His  domin^' 
ions  included  Bavaria,  Brandenbu^,  the 
provinces  of  Holland  and  Zealand,  Tyrol, 
&,€.  These  provinces  were  soon  lost  by 
the  divisions  and  dissensions  of  the  difr 
ferent  lines.  Most  of  the  lines  founded 
by  the  six  brotheis  eariy  became  extinct. 
In  1506,  a  diet  of  the  states  of  Upper  and 
Lower  Bavaria  was  assembled  by  duko 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



Albert  II,  who,  With  tiie  consent  of  his 
brother  Wol^^ang,  and  of  the  estates, 
published  a  pragmatic  sanction,  intro- 
ducing the  law  of  primogeniture,  and 
fixing  the  allowance  of  the  younger  sons. 
Albert  died  in  1508.  Of  his  three  sons, 
William  IV,  Louis  and  Ernest,  William 
ou|[ht,  accordingly,  to  have  been  his  sole 
heu-.  The  authority  was,  however,  di- 
vided, ailcr  much  contest,  between  Wil- 
liam IV  and  Louis,  until  the  death  of  the 
latter,  in  15d4.  These  princes  were  both 
opposed  to  the  reformation.  Luther^ 
most  violent  opponent,  John  £ck,  lived  at 
Ingolstadt,  under  their  protection,  which 
they  also  extended  to  tlie  Jesuits.  Wil- 
liam died  in  1550 ;  his  son  Albeit  V,  the 
Generous,  succeeded  hinu  He  also  fa- 
vored the  Jesuits,  but  was  a  liberal  patron 
of  the  arts  and  sciences.  The  states  re- 
ceived from  him  great  privileges.  He 
died  in  1579.  Of  three  sons,  tlie  eldest, 
William  V,  tlie  Pious,  succeeded  him, 
and,  in  1596,  renffned  the  government  to 
his  eldest  son,  JHaximilian  I,  and  retired 
to  a  monastery.  Maximilian,  a  prince  of 
distinguished  abilities,  was  the  soul  of  the 
league  formed  against  the  Protestant 
imion.  In  the  course  of  the  30  years' 
war,  which  had  just  broken  out,  Maxi- 
milian was  invested,  by  tlie  emperor  Fer- 
dinand II  (1G23),  with  tlie  dignity  of 
elector  palatine.  The  jieace  of  West- 
phalia confirmed  Maximilian  m  tiie  elec- 
toral dignity  and  tlie  possession  of  the 
upper  palatinate,  in  return  for  the  renun- 
ciation of  Upper  Austria,  wliich  had  been 
pledged  te  him  for  13,000,000  florins,  ex- 
]>enses  of  war ;  and,  on  the  other  hand, 
a  new  electorate,  tlie  eij^hth,  was  estab- 
lished for  the  palatinate  hue,  and  its  suc- 
cession to  tlie  title  and  territory  of  the 
origmal  electorote  was  settled,  in  case  of 
the  failure  of  the  line  of  William.  Max- 
imilian died  Sci)t.  27, 1651,  after  a  reign 
of  55  years.  lie  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Ferdinand  Mario,  who  was  succeed- 
ed, in  1679,  by  his  eldest  son,  Maximilian 
Emanuel  In  tlie  war  of  the  Spanish  suc- 
cession, tlie  elector  declared  for  France. 
Afler  the  unfortunate  battle  at  Blenheim, 
Bavaria  was  treated  by  tlie  emperor 
as  a  conquered  country.  Tlie  elector 
was  put  under  tlie  ban  of  tlie  empire  in 
1706,  and  was  not  reinstated  in  his  gov- 
ernment till  the  peace  of  Baden  (1/14). 
After  his  death,  m  1726,  Charles  Albert 
succeeded  him  in  the  electoral  dignity. 
Although  he  had  signed  the  prnffmatic 
sanction  of  the  emperor  Charles  VI,  yet, 
after  the  death  of  the  emperor,  and  the 
beginning  of  the  fint  Silesian  war,  so 

fortunate  lor  the  king'  of  Pnuaia,  he 
claimed  the  whole  Austrian  teiritory, 
subjected  all  Upper  Austria,  assumed  the 
title  of  archduke  f^Aastria^  after  the  cap- 
time  of  Prague  in  the  same  year  received 
homage  as  kuig  of  Bohemia,  and  was 
elected  emperor  of  Germany,  at  Frank- 
fort, 1742,  under  the  title  of  Charles  VIL 
But  here  his  fortune  began  to  decline. 
As  he  had  received  the  homage  of  Aus* 
tria  and  Bohemia,  so,  after  Uie  sudden 
change  in  the  fortune  of  the  war  (1743), 
Maria  Theresa  obliged  tlie  states  of  Bava- 
ria, and  of  tlie  up|>er  palatinate,  to  swear 
allegiance  to  her.  Notwidistanding  his 
alliance  with  the  landgrave  of  Hcase- 
Cassel  and  Frederic  II  (1744),  and  the 
progress  of  the  Prussian  arms,  Charles 
was  compelled,  by  the  superior  talent  of 
the  Austrian  general,  Charles  of  Lorraine, 
to  expose  Bavaria.  He  did  not  Uve  to 
see' tlie  end  of  the  wai*,  but  died  Jan.  20, 
1745.  His  son  and  successor,  Maximilian 
Joseph  III,  who  also  assumed,  at  first, 
the  title  of  cBrchdvke  of  Austria^  made 
peace  with  Austria  soon  after,  at  Fussen 
(April  22, 1745),  became  one  of  the  guar- 
antees of  the  pragmatic  sanction,  prom- 
ised the  archduke  Francis  his  vote  in  the 
election  of  einperor,  and  received,  in  re- 
turn, all  the  Bavarian  territories  which 
had  been  conquered  bv  Austria.  Maxi- 
milian Joseph  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
the  good  of^his  country.  He  encouraged 
agriculture,  manu&ctures,  mining ;  regu- 
lated the  judicial  establishments,  the  po- 
lice, the  finances,  and  institutions  for 
instruction ;  the  sciences  were  promoted 
by  the  foundation  of  the  academy  of  sci- 
ences at  Munich,  in  1759,  and  the  fine 
arts  found  in  him  a  liberal  protector.  He, 
himself  without  children,  confirmed  all 
the  contracts  relatinir  to  the  inheritance, 
which  had  been  made  with  the  electoral 
line  of  the  palatinate  since  the  treaty  of 
Pavia  (13291.  In  compliance  with  the 
treaties  of  tne  house  of  Wittelsbach,  as 
well  as  with  the  terms  of  the  peace  of 
Westphalia,  the  right  of  succession  in 
Bavaria  reverted,  undeniably,  to  the  elec- 
tor of  tlie  palatinate,  since  the  Wittels- 
bach*Bavanan  line  became  extinct  on 
the  death  of  Maximihan  Joseph,  30th  of 
Dec,  1777.  Austria  then  laid  claim  to 
Lower  Bavaria,  and  attempted  to  support 
her  demands  by  arms,  without  any  previ- 
ous declaration  of  war.  Chariea  Theo- 
dore, being  without  children,  was  per- 
suaded to  sign  a  treaty  (Jan.  3  and  14, 
1778),  fbnnallv  renouncing  the  Bavarian 
succession.  Buttheduke  ofDeux-Ponts, 
uncle  of  the  reigning  king,  the  nearest 

Digitized  by 



agnate  and  presumptive  heir,  eneouraaed 
by  Frederic  II,  refused  to  acknowledge 
that  r^mnciatioii.    This  was  the  origin 
of  the  war  of  the  Bavarian  succession, 
which  was  terminated,  without  bloodshed 
(owing  chiefly  to  the  Russian  declaration 
of  war  against  Austria],  by  the  peace  of 
Teschen,  May  13, 1779.    The  possession 
of  ^Bavaria,  from  which  Austria  obtained 
only  the  Lunviertel,  with  Braunau  (800 
square  miles),  was  secured  to  the  elector 
palatine  of  Iravaria,  according  to  the  &n>- 
ily  compacts.    By  this  union  <^  the  Ba- 
varian dominions,  the  eighth  electorate 
became  extinct,  according  to  the  terms 
of  the  peace  of  Westphalia.     In  1784, 
however,  the  posaesnon  of  Bavaria  again 
became  an  oDJect  of  desire  at  Vienna, 
and  an  exchange  was  proposed,  which 
had  been  already  a  subject  of  negotiation 
in  the  beginning  of  the  centuiy.     The 
emperor  Joseph  II  proposed  to  die  elec- 
tor to  exchange  Bavaria  for  tlie  Austrian 
Netherlands  (excluding  Luxemburg  and 
Naniur),  and  the  sum  of  3,000,000  flor- 
ins lor  himself  and  tiie  duke  of  Deux- 
Ponts,  with  the  title  of  king  of  Buraruruhf, 
Tins  project,  though  &vored  by  Russia, 
was  disappointed  by  the  firmness  of  the 
duke  of  Deux-Ponts,  who,  encouraged 
by  the  protection  of  Pnissia,  declared 
^  that  he  would  never  consent  to  barter 
away  the  inheritance  of  his  ancestors.'^ 
The  zeal  with  which  Frederic  II  adopted 
the  cause  of  Bavaria,  induced  the  cabinet 
of  Vienna  to  relinquish  the  plan,  aiwl  to 
declare,  at  the  ssune  time,  "tliat  tiicro 
never  had  bi^en  and  never  would  be  any 
hiteiition  of  a  forced  exchange.'*     (See 
League  of  the  Princes,)    The  reign  of 
Charles  Theodore  was  remarkable  for 
the  rise  of  the  llluminati  (q.  v.)  in  Bava- 
ria, for  the  processes  against  them,  and 
the  revival  of  Jesuitism.     During  these 
troubles,  the  lilierty  of  tlie  pi'ess  was  con- 
tinually more  and  more  restrained,  and  a 
period  of  intellectual  darkness  appeared 
to  l)e  about  to  commence.    In  the  war 
of  the  French  revoluiicxi,  the  elector  sent 
his  contingent  to  the  army  of  the  empire. 
The  palatinate  suffered  mncli,  and,  in 
1796,  Bavaria  itself  became  tlie  theatre 
of  war.    At  tliis  crisis  (Feb.  16,  1799), 
Charles  Theodore' <lied  without  issue,  and 
the  Sulzbach  branch  of  the  line  of  the 
paladnate  became  extinct  with  liim.    The 
duke  Maximilian  Joseph  of  Deux-Ponts 
came  into  possession  of  all  the  Bavarian 
territories.    The  peace  of  Luneville  (Feb. 
9, 1801)  put  an  end  to  the  renewed  war, 
and  its  most  important  article— the  cession 
of  the  }eft  bank  of  the  Rhine  to  France — 

esMndally  affected  Biavaria.     Whilst  it 
lost  all  its  possesions  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Rhine,  and  also  the  lands  of  the  pa- 
latinate on  the  right  bank,  it  obtamed,  on 
the  other  hand,  by  an  imperial  edict,  an 
mdenmification,  by.  which  it  gained,  in 
addition  to  the  amount  lost,  a  surplus  of 
2109  square  nule8,and  216,000  inhabitants. 
The  poUtical  importance  of  Bavaria,  with 
respect  to  Austria  as  well  as  to  France,  w9b 
more  fully  displayed  in  the  war  of  1805. 
When  Austria  resumed  hostiUties  against 
France,  she  required  the  elector  of  Bava- 
ria to  unite  his  troops  with  the  Austrian 
army,  and  refused  to  allow  him  to  remain 
neutral,  ''which  (as  the  emperor  Fran- 
cis vnrote  to  the  elector,  Sept.  3,  1804) 
France  herself  would  only  sumer  as  long 
as  she  should  fmd  it  ejopedient"    Bava- 
ria, however,  did  not  nnd  it  accordant 
with  its  own  interests  to  place  itself  en- 
tirely in  the  power  of  Austria.    At  the 
beginning  of  the  war,  the  elector  joined 
the  Fi-ench  with  about  30,000  troops,  and 
the  peace  of  Presburg  annexed  to  his 
dominions    10,595    square    miles,   and 
1,000)000  inhabitants,  and  conferred  on 
liim  the  dignity  of  king ;   in  return  for 
which,  he  ceded  Wfurzourg,  which  was 
erected  into  an  electorate,  in  the  place  of 
Salzburg.    The  king  of  Bavaria,  like  the 
rulers  of  Wurtemberg  and  Baden,  now 
assumed  sovereignty  over  the  lands  of 
the  nobility  of  the  empire  within  his  bor^ 
ders.     The  political  connexion  recently 
fonned  with  France  was  confirmed  by 
tlie  marriage  of  the  princess  Augusta, 
daughter  of  the  king,  with  Eugene  Na- 
poleon, viceroy  of  ItSy,  son-in-law  of  tlie 
French  emperor.    An  immediate  conse- 
quence of  this  alliance  was  the  exchange 
of  Berg,  which  Bavaria  siurrendered  to 
Napoleon,  for  Anspach,  which  Prussia 
had  given  up  to  France  in  exchange  for 
Hanover,  and  finally,  what  was  most  im- 
])orumt,  the  signing* of  the  confederation 
of  tlic  Rliine  (July  12,  1806),  m  which 
Bavaria  promised  to  bring  into  the  field 
30,000  troops,  and  to  fortify  Augsbuiv 
and  Lmdau.    Thereupon,  the   king  of 
Bavaria  was  obliged  to  take  part  in  tlie 
war  against  Prussia,  in  1806,  and  in  the 
war  against  Austria,  in  1609,  one  of  the 
consequences  of  which  was  the  revolution 
of  Tyrol    After  its  termination,  Bavaria 
received  imfiortant  addidons,  partly  at  the 
expense  of  Austria,  partly  by  treaties  of 
exchange  with  Wtirtemberg  and  WOrz- 
liurg.— When,  in  1812,  the  war  between 
France  and  Russia  broke  out,  Bavaria 
sent  anew  its  whole  proportion  of  troops 
to  the  French  army.     Insignificant  re- 

Digitized  by 




mams  only  of  the  90,000  BaTarians  re- 
tumed  in  the  spring  of  1813.  Maximil- 
ian Joseph,  notwithstanding  this  saciifice, 
placed  nresh  troops  under  the  command 
of  Napoleon  as  tne  protector  of  the  con- 
federation of  the  Rhme,  when  the  new 
campaign  was  opened,  near  the  close  of 
April.  This  army  also  suffered  great 
losses,  but  distinguished  itself  with  its 
wonted  bravery,  under  the  command  of 
marshal  Oudinot  Itsufieredparticularly 
in  the  battles  of  Luckau  and  Grossbeereu 
(1813).  At  this  time,  tlie  whole  political 
^ystem  of  Bavaria  was  suddenly  changed. 
Whilst  the  French  army  of  observation 
was  formed  at  Wjuzbui^,  under  Au- 
gereau,  a  Bavarian  corps  of  observation 
was  placed  on  the  Lm,  over  against  a 
division  of  the  Austrian  army.  For  a 
long  time,  both  corps  remained  inactive. 
The  departure  of  the  corps  of  Augercau, 
by  which  Bavaria  was  exposed  in  its  most 
vulnerable  point,  accelerated  tlie  resolu- 
tion of  its  Einff.  The  Bavarian  general 
Wrede  concluded  an  armistice  with  the 
Austrian  general  Frimont,  October  8,  at 
Kied,  which  was  followed  by  a  proclama- 
tion, October  15,  by  which  the  king  of 
Bavaria  abandoned  the  confederation  of 
the  Rhine,  and  turned  his  forces  against 
France.  In  this  convention,  his  present 
territories,  with  full  sovereignty,  were 
assured  to  tlie  king,  and  a  sufficient 
indemnification  for  those  lauds  which 
shouM  be  made  over  to  Austria.  At  the 
same  time,  Wrede,  as  commander-in- 
chief^  united  the  Austrian  corps  with  his 
own,  and  turned  the  Bavarian  arms 
against  the  French,  in  the  battle  of  Ha- 
nau.  In  1815,  at  the  breaking  out  of  the 
new  war,  the  present  king,  then  crown- 
prince,  took  tlie  command  of  the  national 
army.  Meanwhile,  the  congress  of  Vi* 
enna,  and,  more  particularly,  the  prepara- 
tion of  tlie  statutes  of  tlie  Gennan  diet 
(as  well  as  tlie  different  interests  originat- 
ing from  the  new  European,  and  espe- 
cially the  new  Gennan  system  of  states), 
had  given  sufficient  ojiportunity  to  the 
liavarian  government  for  tlie  develope- 
nient  of  its  system  of  diplomacy.  Bava- 
ria has  jealously  maintained  its  station  as 
an  independent  sovereign  state.  Since 
1825,  Bavaria  has  been  under  the  govern- 
ment of  Louis  I,  tlie  moat  liberal  of  the 
German  princes.  He  has  hitherto  acted 
with  much  energy.^ — ^Bavaria  was  erected 
into  a  kingdom  in  1805,  and  is  now  one 
of  the  most  considerable  of  the  secondary 
states  of  Europe.  It  is  composed  of  the 
greater  part  of  the  circles  of  Bavaria  and 
Francooia,  part  of  Suabia,  and,  on  the 

west  side  of  the  Rhine,  embraces  the 
greater  part  of  that  portion  of  the  drcle 
of  Upper  Rhine  included  in  the  late 
French  department  of  Mont  Tonnerre* 
Exclusive  of  the  part  west  of  the  Rhine, 
it  is  bounded  N.  by  Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Hesse-Cassel,  and  the  Saxon  principalities 
of  Meiningen,  Hildburghausen,  Coburg 
and  Reuss,  and  the  kingdom  of  Saxony ; 
E.  and  S.  by  Austria,  and  W.  by  Wiir- 
temberg,  Baden  and  Hesse-Darmstadt^ — 
The  kingdom  of  Bavaria  is  divided  into  the 
8  following  circles : — Iser,  Upper  Maine, 
Lower  Mame,  Rezat,  Regen,  Upper  Dan- 
ube, Lower  Danube,  Rhine.  The  last  is 
on  the  west  aide  of  the  river  Rhine.— 
This  kingdom  contains  32,000  square 
miles  and  3,800,000  inhabitants.  Its  ar- 
my is  53,900  strong,  of  whom  35,800 
form  the  seventh  corps  iParmie  of  the 
German  confederacy.  Its  public  debt 
amounted,  in  Sept,  1824,  to  103,157,859 
florins;  the  income  was, at  the  same  time, 
29,132^^  florins.  The  present  king, 
Louis,  endeavors,  with  much  zeal,  to  in- 
troduce economy  into  the  expenses  of 
the  government:  he  has  dhninished  the 
standing  army,  and  discharged  many  offi- 
cers firom  the  civil  government. — ^The 
various  inhabitants  of  tliis  countiy  difler 
very  much  in  tlieir  character,  the  Bava- 
rian, irom  the  highlands  near  Tyrol,  and 
the  Franconian,  in  the  north  part  of  the 
kingdom,  being  as  unlike  as  any  two  Ger- 
mans probably  can  be ;  and  the  diffi^rent 
parts  of  this  young  kingdom  have  been  so 
recently  united,  that  it  is  not  possible  to 
speak  of  any  character  as  common  to  its 
inhabitants.  The  native  of  Upper  Bava- 
ria is  hardy,  laborious,  short  in  stature. 
Many  portions  of  the  population  are  dis- 
tinguished by  mechanical  talent.  The 
excellence  of  Fraiienhofer's  telescopes 
and  Bader's  rail-road  is  generally  known. 
Munich  and  Nuremberg  have,  in  recent 
times,  produced  more  philosophical  iustrur 
inents  tlian  any  other  two  cities  of  Ger- 
many. (See  Munich.)  The  nianufuctiu^es 
of  Bavaria  include  linen,  woollen  and  cot- 
ton cloths,  iron,  fire-arms,  and  otlier  orti- 
cles,  designed  chiefly  for  the  sup]>ly  of 
domestic  wants.  Glass,  paper,  clocks  and 
hard  ware  are  also  made  in  several  of  tlie 
principal  towns.  The  common  language 
of  Bavaria,  of  course,  is  German ;  but  the 
dialects  vary  much,  fix>m  the  strong  Fran- 
conian spoken  in  Wtirzbiug  to  the  broad 
Swiss  dialect  in  Ldndau.  At  the  head  of 
each  of  the  circles,  into  which  the  kingdom 
is  divided,  stands  a  j^neral  commissioner 
( (kneral  KreiscommMsair)^  with  great  pow- 
er, chiefly  of  an  executive  character.    All 

Digitized  by 



the  lower  courts,  municipid  magistnites, 
▼iHnfje  officers,  &c.,  are  under  his  controL 
The  judiciary  consists  of  a  hij^b  court  of 
appeal  (Ober  AppeUaJtuma  Genchi)  at  Mu- 
nich; also  a  court  of  appeal  for  each 
circle,  and  the  inferior  courts.  The  Codex 
Juris  Bmmici  has  been  in  force  since 
Jan.  1,  1811.  The  penal  code  is  now 
under  revision.  A  complete  code  is  also 
in  preparation.  (See  Feuerbatk)  The 
executive  consists  of  a  privy  council, 
raUed  Gtkeme  Rath,  composed  of  4  min- 
isters of  state,  the  4  crown-officers,  and 
from  12  to  16  other  members,  who  delib- 
erate in  3  sections  on  tiie  affiiirs  of  the 
kingdom.  The  affiiirs  of  die  Catholics 
in  the  kingdom  are  regulated  by  the  con- 
cordat concluded  with  Pius  VII,  Jan.  5, 
1817,  which,  in  1821,  ^vas  promulgated 
as  the  law  of  the  land.  Those  or  the 
Protestants  are  under  the  direction  of  a 
general  consistory.  The  two  sects  live 
witliout  contention.  The  circumstance 
that  the  queen  of  the  late  king  was  a 
Protestant  (as  is  also  tlie  present  queen, 
if  we  are  not  gready  mistaken)  had  a 
most  beneficial  influence.  In  the  smaller 
council  of  the  German  diet,  Bavaria  has 
the  third  place,  and  in  the  plenum  has 
four  votes.  (See  (jennan  Cofifederaev.) 
Education  made  much  progress  under 
the  government  of  the  late  Maximilian 
Joseph,  and  it  is  to  be  expected  that  the 
present  king,  who  has  manifested  liberal 
views,  on  many  occasions,  more  openly 
than  any  prince  of  the  continent  now 
living,  will  continue  to  give  it  the  aid  of 
the  government.  Many  seminaries  for 
the  training  of  instructers  have  been 
erected,  and  the  academy  of  sciences  at 
Munich,  with  the  three  universities  at 
Munich,  W(iizburg  and  Erlangen,  pro- 
duce the  best  results.  (See  Munieh, 
WUnbur^  and  Erlangen.)  The  first  of 
these  umversities  contains  nearly  2000 
students,  whilst  the  medical  department 
of  Wfu^burg  is  considered  one  of  the 
first  in  Europe.  Agriculture  and  indus- 
try in  general  have  received,  since  the 
reign  of  Maximilian,  much  attention. 
Several  institutions  for  promoting  them 
have  been  established,  including  agricul- 
tural seminaries,  in  which  those  young 
men  who  prepare  themselves  for  village 
school-masters  learn  gardening,  &c.  A 
festival  was  mstituted  by  Maximilian, 
generally  called  the  October  festival,  at 
which  prizes  are  assigned,  by  order  of 
the  king,  for  the  best  specimens  of  airri- 
cuhurai  produce,  the  best  catde,  &c 
There  are  also  races  connected  witii  this 
celebration.     The  present  kmg,  when 

crown-prince,  was  a  liberal  patnm  of  the 
fine  arts,  and  still  afifords  them  much 
encouragement  As  Bavaria  is  entirely 
an  inland  country,  and  has  no  great  river 
crossing  it,  its  commercial  resources  could 
be  fully  developed  only  in  case  of  a  per- 
fecUy  firee  intercourse  between  all  the 
German  states;  to  obtain  which,  efforts 
have  several  times  been  made,  but,  un- 
happily, in  vain.  A  great  canal,  near 
Nuremberg,  has  been  sometimes  spoken 
of,  to  unite,  by  means  of  small  rivers,  the 
Rhine  and  Danube,  a  work  begun  bv 
Chariemagne :  the  traces  of  his  work,  still 
remaining,  are  called  fossa  Carolina : 
but  the  expense  would  be  great  for  sa 
small  a  kingdom,  and  it  is  very  doubtful 
whetiier  the  commerce  carried  on  in  this 
wa^  would  be  considerable,  depending, 
as  It  would,  upon  so  many  govemmentSy 
from  the  Turkish  to  that  of  the  Nether- 
lands.— ^According  to  Rudhart,  Bavaria 
contains  lf384  noble  families.  Agriculture 
is  the  chief  branch  of  industry.  Bavarian 
beer  is  excellent. 

Bavaria,  constituJtion  of  like  most  of 
the  states  of  the  middle  ages,  Bavaria  had 
it9  constitution.  No  other  state  of  Ger- 
many has  so  complete  a  collection  of 
works  relating  to  its  ancient  fonu  of  gov- 
ernment The  estates  conasted,  as  usual, 
of  the  three  classes — the  prelates,  among 
whom  the  uniyeredty  bad  the  first  rank ; 
the  nobility,  and  the  burgesses.  Theur 
privile^  were  great,  but  early  lost  by 
dissension  amon^  themselves.  The  la^ 
diet  was  holden  in  1669.  A  committee 
of  the  estates  arrogated  the  privileges  be- 
longing to  the  whole  body ;  the  seculari- 
zation of  the  ecclesiastical  establishment, 
in  1803,  made  the  old  constitution  still 
more  inefficient,  and,  in  1808,  the  ews- 
tem  of  the  estates  was  abolished;  but 
an  order  was  issued,  May  1  of  the  same 
year,  mstituting  a  new  constitution.  The 
king  of  Bavaria  was  the  first  among  the 
sovereigns  of  Germany  to  fulfil  the  prom- 
ise contained  in  the  thirteenth  article  of 
the  ordinances  of  the  German  confeden^ 
tion,  which  assures  the  people  that  they 
shall  receive  constitutional  forms  of  gov- 
emment  The  king  proniulgated  the 
new  representative  constitution  May  26, 
1818.  The  system  of  the  two  chambers 
has  been  adopted.  The  chamber  of 
peers,  or,  as  they  are  called  m  Bavaria, 
Miicks  R&the  (counsellors  of  the  realm), 
consists  of  the  princes,  the  crown-officeiB, 
2  archbishops,  the  16  seniors  of  the  fiuni- 
lies  which  were  fbrmeriy  members  of  the 
German  empire,  1  bishon,  appointed  by 
the  king,  the  president  or  the  Protesuuit 

Digitized  by 




confflstory,  besides  15  hereditary  peers, 
and  12  who  hold  their  stations  for  life, 
chosen  by  the  king.  The  lower  cham- 
ber consists  of  14  representadves  of 
the  lower  nobility,  1  representative  of 
each  of  the  three  universities  of  the  king- 
dom, 9  repoBsentatives  of  the  CathoHc,  and 
5  of  the  Protestant  clergy,  2  of  Munich, 
1  of  Augsburg,  1  of  Nuremberg,  24  of  all 
the  other  cities  and  market-places,  and 
56  of  the  land-owners  (not  noblemen). 
The  elections  in  the  cities  are  badly  con- 
ducted, as  they  are  in  the  hands  of  the 
city  councils,  the  mayors,  &c.  Anodier 
great  fault  is,  that  die  amount  of  property 
required  in  a  representative  is  so  great, 
tliat  whole  districts  are  excluded  fit)m 
representation.  The  rights  which  tlie 
representatives  have  are  not  altogether 
insignificant;  yet  there  are  many  other 
things  wanted,  as,  a  perfectiy  fi«e  press, 
and  many  real  guarantees  of  fi^eedom,  be- 
fore we  can  speak  of  it  as  actually  existing 
in  Bavaria.  The  ministers  are  responsi- 
ble, and  yet  their  power  is  unconstitution- 
ally sreat.  It  would  not  be  very  difficuh 
for  me  Bavarian  government  to  do  any 
thing  they  pleased,  without  encountering 
many  constitutional  obstacles.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  representatives  was  held 
Feb.  4,  1819.  There  is  1  representative 
for  about  35,000  souls.  The  constitu- 
tion is  a  granted  one,  viz.,  given  by  the 
king,  not  a  compact  between  two  parties, 
the  people  and  the  ruler.  It  promises 
liberty  and  equal  rights  to  all  religions, 
and  also  fineedom  of  the  press,  which, 
however,  no  American  or  Englishman 
would  call  truly  fi:ee.  Bond-service  is 
abolished.  The  king  appoints  the  presi- 
dent of  the  representatives. 

Bavius,  Maj!cus,and  Mavius  ;  still  no- 
torious as  two  miserable  poets  and  pre- 
sumptuous critics,  satirized  by  Viml. 

Bawdt-House  ;  a  house  of  ill  fame,  to 
which  persons  of  both  sexes  resort  fi>r 
sexual  mtercouTK.  Such  houses,  under 
the  name  of  hrathds  or  stew,  are  Ucensed 
by  the  laws  of  some  countries.  They 
were  formerly  licensed  in  Ensland,  fit>m 
the  reim  of  Henry  11  to  the  hist  year  of 
Henry  V  III,  when  they  were  suppressed 
by  sound  of  trumpet,  with  as  great  cere- 
mony as  the  reliffious  houses.  The  laws 
of  most  civilized  countries  prohibit  the 
keeping  of  bawdy-houses,  as  tending  not 
only  to  the  corruption  of  morals  and 
manners,  but  also  to  a  breach  of  the  peace, 
b^  bringing  together  disorderly  and  vi- 
cious people.  The  keeping  of  such  a 
house  18  indictable  at  the  common  law, 
and  80  is  the  firequenting  of  it ;  but  these 

offences  are,  most  generally,  the  subjects 
of  positive  statutes.  In  some  parts  of 
Europe,  such  houses  are  hcensed,  ond 
under  the  care  of  the  medical  pohce. 

Baxter,  Andrew ;  an  ingenious  philos- 
opher and  metaphysician.  He  was  a  na- 
tive of  Aberdeen,  and  was  educated  at 
King's  college  in  that  city ;  after  which 
he  was  employed  as  a  private  tutor. 
About  1730,  he  published  an  Enquiry  into 
the  Nature  of  die  Human  Soul ;  wherein 
the  ImmateriaUty  of  the  Soul  is  evinced 
from  the  Principles  of  Reason  and  Phi- 
losophy. This  work  was  applauded  by 
Warburton,  and  obtained  for  tne  author  a 
high  reputation;  though  his  arguments, 
which  are  founded  on  the  via  inerlvE  of 
matter,  have  since  been  controverted  by 
Hume  and  Cohn  Maclaurin.  In  1741,  he 
went  abroad  with  one  of  his  pupils,  and 
remained  for  some  years  at  Utrecht,  where 
he  contracted  an  acquaintance  with  some 
of  the  Dutch  Uterati.  lie  returned  to 
Scotland  in  1747,  and  resided  at  Whit- 
tingliam,  in  East  Lothian,  where  he  died 
in  1750,  aged  63.  He  was  the  author  of 
a  Latin  treatise,  entitied  Matho  sive  Cos- 
motheoria  puerUis  DiaHogus^  which  he  af^ 
terwards  translated  into  English,  and  pub- 
lished in  2  vols.  12mo. 

Baxter,  Richard,  the  most  eminent 
of  the  English  nouconfonnin^  divines 
of  the  17th  century,  was  bom  in  the  vil- 
lage of  Rowton  in  1615.  The  example 
of  his  father,  who  was  accused  of  Puri- 
tanism, gave  him  a  serious  turn  vei^  early 
in  hfe.  After  receiving  his  educaUon,  he 
was  sent  to  London,  under  the  patronase 
of  sir  Henry  Herbert,  master  of  tne  revels ; 
but  he  soon  returned  into  the  countrv 
with  a  view  to  study  divinity,  and,  in  163o, 
received  ordination  in  the  church  of  Eng- 
land. The  imposition  of  the  oath  of  uni- 
versal approbation  of  the  doctrine  and 
disciphne  of  the  church  of  England,  usu- 
ally termed  the  et  caiera  oaihf  detached 
him  and  many  others  from  the  establish- 
ment When  die  civil  war  broke  out,  he 
sided  with  the  parliament,  and,  after  the 
battie  of  Naseby,  accepted  the  appointment 
of  chaplain  to  colonel  Whalley's  regiment. 
He  is  said  to  have  been,  the  whole  of  this 
time,  a  friend  to  the  establishment,  accord- 
ing to  his  own  notions,  and  to  have  re- 
pressed sectaries  as  much  as  he  was  able. 
In  1647,  he  retiired,  in  consequence  of  ill- 
health,  from  his  mihtary  chaplainship,  and, 
when  he  recovered,  opposed  the  measures 
of  those  ia  power,  and  preached  urgentiy 
against  the  covenant  He  even  endeav- 
ored to  persuade  the  soldiery  not  to  en<« 
counter  the  Scottish  troops  who  camo 

Digitized  by 




into  the  kingdom  with  Charles  II,  and 
hesitated  not  to  express  an  open  dislike 
to  the  usurpation  oi  Cromwell,  whom  he 
told,  in  a  conference  very  characteristie 
of  both  parties,  that  the  people  of  England 
deemed  the  ancient  monarchy  a  blessing. 
The  fiict  is,  that  B.,  with  many  more 
zc»lous  religious  partisans,  held  civil  tib- 
eity  to  be  of  secondary  consequence  to 
wteit  he  esteemed  true  religion,  and  ap- 
pears, from  the  tenor  of  a  sermon  which 
ne  preached  before  Cromwell,  to  havie 
deemed  the  toleration  of  separatLsts  and 
sectaries  the  grand  evil  of  his  government. 
After  the  restoration,  he  was  made  one 
of  the  king's  chaplains,  and  a  commis- 
sioner of  the  Savoy  conference,  to  draw 
,up  the  reformed  liturgy.  The  active 
persecution  of  the  Nonconformists  soon 
followed ;  and,  upon  the  pasffing  of  the 
act  afainst  conventicles,  he  retired,  and 
preached  more  or  less  openly,  as  the  act 
was  more  or  leas  rigidly  enforced.  After 
the  accession  of  James  II,  in  1685,  he 
was  arrested  for  some  passages  in  his 
Commentary  on  the  New  Testament,  sup- 
posed hostile  to  Episcopacy,  and  was 
tried  for  sedition.  The  violence  of  Jef- 
feries,  who  would  neither  hear  the  ac- 
cused nor  his  counsel,  produced  a  verdict 
of  guUty  on  the  most  fi-ivolous  grounds. 
He  was  sentenced  to  two  years'  imprison- 
ment and  a  heavy  penalty,  which,  after 
a  short  confinement,  the  king  remitted, 
probably  with  some  degree  of  compunc- 
tion for  the  manner  of  its  infliction. 
Henceforward,  B.  lived  in  a  retired 
manner  till  his  death,  in  1691.  His  wife 
cheerfully  shared  all  his  sufferings  on  the 
score  of  conscience,  both  in  and  out  of 

Erison.  The  character  of  B.  was  formed 
y  his  age;  his  failing  was  subtle  and 
controversial  theoloc^;  his  excellence, 
practical  piety.  In  divinity,  he  sought  to 
establish  a  resting-place  between  strict 
Calvinism  and  hign-church  Arminianism, 
by  the  admission  of  election,  and  the  re- 
jection of  reprobation.  Christ  died  for 
some  especially,  and  for  all  generally; 
that  is  to  say,  all  possess  the  means  of 
salvotion.  A  body  called  BaxterioTis  long 
acknowledged  these  distinctions,  and  die 
Doncohformist  clergy^  after  the  revolu- 
tion, were  divided  between  tiiis  body,  the 
pure  Calvinists,  and  the  high-church  pas- 
sive-obedient Arminians.  B.  was  a  vo- 
luminous writer:  his  Saints'  Everlasting 
Rest,  and  the  CaU  to  the  Unconverted, 
bave  been  extraordinarSy  popular. 

Batadser,  in  the  East  Indies;  voung 
ipib,  from  10  to  17  yean  of  age,  who  are 
nutnicted  In  dancing,  singing,  and  acting 

little  plays.  They  are  under  the  care  of 
matrons,  who  are  experienced  in  all  fomale 
arts,  and  particularly  in  that  of  pleaong. 
These  select  firom  tiie  lowest  c&ases  of 
the  people  the  most  beautiftil  girls,  of 
seven  or  eight  years  of  a^,  secure  them, 
by  inoculation,  from  the  disfiguring  conse- 
quences of  the  small-pox,  and  instruct 
them  in  all  the  arts  of  their  profession, 
tiie  object  of  which  is  to  amuse  the  rich, 
and  minister  to  their  pasdons.  Their 
presence  is  considered  necessary,  even  at 
the  smallest  entertainments.  If  any  of  the 
spectators  desires  to  become  better  ac- 
quainted with  the  talents  of  a  bayadeer, 
only  a  hint  is  needed.  For  a  girl  of  the 
greatest  attractions,  the  matron  to  whom 
she  belongs  receives  a  hundred  rupees  for 
an  evening,  and  as  much  for  a  night, 
besides  a  present  for  the  girl.  After  their 
17th  year,  when  their  firat  charms  have 
faded,  they  retire  to  a  pagoda  (the  temple 
of  their  idols),  under  the  protection  of  the 
Bramins,  but  not,  like  public  girls  in  Eu- 
rope, to  become  devotees.  They  continue 
to  exercise  their  profession  in  the  temple, 
and  what  they  gain  belongs  to  the  Bra- 
mins, who  give  them  food  and  shelter. 
Their  profes^on  is  not  thought  infiimous 
in  India. 

Batamo,  or  St.  Salvador  ;  a  town  of 
Cuba,  on  a  river  which  forms  a  port  on 
the  S.  E.  coast;  520  miles  E.  S.  E.  Ha- 
vannah ;  Ion.  76°  55^  W. ;  lat  2(P  46^  N. ; 
population  estimated  at  12,000.  The 
town  is  about  20  miles  distant  from  the 
port  It  gives  name  to  a  channel  situated 
between  the  main  land  of  Cuba  and  the 
islands  called  the  Queen^s  Gardens. 

Batard,  Pierre  du  Terrail,  chevalier 
de,  called  the  knight  without  fear  and  wUh- 
oid  reproaehj  bom  in  1476,  in  the  castle  of 
Bayard,  near  Grenoble,  was  one  of  the 
most  spotiess  characters  of  the  middle 
ages.  He  was  simple  and  modest;  a  true 
friend  and  tender  lover;  pious,  humane 
and  magnanimous.  The  femily  of  Ter- 
rail, to  which  he  belonged,  was  one  of  the 
most  ancient  in  Dauphin^,  and  was  cele- 
brated for  nobility  and  valor.  Young  B., 
educated  under  the  eyes  of  his  uncle 
George  of  Terrail,  bishop  of  Grenoble, 
early  imbibed,  in  the  school  of  tliis  wor- 
thy prelate,  the  virtues  which  distinguish- 
ed him  afterwards.  At  the  age  of  13,  he 
was  received  among  the  pages  of  the 
duke  of  Savoy,  the  ally  of  France. 
Charles  VIU,  who  saw  him  at  Lyons,  in 
the  suite  of  this  prince,  was  stinick  with 
the  dexterity  with  which  the  youtii  man- 
aged his  horse :  he  begged  him  of  the 
duke,  and  committed  him  to  tiie  care  of 

Digitized  by 




Paul  of  Luxemburg,  count  de  Liffny. 
The  toumaments  were  Ins  firat  field  of 
gloiy.  At  the  age  of  18,  he  accompanied 
Charles  YIII  to  Italy,  and  distin^ished 
himself  greatly  in  the  battle  at  Verona, 
where  he  took  a  standard.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  reign  of  Louis  XII,  in  a  battle 
near  Milan,  he  pursued  the  fugitives  with 
such  eagerness,  that  he  entered  the  city 
with  them,  and  was  taken  prisoner.  Lu- 
dovico  Sforza  returned  him  his  arms  and 
his  horse,  and  dismissed  him  without  ran- 
som. Whilst  the  French  were  in  Apu- 
Ua,  B.  defeated  a  Spanish  corps,  and 
made  their  leader,  don  Alonzo  de  Soto- 
mayor,  prisoner.  He  treated  him  with 
generosity.  Sotomayor,  however,  not  only 
violated  his  parole  by  flight,  but  calum- 
niated B.,  who,  according  to  the  custom 
of  that  time,  challenged  him,  and  killed 
him.  AAerwards,  like  Horatius  Cocles, 
he  defended  a  bridge  over  the  Garigliano 
singly  against  the  Spaniards,  and  saved 
the  French  army  by  cnecking  the  advance 
of  the  victorious  enemy.  For  tliis  exploit, 
he  received  as  a  coat  of  arms  a  porcupine, 
with  the  motto  Vires  agminis  unus  habet. 
He  distinguished  himself  e(][ually  against 
the  Genoese  and  the  Venetians.  When 
Julius  II  declared  himself  a^nst  France, 
B.  went  to  the  assistance  of  the  duke  of 
Ferrara.  He  did  not  succeed  in  his  plan 
of  takm^  the  pope  prisoner;  but  he  re- 
fused, with  indication,  an  offer  made  to 
betray  him.  Bein^  severely  wounded  at 
the  assault  of  Brescia,  he  was  carried  into 
the  house  of  a  nobleman,  who  had  fied, 
and  left  his  wife  and  two  daughters  ex- 
posed to  the  insolence  of  tiie  soldiers.  B. 
protected  the  family,  refused  the  reward 
of  2500  ducats,  which  they  offered  to  him, 
and  returned,  as  soon  as  he  was  cured, 
into  the  camp  of  Graston  de  Foix,  before 
Ravenna.  In  an  engagement,  which 
ahortW  after  ensued,  he  took  two  stand- 
ards mm  the  Spaniards,  and  pursued  the 
fugitives.  Gaston,  the  hope  of  France, 
perished  tlirough  his  neglect  of  the  advice 
of  B.  In  the  retreat  from  Pavia,  B.  was 
again  wounded.  He  was  carried  to  Gre- 
noble ;  his  life  was  in  danger.  *<  I  grieve 
not  for  death,"  he  said,  ^  but  to  die  on  my 
bed,  like  a  woman."  In  the  war  com- 
menced by  Ferdinand  the  Catholic,  he 
displayed  beyond  the  Pyrenees  the  same 
talents,  the  same  heroism,  which  had  dis- 
tinguished him  beyond  the  Alps.  The 
fiital  reverses  which  imbittered  the  last 
years  of  Louis  XII  only  added  a  brighter 

atlendor  to  the   personal   glory  of  B. 
eniy  VIII  of  Ensluid,  in  alliance  with 
Ferdinand  and  Maximilian,  threatened 

Picardy  m  1513,  and  besieged  Terouane. 
The  French  army  disgracefiilly  took  to 
fiight.  B.,  with  his  accustomed  intrepid- 
ity, made  aninefiectual  resistance  to  the 
enemy:  overpowered  by  superior  num- 
bers, his  troop  was  on  the  pomt  of  laying 
down  their  arms,  when  B.,  perceivinff  an 
English  officer  at  some  distance  m>m 
him,  immediately  gaUoped  towards  him, 
presented  his  sword  to  his  breast,  and 
Cried,  **  Yield,  or  die !"  The  Englishman 
surrendered  bis  sword:  B.  immediately 
gave  him  his  own,  saying,  **  I  am  Bayard, 
and  your  captive,  as  you  are  mine."  The 
boldness  and  ingenuity  of  this  action 
pleased  the  emperor  and  the  king  of  Eng- 
land, ^ho  decided  that  B.  needed  no  ran- 
som, and  that  both  captives  were  released 
fit)m  their  parole.  When  Francis  I  as- 
cended the  throne,  he  sent  B.  into  Dau- 
phin6,  to  open  for  his  army  a  passage  over 
the  Alps,  and  through  Piedmont  Pros- 
per Colonna  lay  in  wait  for  him  on  his 
march,  expecting  to  surprise  him,  but  B. 
made  him  prisoner.  This  brilliant  exploit 
was  the  prelude  to  the  battle  of  Mori^a- 
no,  in  which  B.,  at  the  side  of  the  l3n^, 
performed  wonders  of  bravery,  and  deci- 
ded the  victoiy.  Alter  this  glorious  day, 
Francis  was  knighted  with  the  sword  of  B. 
When  Charles  V  invaded  Champagne, 
with  a  large  army,  and  threatened  to  pene- 
trate into  the  heart  of  France,  B.  defended 
the  weakly-fortified  town  of  Mezi^res 
a^nst  every  assault,  until  the  dissensions 
of  the  hostile  leaders  compelled  them  to 
retreat.  B.  was  saluted  in  Paris  as  the  sav- 
ior of  his  country :  the  lane  bestowed  on 
him  the  order  of  St.  Michae^  and  a  compa- 
ny of  100  men,  which  he  was  to  command 
in  his  own  name — an  honor  which,  till 
then,  had  only  been  conferred  on  princes 
of  the  blood.  Soon  aflenvards,  Genoa 
revolted  from  France:  B's  presence  re- 
duced it  to  ol^edience.  But,  after  the  sur- 
render of  Lodi,  fortune  changed,  and  tlie 
French  troops  were  expelled  from  their 
conquests.  Bonnivet  was  obliged  to  re- 
treat through  the  valley  of  Aosta;  liis  rear 
was  beaten,  and  himself  severely  wounded, 
when  the  safety  of  the  army  was  com- 
mined  to  B.  It  was  necessary  to  pass  the 
Sesia  in  the  presence  of  a  superior  enemy, 
and  B.,  always  the  last  in  retreat,  vigor- 
ously attacked  the  Spaniards,  when  a 
stone,  from  a  blunderbuss,  struck  his  risrbt 
side,  and  shattered  his  back-lx>ne.  The 
hero  fell,  exclaiming,  *<  Jesus,  my  God,  I 
am  a  dead  man!"  They  hastened  towards 
him.  "  Place  me  under  yon  tree,"  he  said, 
"that  I  may  see  the  enemy."  For  want 
of  a  crucifix,  he  kissed  the  cross  of  his 

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vword,  confessed  to  Ins  squire,  consoled 
his  servants  and  bis  fnends,  bade  fiu-ewell 
to  his  king  and  his  country,  and  died, 
April  90, 1924,  surrounded  1)7  fiiends  and 
enemieB,  who  all  shed  teais  of  adnuration 
end  grief.  His  body,  which  remained  m 
the  hands  of  his  enemies,  was  embehned 
by  theflOy  given  to  the  French,  and  Interred 
in  a  church  of  the  Minorites,  near  Greno- 
ble. His  monument  consists  of  a  simple 
bast,  vrith  a  Latin  inscription.  (See  IntL 
de  P.  TerraU,  dit  U  Chevalier  Bamrd  sans 
Pew  et  sons  Rtprockcj  by  Gayard  de  Ber- 
ville,  new  edition,  Paris,  1824). 

Bata&o,  James  A^  an  eminent  Ameri- 
can lawyer  and  politician,  was  bom  in 
Philadelphia,  in  1767.  His  classical  edu- 
cation was  completed  at  Princeton  col- 
lege. In  the  year  1784,  he  engaged  in  the 
study  of  the  law,  and,  on  his  admission 
to  the  bar,  setded  in  the  state  of  Delaware, 
where  he  soon  acquired  considerable  prac- 
tice and  reputation.  A  few  years  after 
he  reached  his  majority,  he  was  elected  a 
representative  of  J[)ela¥rare  in  congress. 
The  first  occasion,  on  which  he  particu- 
larly distinguished  himself,  was  the  im- 
peachment of  William  Blount,  a  senator 
of  the  U.  States.  Mr.  B.  was  cliairmau  of 
the  committee  of  eleven,  who  were  se- 
lected, by  the  house  of  representatives,  to 
conduct  that  impeachment.  He  took  the 
chief  and  a  very  brilliant  part  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  constitutional  questions 
which  arose  out  of  the  successfiil  plea  of 
the  accused  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  senate. 
At  an  eariy  period  of  his  political  career, 
president  Adams  offered  liim  the  post  of 
envoj  to  the  French  republic,  which  pru- 
dential reasons  induced  him  to  decline. 
Mr.  B.  was  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  fed- 
eral party  in  congress  at  tlie  epoch  of  the 
election  of  Mr.  JefTerson  to  the  office  of 
president.  In  the  memorable  contest  in 
the  house  of  representatives,  which  was 
produced  by  the  equality  of  votes  for  Mr. 
Jefferson  and  colonel  Burr,  he  finally 
prevailed  upon  his  political  coadjutors  to 
adopt  the  mode  of  proceedins  which  ena- 
blea  the  friends  of  Mr.  Jerorson  to  tri- 
umph. Hostile  as  he  was  to  that  states- 
man, and  much  as  he  had  reason  to 
expect  of  personal  advantage  from  a  diA 
fereqt  issue,  he  sacrificed  party  fueling 
and  ambitious  hope,  when  he  perceived 
that  the  peace  or  the  countiy  and  the 
stability  of  the  constitution  might  be  en- 
dangered by  continuing  the  struggle.  In 
DO  debate  of  the  house  did  Mr.  fi.  display 
his  genius  more  than  in  that  which  pre- 
ceded the  repeal,  in  March,  1802,  of  the 
judiciaiy  bilL    A  volume  of  the  speeches 

vol..  II.  2 

which  were  delivered  in  this  &mous  con- 
troversy has  been  published.  It  was 
almost  universally  conceded  that  he  was 
the  ablest  advocate  of  the  system  or  or- 
ganization which  was  destroyed.  He 
continued  in  the  house  of  representatives 
afler  the  change  of  administration,  always 
conspicuous  for  his  sound  principles,  con- 
stant acuteness,  extensive  knowledge,  and 
manly,  copious  eloquence.  Elected  to  the 
senate  of  the  U.  States  by  the  legislature 
of  Delaware,  he  displayed,  ifbr  several 
years,  in  that  assembly,  the  same  talents 
and  patriotism.  In  1812,  he  strenuously 
opposed  the  declaration  of  war  with  Great 
Bntain.  President  Madison  selected  him 
as  one  of  the  commissioners  to  treat  for 
peace  imder  the  proffered  mediation  of 
the  emperor  Alexander  of  Russia.  He 
embarked  on  this  important  mission, 
which  had  not  been  sought  nor  eiqiected 
by  himself  or  his  friends  for  him,  from 
the  port  of  Philadelphia,  May  8,  1813^ 
and  arrived  at  St  Petersburg  in  July  of 
thak  year.  The  absence  of  die  emperor 
prevented  the  transaction  of  any  busmess, 
and,  when  all  hope  of  advancing  the  main 
object  seemed  idle,  Mr.  B.  proceeded 
(January,  1814)  by  land  to  Holland. 
There  he  leanied  the  willingness  of  the 
British  court  to  treat  direcuy  with  the 
American  envoys.  Previously  to  the  arri- 
val of  his  colleagues,  who,  in  consequence 
of  this  annunciation,  were  despatched  by 
the  American  government,  he  visited 
England.  At  the  proper  period,  he  re- 
paired to  Ghent,  which  was  ultimately 
chosen  as  the  scene  of  the  negotiations 
which  terminated  in  the  treaty  mat  bears 
the  name  of  that  place.  His  share  in  the 
oral  discussions  and  the  written  corre- 
spondence with  tlie  British  plenipotentia- 
ries was  such  as  might  have  been  expect- 
ed from  his  peculiar  fitness  for  the  task 
of  negotiation.  On  the  conclusion  of  this 
business,  he  made  a  journey  to  Paris, 
where  he  remained  untd  he  heard  of  the 
ratification  of  the  treaty,  and  of  his  ap- 
pointment as  envoy  to  tlie  court  of  St. 
Petersburg.  This  he  promptly  declined. 
It  was  his  intention,  however,  to  go  to 
England,  in  order  to  co-operate  in  the 
formation  of  a  commercial  treaty  with  the 
British  cabinet,  as  he  was  included  in  the 
commission  sent  for  that  purpose;  but  an 
alarming  illness  put  an  end  to  every 
plan,  except  that  of  reaching  his  home  as 
early  as  possible.  He  embarked  at  Havre 
in  May,  1815,  in  a  state  of  the  most  pain- 
ful debility,  suffered  unfortunate  delays 
in  the  voya^,  and  arrived  in  the  U.  States 
only  to  die  in  the  arms  of  his  family.^ — 

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Mr.  B.  was  a  logician  of  the  first  order, 
po6se8se4  a  rich  and  ready  elocution,  and 
commanded  attention  as  well  by  hb  fine 
countenance  and  manly  person  as  his 
cogent  reasoning  and  comprehensive 
views.  He  acquired  a  reputation,  both  as 
a  lawj^er  and  pohtical  orator,  scarcely 
inferior  to  that  of  any  one  of  his  American 

Bayle,  Pierre,  bom  at  Carlat,  in  the 
county  of  Foix  (Languedoc),  in  1(347, 
received  his  first  instruction  from  his 
fatlier,  a  Calvinistic  preacher.  He  gave 
eai'ly  proofs  of  an  astonishing  memory, 
and  of  a  singular  vivacity  of  miiid.  At 
the  age  of  19  years,  he  entered  the  college 
of  Puy-Laurens,  to  fuiish  his  studies. 
The  ardor  witli  which  he  devoted  him- 
self to  them  weakened  his  constitution. 
All  books  were  eagerly  devoured  by  him ; 
his  taste  for  logic  led  him  particularly  to 
study  religious  controversies,  but  Amyot's 
Plutarch  and  Montaigne  were  his  favorite 
works.  The  latter  encouraged,  without 
doubt,  his  inclination  to  scepticism ;  per- 
haps both  contributed  to  give  to  his  stjle 
that  vivacity,  tliat  boldness  of  expression 
and  antique  coloring,  so  obsen^abie  in  it. 
In  Toulouse,  he  studied  philosophy  with 
the  Jesuits.  The  arguments  of  his  pro- 
fessor, and,  still  more,  his  friendly  discus- 
sions with  a  Catholic  priest,  who  dwelt 
near  him,  confirmed  his  doubts  of  the 
orthodoxy  of  Protestantism,  so  that  he  re- 
solved to  change  his  religion.  His  con- 
version was  a  triumph  to  the  Catholics, 
His  family,  however,  tried  all  means  to 
regain  him,  and,  afler  17  months,  he  re- 
turned to  his  old  faith.  In  onler  to 
escape  from  the  punishment  of  perpetual 
excommunication,  which  the  Cathohc 
church  then  pronounced  against  apostates, 
he  went  to  Geneva,  and  thence  to  Copet, 
where  count  Dohua  intrusted  him  with 
toe  eautuidou  of  his  sons,  and  where 
he  siuditsd  the  philosophy  of  Des  Cartes. 
But,  afler  some  years,  he  returned  to 
France,  and  settled  in  Rouen,  where  he 
was  employed  in  teaching.  From  thence 
he  went  to  Paris,  where  the  society  of 
learned  men  indemnified  him  for  the  fa- 
tigues of  an  occupation  to  which  he  was 
obliged  to  submit  for  a  third  time.  In 
1675,  he  obtained  the  philosophicxil  chair 
at  Sedan,  where  he  taught  with  distinc- 
tion until  the  suppression  of  tliis  acade- 
my in  1(301.  He  was  aflenvards  invited 
to  discharge  the  same  duties  at  Rotter- 
dam. Tlie  appearance  of  a  comet,  in 
1680,  which  occasioned  an  almost  univer- 
sal alarm,  induced  him  to  pubUsh,  in  168*2, 
his  Pen96e8  diver$e8  star  la  Cornea  work 

full  of  learning,  in  which  he  diseuflsecf 
various  subjects  of  metaphysics,  morals, 
theology,  histoir,  and  {M)htics.  It  was 
followed  by  his  Oriitque  r6rUraU  de  VJHSs- 
toire  du  CoLmnismt  at  Maimbourg,  This 
worit,  received  with  equal  approbation  by 
the  Cathohcs  and  Protestants,  and  es- 
teemed by  Mahnbourg  himself,  excited 
the  jealousy  of  his  colleague,  the  theolo- 
gian Jurieu,  whose  RefuLaJtwn  du  P, 
Maimbow'g  had  not  succeeded,  and  in- 
volved B.  in  many  disputes.  He  after- 
ward undertook  a  periodical  work,  JVou- 
vdles  de  laRepublique  des  LettreSy  in  1^4. 
A  letter  from  Rome,  published  in  this 
work,  excited  the  displeasure  of  the  queen 
Christina  of  Sweden,  who  caused  two  vi- 
olent letters  to  be  sent  to  him.  B.  apolo- 
gized, and  his  excuses  so  perfectly  satisfied 
the  queen,  that  from  that  time  she  kept 
ui)  a  literary  correspondence  with  him. 
The  deatli  of  his  father  and  of  his  two 
brothers,  together  with  the  reUpous  per- 
secutions in  France,  induced  him  to  un- 
dertake his  Coimnentaire  vhilosophique  svr 
ces  Paroles  de  VEvangite;  Cfmtrains-les 
d'entrer;  which,  in  regard  to  style  and 
tone,  is  not  worthy  of  him.  B.  hunself 
was  unwilling  to  acknowledge  it ;  but 
Jurieu,  who  probably  recognised  its  au- 
thor by  the  zeal  with  which  toleration  is 
defended  in  this  work,  attacked  it  with 
violence.  His  hatred  only  waited  for  a 
pretence  to  break  out  against  B.;  he 
found  it  in  tlie  Avis  aux  Refugtis,  a  work 
ui  which  the  Protestants  are  treated  with 
little  ceremony.  Jurieu  riot  only  accused 
B.  of  being  the  author  of  this  work  (which 
certainly  is  not  his),  but  also  of  being  the 
soul  of  a  party  devoted  to  France,  in  op- 
position to  the  Protestants  and  alUed 
powers.  B.  repelled  these  charges  in  two 
publications;  but  the  calumny' prevailed. 
In  1603,  the  magistrates  of  Rotterdam 
removed  him  from  his  office,  and  forbade 
him  to  give  private  instruction.  He  now 
devoted  all  his  attention  to  the  composi- 
tion of  his  Didionnaire  historigue  d  cri- 
liquet  which  he  first  pubhshed  in  1696, 
in  2  vols.  fol.  This  was  the  first  work 
which  api)eared  under  his  name.  Jurieu 
opposed  him  anew,  and  caused  the  con- 
sistory, in  which  he  had  the  greatest  in- 
fluence, to  make  a  severe  attack  upon 
him.  B.  promised  to  remove  every  thing 
wiiich  tlie  consistoiy  deemed  offensive; 
but,  finding  the  public  had  other  views, 
and  prefeiTmg  rather  the  sads&ction  of  his 
readers  than  that  of  his  judges,  he  lefl  the 
work,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  trifles, 
unahered.  He  found  two  new  enemies 
in  Jacquelot  and  Le  Clerc,  who  both  at- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



iBcked  his  reUgkm :  otiieis  penecuted 
him  as  the  enemy  of  his  sect  and  his  new 
comitry.  These  contests  increased  his 
bodily  infirmities.  His  lungs  became  in- 
flamed ;  bat  he  was  miwilling  to  use  any 
medical  appHcadons  against  a  disorder 
which  he  considered  as  hereditary  and 
incurable.  He  died,  so  to  speak,  with  the 
pen  in  his  hand,  m  1706,  at  the  age  of  59 
years.  "Bayle,"  says  Voltaire,  "is  the 
first  of  logicians  and  sceptics.  His  pal- 
est enemies  must  confess  that  there  is  not 
a  line  in  his  works  which  contains  an 
open  aspersion  of  Christianitv ;  but  his 
warmest  apologists  must  acknowledge, 
tJiat  there  is  not  a  page  in  his  controver- 
sial writings  whicn  does  not  lead  the 
reader  to  doubt,  and  often  to  scepticism." 
He  compares  lumself  to  Homers  cloud- 
compellm^  Jupiter.  "  My  talent,"  he  says, 
"consists  in  raising  doubts;  but  they  are 
only  doubts."  The  confidence  of  most 
theologians  induced  him  to  undertake  to 
prove  that  several  points  are  not  so  certain 
and  so  evident  as  tney  imagined.  But  he 
gradually  passed  these  limits:  his  pene- 
tration caused  him  to  doubt  even  the 
most  universally  acknowledged  facts.  Yet 
he  never  attacked  the  great  principles  of 
morality.  Though  an  admirable  logician, 
he  was  so  little  acquainted  with  physics, 
that  even  the  discoveries  of  Newton  were 
unknown  to  him.  His  style  is  natural 
and  clear,  but  often  prolix,  careless  and 
incorrect.  He  himself  calls  his  Dictum- 
noire  ^une  compilation  informe  des  pas- 
9agt8  counts  a  la  queue  Us  uns  des  autres.^ 
I^thout  assenting  implicitly  to  this  mod- 
est judgment,  we  must  confess  that  the 
articles,  in  themselves,  are  of  littlfe 
value,  and  that  they  8er>e  only  as  a  pre- 
text for  the  notes,  in  which  the  author 
displays,  at  the  same  time,  his  learning, 
and  the  power  of  his  logic.  The  charac- 
ter of  B.  was  ffentle,  amiable,  disinterest- 
ed, highly  modest  and  peaceable :  he  de- 
voted himself  entirely  to  literature.  The 
most  esteemed  edition  of  his  Dictiormaire 
historiaue  is  that  of  1740,  in  4  vols.  fol. 
(an  eaition  was  also  printed  at  Bale, 
the  same  year].  At  the  Hague  appeared 
the  Qiuvres  diverses  de  P,  Bcnde  (also  4 
vols.  fol.J  An  edition  of  his  DicL  fdstor^ 
in  16  vols.,  printed  with  great  typograph- 
ical beauty,  was  published,  in  1820,  by 
Desoer,  in  Paris:  it  contains  notes,  and 
the  life  of  the  author.  In  the  Disc,  pre- 
IhnirUj  the  editor,  Beuchot,  reviews  the  11 
ibinier  editions.  Gottsched  has  translated 
the  Did,  into  German  (Leipsic,  1741—^, 
4  vc4flL  fi>L)  An  English  translation,  with 
comiderable  additions,   by   Th.   Birch, 

Lockman   and  others,   was  published, 
1734— 41, 10  vols.  foL 

Batlen,  capitulation  of  general  Dupont 
at ;  an  event  which,  in  July,  1806,  nused 
the  courage  of  Spain,  and  hastened  a 
ffeneral  insurrection.  Joseph  Bonaparte 
had  entered  Madrid  as  king;  the  prov- 
inces Leon,  Valencia,  Yalladolid,  Zamo- 
ra  and  Salamanca  had  been  subdued 
and  disarmed.  In  the  south  alone,  on  the 
Guadalquivir,  in  the  naturally  fortified 
Andalusia,  in  Cordova,  Grenada,  Jaen, 
the  spirit  of  insurrection  still  prevailed, 
and  was  excited  as  much  as  possible  by 
the  junta  of  Seville.  Thither  general 
Dupont  directed  his  march,  at  the  end  of 
May,  with  three  divisions.  Cordova  and 
Jaen  were  taken  by  assault,  after  the 
most  terrible  resistance.  The  monks 
promised  the  joys  of  heaven,  without 
purgatory,  to  every  one  who  should  kill 
three  Frenchmen.  The  corps  of  Casta- 
nos  soon  increased  to  30,000  men.  The 
able  manoeuvres  of  this  general,  together 
with  fiimine  and  sickness  in  the  French 
army,  augmented  by  ibe  total  want  of 
hospitals,  prepared  the  way  for  the  over- 
throw of  general  Dupont  3000  Span- 
iards had  possession  or  the  Sierra  Moreno, 
in  the  rear  of  his  army.  In  order  to  re- 
establish his  communication  with  the 
capital,  he  occupied  the  cities  of  B.  and 
Carolina  with  detachments,  while  he 
himself  took  a  position  near  Andujar,  on 
the  Guadalquivir.  But,  on  the  14th  of 
July,  18,000  men,  with  some  pieces  of 
heavy  artillery,  marched  against  the  fiiont 
of  the  French  position  near  Andujar; 
while  3000  men  came  through  the  defiles 
of  the  Sierra  Morena  upon  the  rear,  and 
6000  men  attacked  Dujwut's  left  wing. 
He  defended  himself;  for  three  days,  with 
skill  and  courage ;  but  the  18tli  of  July 
decided  the  contest  The  Si)anish  gen- 
erals Reding  and  Compigny  attacked  B. 
Peilas  and  Jones  overawed  the  main  body, 
under  Dupont  He  was  compelled  to 
evacuate  Andujar,  after  B.  had  l)een  taken 
by  the  Spaniards.  The  action  continued 
nine  hours,  when  Du])ont  requested  a 
suspension  of  arms,  but  was  told  that  he 
must  surrender  at  discretion.  Meanwhile 
the  division  of  Vedel,  not  acqiwinted  with 
the  proceedings  of  Dupont,  nad  attacked 
the  Spaniards  anew,  and  taken  the  regi- 
ment of  Cordova  prisoners,  together  with 
two  pieces  of  artillery,  but  were  finally 
overpowered  by  superior  numbers.  On 
ihe  23d  of  July,  the  whole  French  army, 
17,000  men  strong,  being  surrounded, 
was  obliged  to  capitukrtc,  having  lost 
3000  men  on  the  field  of  batde.    The  di- 

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visions  of  Dupont  and  Vedel  were  made 
prisoners  of  war:  the  latter  was  to  be 
permitted  to  embartc  at  Cadiz  for  Roche- 
fort:  the  same  terms  were  afterwards 
promised  to  the  division  of  Dupont,  but 
not  fulfilled.  General  Dupont  returned, 
with  his  staff,  to  France,  and  was  arrested 
at  Toulon,  and  subjected  to  triaL  But, 
before  a  decision,  he  was  delivered  by 
the  capture  of  Paris,  March  30,  1814. 
He  was  afterwards  appointed,  by  Louis 
XVIII,  minister  of  war ;  but  was  super- 
seded by  Soult,  in  December,  1814. 

Batlet,  Richard,  M.  D.,  was  bom  at 
Fairiield,  Connecticut,  in  the  year  1745. 
Having  completed  his  medical  studies,  he 
w«nt  to  London,  to  attend  the  lectures 
and  hospitals.  After  little  more  than  a 
year's  residence  in  that  city,  he  relumed 
to  New  York,  and  commenced  practice 
there  in  1772.  At  this  period,  his  atten- 
tion was  first  drawn  to  the  then  prevalent 
and  fatal  croup,  which  had  been  treated 
as  the  putrid  sore  throat  Observing  how 
iatal  was  the  use  of  stimulants  and  anti- 
septics, he  examined  the  nature  of  the 
disease,  and  became  convinced  that  it  was 
of  an  inflammatory  cliaracter.  He  ac- 
cordingly treated  it  as  such,  witli  decided 
success,  and,  soon  after  the  publication  of 
his  View  of  the  Croup,  his  opinions  and 
treatment  of  it  were  universally  adopted. 
In  the  autumn  of  1775,  B.  revisited  Lon- 
don, where  he  spent  a  winter,  and,  in  the 
following  spring,  returned  to  New  York, 
in  the  capacity  of  sivgeon  in  the  English 
army  under  Howe.  He  resigned  this 
post  in  1777,  and,  during  the  rest  of  his 
life,  continued  the  practice  of.  his  pro- 
fession in  the  same  city.  In  1787,  he 
lectured  on  surgery.  In  1788,  he  lost  his 
valuable  collection  in  morbid  anatomy, 
and  some  delicate  preparations,  by  the 
violence  of  the  famous  "doctors'  mob," 
who  broke  into  his  house,  and  carried  off 
and  burned  his  cabinet.  In  the  spriiiff 
of  1792,  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
anatomy  in  Columbia  college,  and,  in 
1793,  became  professor  of  surgery,  which 
was  his  &Tonte  subject.  His  lectures 
were  clear,  precise  and  practical  As  an 
optician,  be  acquired  great  celebrity,  and 
also  as  an  experienced  and  successful  li- 
thotomist  When  the  yellow  fever  deso- 
lated New  York,  soon  after  the  revolu- 
tion, doctor  B.  devoted  hinoself  to  peraonal 
attention  to  the  sick,  and  became  practi- 
cfdly  femiliar  with  the  disease,  and  its 
most  successful  remedies.  He  likewise 
investigated  its  cause,  and  declared  tliat 
it  was  the  filth  which  polluted  the  docks 
and  some  of  the  streets,  afiSrmingy  "that 

when  a  more  rigid  police  prevaOed,  to 
free  the  city  firom  nuisances,  no  more 
would  be  heard  of  particular  diseases." 
In  1797,  he  pubhshed  his  work  On  Yel« 
low  Fever,  wherein  he  proved  ihe  malady 
to  be  of  local  origin.  So  strong  was  bis 
belief  on  this  point,  and  so  dear  his  per- 
ception of  the  cause  of  the  fever,  that  he 
predicted  the  very  spot  where  it  after* 
wards  appeared,  in  the  year  1799.  In  the 
year  1795  or  6,  he  was  ayipointed  health 
physician  for  the  port  of  New  Yoris,  and, 
m  17Q8,  pubhslied  Letters  fit)m  tlie 
Healdi  Office,  submitted  to  the  New 
York  Common  Council,  being  a  series  of 
letters  in  the  years  '96-7-8.  One  letter, 
dated  Dec.  4,  1798,  assigns  the  reasons 
why  the  fever  in  '98  was  more  exten- 
sively prevalent  than  in  '95, 6  or  7,  which 
he  considers  to  be  the  rauis  flooding  large 
lK)rtions  of  the  city,  its  low  levels,  new- 
made  ground,  and  a  hot  sun. — In  1798,  a 
correspondence  took  place  between  the 
cities  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  in 
the  course  of  which  a  proposition  was 
made  by  the  committee  of  the  latter  to  that 
of  the  former,  soliciting  their  co-operation 
in  a  memorial  to  the  general  government 
for  a  quarantine  law.  This  gave  doctor 
B.,  who  was  on  the  New  York  conunit- 
tee,  an  opportunity  of  impressing  Mpon 
the  general  government  the  propriety  of 
estabhshing  a  lazaretto,  below  and  at  a 
distance  from  the  city  or  port  of  entry. 
He  was  the  person  to  whom  the  state  of 
New  York  is,  in  fact,  chiefly  indebted  for 
its  quarantine  laws,  although  they  have 
since  been  altered  and  amended.  In  Au- 
gust, 1801,  doctor  B.,  in  the  discharge  of 
his  duty  as  health  physician,  enjoin^  the 
passengers  and  crew  of  an  Irish  emigrant 
ship,  amicted  with  the  ship  fever,  to  go  on 
shore  to  the  rooms  and  tents  appointed 
for  them,  leaving  their  luggage  behind. 
The  next  morning,  on  going  to  the  hospi- 
tal, he  found  that  both  crew  and  passen- 
gers, well,  sick  and  dying,  were  huddled 
together  in  one  apartment,  where  they 
hiui  passed  the  night  He  inconsiderately 
entered  into  this  room  before  it  had  been 
properly  ventilated,  but  remained  scarce- 
ly a  moment,  being  obliged  to  retire  by  a 
most  deadly  sickDeiss  at  the  stomach,  and 
violent  pam  in  the  head,  with  which  he 
was  suddenly  seized.  He  returned  home, 
and'  retired  to  his  bed,  from  which  he 
never  rose.  In  the  afternoon  of  the 
seventh  day  ibllovring,  he  expired. 

Batoi^et.  This  is  the  name  of  the 
iron  blade,  formed  like  a  dagger,  and 
placed  upon  the  muzzle  of  the  musket^ 
which  is  thus  traoafoimed  into  a  thrusting 

Digitized  by 




veapoiL  It  was  probably  iDvented,  about 
1640,  in  BayonDe,  and  was  used  in  the 
Netheilands,  in  1647,  but  was  not  univer- 
sally introduced  until  after  the  pike  was 
wholly  laid  aside,  in  the  beginning  of  the 
18th  centuiy.  Since  the  general  war  in  Eu- 
rope, some  officers  have  adopted  the  idea 
of  former  military  writers  (for  instance, 
Guibert),  of  increasing  the  efficiency  of 
the  bayonet  by  a  more  regular  exercise  of 
the  in&ntry  in  its  use.  A  Saxon  captain. 
Ton  Selmnitz,  has  the  merit  of  having 
first  developed  this  idea  in  a  systematic 
treatise.  (See  Th^  Jtrt  of  ISgktingvnih  th£ 
Bawmet,  by  E.  von  Selmnitz,  jDresden, 
18&,  with  coppeiplates.)  As  cavalry  aro 
oflen  counted  by  horses,  infantiy  are 
sometimes  counted  by  bayonets. 

Batokne  ;  a  well-built,  rich,  commer- 
cial city,  the  lai^st  in  the  French  de- 
partment of  the  Ixjwer  Pyrenees,  formerly 
capital  of  the  district  Labour,  in  Gascony 
(Ion.  P  24'  W.;  lat.  43^  29^  N.),  at  the 
confluence  of  the  Nive  and  the  Adour, 
about  two  miles  from  the  bay  of  Biscay. 
Ii  has  13,600  inhabitants,  6000  of  whom 
live  in  the  suburbs.  The  Nive  and  the 
Adour  (the  former  of  which  i»  navigable 
about  30,  and  the  latter  70  miles]  form  a 
harbor  capable  of  admitting  men  of  war 
fronf  40  to  50  gims,  but  it  has  a  difficult 
access.  These  two  rivers  serve  to  convey 
timber,  tar  and  iron  from  the  Pyrenees  to 
R  A  citadel,  built  by  Vauban,  on  the 
summit  of  an  eminence  in  tlie  suburb, 
commands  the  harbor  and  tiie  city.  The 
bishop  of  B.  is  under  tlie  archbishop  of 
Toulouse,  and  exercises  spiritual  jurisdic-. 
tion  over  thitee  depaitments.  The  catlic- 
dral  is  a  beautiful  ancient  building.  B. 
has  considerable  commerce  with  Spain  ; 
French  and  fbreisn  goods  being  ex- 
changed for  iron,  fi-uit,  gold  and  silver. 
B.  is  much  eu^ged  in  the  cod  and  whale 
fishery,  m  wluch,  Ijefore  the  revolution, 
30 — 40  vessels  of  250  tons  burthen  were 
employed.  Masts  and  other  tunber  for 
ship-building,  fi-om  tlie  Pyrenees,  are  ex- 
ported to  Brest  and  otlier  ports  of  France. 
The  hams  of  B,  are  famous.  Its  wine 
and  chocolate  are  shipped  to  tlie  north  of 
Europe.  Among  the  lower  class,  the  an- 
cient Biscayan  or  Basque  language  is 
spoken.  Catharine  of  Medicis  had  an 
important  interview  with  the  duke  of  Al- 
ba in  B^  June  1565,  The  meeting  of  Na- 
poleon with  the  king  of  Spain,  Charles 
IV,  and  the  prince  of  the  Asturias,  also 
took  place  here  in  May,  1808,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  the  two  last  signed  (5th 
and  10th  May)  an  agreement,  by  which 
the}',  and  all  the  children  of  the  king, 
-  8* 

transferred  their  rights  to  the  Spanish 
territories,  in  Europe  and  India,  to  the 
French  emperor.  Napoleon  convened  a 
Spanish  general  junta  at  B.,  June  15th^  to 
draw  up  a  constitution.  This  constitution 
was  puolished  July  6,  and  Joseph  depart- 
ed, on  the  9th,  firom  B.  for  Madrid.  The 
convention  of  B.,  between  the  Poles  and 
France,  was  signed  on  the  lOih  Mav, 
1808.  (See  Sch611'8  7Voi«<^  (fc  Pour,  v6l. 
9,  p9ge  28.)  The  transactions  at  B.  are 
some  of  the  most  important  in  Napoleon's 
bfe,  and  disclose  the  wretched  character 
of  die  royal  family  of  Spain. 

Bazar,  Bazaar,  or  Basar  ;  a  market- 
place in  the  East  The  word  is  Arabic, 
and  originally  denotes  sah  or  exchange. 
Some  are  open,  some  covered  with  lofty 
ceiUngs,  or  domes.  At  the  bazars,  or  in 
the  neighborhood  of  them,  are  the  cofiec- 
houses,  so  much  fiiequented  in  Turkey, 
Persia,  &c. ;  and,  as  tne  Orientals  live  al- 
most entirely  out  of  doors,  the  bazars  of 
populous  cities,  besides  their  mercantile 
unportance,  are  of  consequence  as  places 
of  social  intercourse.  The  bazar  of  Ispa- 
han is  one  of  the  finest  places  in  Persia. 
That  of  Tauris  is  the  largest  known.  At 
Constantinople  are  two  bazars — ^the  old 
and  new  one.  In  the  Oriental  talcs, — 
for  instance,  in  the  Arabian  Nights, — the 
bazars  occupy  a  veiT  conspicuous  j)lace. 
Since  the  system  oi  credit  is  almost  en- 
tirely unkno^vn  in  Easteni  trade,  and  all 
commercial  transactions  take  place  in 
merchandise  and  money,  tlie  ])laceH 
where  this  merchandise  is  brought  and 
changed  fitim  one  owner  to  another  are, 
of  course,  very  much  frequented. — The 
word  bazar  hos  been  used,  in  recent  times, 
also,  in  Europe.  Thus  there  is  the  well- 
known  bazar  in  Soho  square,  in  London. 

Beacon.  (See  Si^nalSy  and  Lighthouse,) 

Beaole  ;  a  species  of  the  genus  dog^ 
kept  entirely  for  hunting  bares.  They 
are  small,  and  much  infenor  to  the  hare 
in  swiftness,  but  have  a  veiy  delicate 
scent,  and  seldom  &il  of  running  her 

Bear  (ursuSf  L.) ;  a  genus  of  caniiv-. 
orous,  or,  more  accurately,  fi-ugi-camiv- 
orous,  mammiferous  quadrupeds,  belong- 
ing to  the  family  planiigrada,  which  tread 
on  the  entire  soles  of  the  [hind]  feet. 
The  genus  is  characterized  by  a  hca^y 
body,  covered  with  a  thick,  wooUv  coat, 
a  large  head,  terminating  in  a  prolonged 
snout,  with  very  extensible  lii)5».  The 
ears  are  of  moderate  size,  and  rather 
pointed,  and  the  tongue  smooth.  The 
limbs  are  large  and  heavy,  and  all  the 
feet   ai'e  five-toed,  apd .  furnished  witl) 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



very  strong,  hooked  claws,  well  salted 
for  burrowing. — ^Five  species  at  present 
belong  to  this  genu&  The  Unnaean  genus 
comprised  the  raccoon,  badger,  &C.,  now, 
properly,  separated  i&om  iu  These  spe- 
cies are,  the  brown  bear  of  Europe  (U. 
ardoa) ;  the  white  or  polar  bear  ( U,  mar^ 
itimua) ;  the  American  or  black  bear  (U, 
Amencanus);  the  grisly  bear  (U.hornb- 
His),  also  of  America;  and  the  Malay- 
an or  Asiatic  bear  (U.  kdnatus)* — ^The 
brown  bear  is  chiefly  an  inhabitant  of 
cold  and  elevated  situations,  and  feeds  on 
a  peat  varietv  of  miinial  and  vegetable 
substances.  During  winter,  this  species, 
like  some  others,  remains  torpid  in  caves, 
whither  it  retires,  in  the  autumn,  very  fiit, 
and  comes  out,  in  the  spricg,  extremely 
emaciated.  The  brown  bear  is  remarica- 
ble  for  its  sagacity,  as  well  as  the  ferocity 
of  its  disposition,  and  it  becomes  espe- 
cially sanguinary  as  it  advances  in  age. 
Besides  the  difierences  of  color  and  size 
which  distinguish  this  bear  iit>m  those 
belonging  to  the  old  continent,  it  differs 
from  the  American  bears,  by  having  a 
convexity  of  front  above  the  eyes,  which 
renders  its  physiognomy  strikingly  dis- 
similar to  tlieirs.  Other  distinctions,  suffi- 
ciently obvious,  present  themselves  when 
the  species  are  comi)ared. — ^Tlie  polar,  or 
maritime  bear,  is  only  found  in  high 
northern  latitudes,  along  the  borders  of 
the  Icy  ocean  and  northeni  coasts  of 
America  in  the  vicinity  of  Hudson's  bay. 
It  does  not  descend  to  the  eastern  coast 
of  Siberia  nor  Kamtschatka ;  neither  is  it 
found  in  the  islands  lying  Injtwecn  Sibe- 
ria and  America.  It  is  unlfonnly  white, 
attains  a  large  size,  is  very  powerful,  fe- 
rocious and  daring.  It  is  an  excellent 
diver  and  swimmer,  being  apparently  as 
much  at  home  in  the  ocean  as  on  land. 
An  individual  of  tliis  species  was  seen,  by 
the  late  northern  explorers,  in  the  mid- 
dle of  Melville  sound,  swimming  across, 
where  the  shores  were  at  leost  30  miles 
apart.  The  polar  bear  is  the  most  exclu- 
sively cami^'orous  of  the  genus,  tliough 
equally  cauable  of  living  on  vegetd)le 
food  with  tne  rest.  He  preys  upon  seals, 
the  cubs  of  die  whale,  morse,  &c.,  or  the 
carcasses  of  whales  left  by  whalers  after 
removing  the  blubber.  Individuals  of 
this  species  are  sometimes,  though  rarely, 
seen  m  caravans  of  wild  animals  in  the 
U.  States.  A  large  and  beautiftil  one  was 
exhibited  in  New  York,  in  the  spring  of 
1826|  and,  notwithstandmg  the  coolness 
of  the  weather,  it  appeared  to  suffer  ex- 
tremely from  heat,  as  it  bathed  itself 
frequently  in  water  provided  for  the  pur- 

pose. When  ice  was  placed  in  the  ofge, 
it  rolled  upon  it  with  great  satisfection, 
and  showed  every  sign  of  being  gratified. 
— ^The  black  bear  of  America  is  distin- 
guished by  its  color  and  a  peculiarly  eon- 
vex  facial  outline.  It  is  found  veiy  gen- 
erally in  mountainous  and  forest  lands, 
and  subsists,  in  a  great  degree,  on  berries 
and  vegetable  substances,  though  it  preys 
upon  small  animals,  and  insects,  which  it 
searches  for  industriously,  by  turning  over 
large  logs  of  decayed  timber.  It  is  rarely, 
if  ever,  known  to  attack  man,  unless  m 
self-defence.  It  is  very  fond  of  young 
com  and  honey,  which,  being  an  expert 
climber,  like  the  brown  European  bear,  it 
obtains  by  plundering  the  wild  bees. — 
The  grisly  bear  inhabits  the  country  ad- 
jacent to  the  Rocky  mountains,  and  is, 
of  all  the  race,  tlie  most  dreadful  for  size, 
strength  and  terrible  ferocity  of  nature.* 
— ^The  Malay,  Asiatic  or  long-Upped  bear, 
is  a  native  of  the  mountainous  parts  of 
India,  and  feeds  on  white  ants,  rice,  honey, 
the  fruit  of  tlie  palm,  &c.  The  spe- 
cies is  inoffensive  and  timid,  burrows  in 
the  ground,  and  lives  in  pairs,  together 
with  the  young,  which,  when  alarmed, 
seek  safety  by  mounting  on  the  backs  of 
the  parents. 

Beard  ;  the  hair  round  the  chin,  on 
the  cheeks  and  tlie  upper  lip,  w^hich  is  a 
distinction  of  the  male  sex.  It  differs 
from  the  hair  on  the  head  by  its  greater 
hai^ess  and  its  form.  The  beard  begins 
to  grow  at  the  time  of  puberty.  The 
coimexion  between  the  beard  and  puber- 
ty is  evident  from  this,  among  other  cir- 
cumstances, that  it  never  grows  in  the 
case  of  eunuchs  who  have  been  sUch 
from  childhood;  but  the  castration  of 
adults  does  not  cause  tlie  loss  of  the 
beard.  According  to  Caesar,  the  Ger- 
mans thought,  and  perhaps  justly,  the 
late  growth  of  the  bcJud  favorable  to  the 
deycTopement  of  all  the  powers.  But  there 
are  cases  in  which  tliis  circumstance  is  an 
indication  of  feebleness.  It  frequently 
takes  place  in  men  of  tender  constitution, 
whose  pale  color  indicates  Utde  power. 
The  beards  of  different  nations  aflrord  an 
interesting  study.  Some  have  hardly 
any,  others  a  ^reat  profusion.  The  latter 
generally  consider  it  as  a  great  ornament ; 
the  former  pluck  it  out ;  as,  for  instance, 
the  American  Indians.  'Die  character 
of  the  beard  differs  with  that  of  the  indi- 
vidual, and,  in  the  case  of  nations,  varies 

*  For  the  detailed  history  of  this  and  the  two 
preceding  species,  too  extensive  to  be  introduced 
into  this  work,  see  the  first  volume  of  the  Ameri- 
can  Natural  mnoryj  by  the  writer  of  this  articla. 

Digitized  by 





with  the  climate,  food,  &c.  Thus  the 
beard  is  ^nerally  daik,  dr^,  hard  and 
thin  in  irritaUe  persons  of  full  age :  the 
same  is  ]the  ease  with  the  inhabitants  of 
hot  and  diy  countries,  as  the  Arabians, 
Ethiopians,  East  Indians,  Italiims,  Span- 
iards. But  persons  of  a  very  mild  dis- 
))osition  have  a  light-colored,  thick  and 
slightly  curling  b^Bod:  the  same  is  the 
case  with  inhabitants  of  cold  and  humid 
countries,  as  Holland,  England,  Sweden. 
The  difference  of  circumstances  causes 
all  shades  of  variety.  The  nature  of  the 
nourishment,  likewise,  causes  a  great  va- 
riety in  the  beard.  Wholesome,  nutri- 
tious and  digestible  food  m^es  the  beard 
soft ;  but  poor,  dry  and  Indigestible  fix)d 
renders  it  hard  and  bristly.  In  general, 
the  beard  has  been  considered,  witli  all 
nations,  as  an  ornament,  and  often  as  a 
mark  of  the  sage  and  the  priest  Moses 
forisade  the  Jews  to  shave  their  beards. 
With  the  ancient  Germans,  the  cutting  oft' 
another^s  beard  was  a  high  offence ;  vrith 
the  East  Indians,  it  is  iseverely  punished. 
Even  now,  the  beard  is  regarded  as  a 
marie  of  great  dignity  amons  many  na- 
tions m  the  East,  as  the  Turks.  The 
custom  of  shaving  is  said  to  have  come 
into  use  during  the  reigns  of  Louis  XIII 
and  XIV  of  France,  both. of  whom  as- 
cended the  throne  without  a  beard. 
Courtiers  and  inhabitants  of  cities  tlien 
began  to  shave,  in  order  to  look  like  the 
king,  and,  as  Frauce  soon  took  the  lead 
in  all  matters  of  fashion  on  the  continent 
of  Europe,  shaving  became;  general ;  but 
it  is  only  since  the  l)eginning  of  the  last 
centuiy,  that  shaving  off  the  whole 
beani  has  become  common.  Till  tlien, 
fashion  had  given  divers  forms  to  mus- 
taehioes  and  beards.  Much  could  be 
said,  and  has  been  sfud,  in  a  medical  point 
of  view,  on  shaving  the  beard.  Such  a 
discussion  would  lead  us,  however,  here 
too  far.  It  is  not  to  be  denied,  that  the 
mouth,  one  of  the  most  expressive  parts 
of  the  countenance,  is  shown  to  much 
better  advantage  in  consequence  of  sliav- 
ing;  but,  at  the  same  time,  old  age  ap- 
pears to  much  greater  disadvantage,  the 
heard  conceaUng  the  loss  of  the  teeth. 
Moreover,  the  eye  gains  much  in  ex- 
pression by  a  ftiU  beard.  Every  one 
knows  the  trouble  of  shaving ;  and  who 
does  not  remember  Byron^  computa- 
tion of  the  amount  of  this  trouble  in 
Don  Juan  ?  Seume,  a  German  author, 
says,  in  his  journal,  **  To-day  I  threw  my 
powder  apparatus  out  of  the  wmdow: 
when  will  come  the  blessed  day,  that  I 
■hall  send  the  shaving  apparatus  ^r  it !" 

— Shaving,  among  manj[  ancient  nation% 
was  the  m^  of  mourning;  with  others^ 
it  was  the  contrary.  Plutarch  says  that 
Alexander  introduced  shaving  among  the 
Greeks,  by  ordering  his  soldiers  to  cut 
off  theur  beards;  but  it  appears  that  this 
custom  had  prevailed  before  among  the 
Macedo;uan9.  The  Romans  began  to 
shave  about  454  A.  U.,  296  B.  C,  when 
a  certain  Tieinius  Mcenas,  a  barber  from 
Sicily,  introduced  this  &shion.  Scipio 
Africauus  was  the  first  wbo  shaved  every 
day.  The  day  that  a  young  man  fiiBt 
shaved  was  celebrated,  and  the  first  hair 
cut  off  was  sacrificed  to  a  deity.  Adrian^ 
ifi  order  to  cover  some  large  warts  on  his 
chin,  renewed  the  fiisliion  of  long  beards ; 
but  it  did  not  last  long.  In  mournings 
tlie  Romans  wore  a  long  beard  some- 
times ft)r  years.  They  used  scissors,  ra- 
zors, tweezers,  &c.,  to  remove  the  beard. 
The  pubhc  barber  shops  (tonsinrw)^  where 
the  lower  classes  went,  were  much  re- 
sorted to ;  rich  people  kept  a  shaver  (ton- 
8or)  among  their  slaves. 

Bearn  ;  before  the  revolution,  a  prov- 
ince of  France,  at  Uie  foot  of  the  Pyre- 
nees, with  the  title  of  a  principality ; 
about  42  miles  long  and  36  broad ;  bound- 
ed E.  by  Bigorre,  N.  by  Armagnac,  Tur- 
san  and  Chalosse,  W.  by  Dax,  a  part  of 
Soule,  and  the  Lower  Navarre,  and  S.  by 
the  Pyrenees.  It  belonged,  wiUi  Navarre, 
to  Henry  IV,  when  he  obtained  the 
crown.  The  plain  country  is  very  fertile, 
and  the  mountains  are  covered  with  fir- 
trees,  while  v^athin  are  mines  of  copper, 
lead  and  iron;  and  the  litde  hills  are 
planted  with  vines,  which  yield  good 
wine.  It  is  now  included  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Lower  Pyrenees.  Pau  was  the 
capital  town.    Pop.  about  220,000. 

Beatification,  in  tlie  Roman  Catholic 
church ;  an  act  bv  which  ^e  pope  declares 
a  person  beatified  or  blessed  after  his  death. 
It  is  the  fim  step  to  canonization,  L  e. 
tlic  raising  one  to  tlie  honor  and  dignity 
of  a  saint.  No  person  can  be  beatified 
*till  50  years  afler  his  or  her  death.  AH 
certificates  or  attestations  of  virtues  and 
miracles,  the  necessary  qualifications  for 
saintship,  are  examined  by  the  congrega- 
tion of  rites.  This  examination  o&n 
continues  for  several  years ;  oiler  which 
his  holiness  decrees  the  beatification. 
The  corpse  and  relics  of  the  fumre  saint 
are  fix>m  thenceforth  exposed  to  the  ven- 
eration of  all  ^ood  Christiims ;  his  image 
is  crowned  with  mye,  and  a  particular 
office  is  set  apart  for  him ;  but  his  body 
and  relics  are  not  carried  in  procession. 
Indulgences,  likewise,  and  remiasious  of 

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fiins,  aie  granted  on  the  day  of  his  beatiii- 
cadon ;  which,  though  not  so  pompous  as 
that  of  canonization,  is,  however,  veiy 
splendid.  Beatification  difTeis  finom  can- 
onization in  this,  that  the  pope  does  not 
act  as  a  judge  in  determining  the  state 
of  the  beatified,  but  only  grants  a  privi- 
lege to  certain  persons  to  honor  him  by  a 
particular  religious  worship,  without  in- 
curring the  penalty  of  superstitious  wor- 
shippers ;  but,  in  canonization,  the  pope 
speaks  as  a  judge,  and  determines,  ex  ca- 
thedra, upon  the  state  of  the  canonized. 
Beatification  was  introduced  when  it  was 
thought  proper  to  delay  the  canonization 
of  saints,  for  the  greater  assurance  of  tlie 
truth  of  the  steps  taken  in  the  procedure. 
Some  particular  orders  of  monks  have 
assumed  to  tliemselves  the  power  of  be- 
atification. Thus  Octavia  Melchiorica " 
was  beatified  by  the  Dominicans.  (See 

Beaton,  David,  archbishop  of  St.  An- 
drews, and  cardinal,  was  bom  in  1494. 
Pope  Paul  III  raised  him  to  the  rank  of 
cardinal  in  December,  1538 ;  and,  being 
employed  by  James  V  in  negotiating  his 
marriage  at  the  court  of  France,  he  was 
there  consecrated  bishop  of  Mirepoix. 
Soon  after  his  instalment  as  archbishop, 
he  promoted  a  furious  persecution  of  the 
refonners  hi  Scotland;  but  tlie  king's 
death  put  a  stop,  for  a  time,  to  his  arbi- 
trary proceedings,  he  being  then  excluded 
from  afiliirs  of  government,  and  confined. 
He  i-aised,  however,  so  strong  a  party, 
that,  upon  the  coronation  of  the  young 
queen  Mary,  he  was,  admitted  into  the 
council,  made  chancellor,  and  received  a 
commission  as  legate  a  latere  fiom  Rome. 
He  now  began  to  renew  his  persecution 
of  heretics,  and,  among  the  rest,  of  the 
famous  Protestant  preacher  George  Wis- 
hait,  whose  sufferings  at  the  stake  he 
viewed  from  his  window,  witli  apparent 
exultation.  B.  was  murdered  in  his 
chamber,  May  29, 1530.  He  united  with 
great  talents  equally  great  vices,  and  left 
several  children,  the  fruit  of  open  concu- 

Beattie,  James,  LL.  D.,  a  pleasing 
poet  and  miscellaneous  writer,  was  l)orn 
at  Lawrencekirk,  in  the  county  of  Kin- 
cardine, in  1735.  He  lost  his  fiither  when 
he  was  only  seven  years  of  age,  but  was 
placed  early  at  the  only  school  liis  birth- 
place afforded,  whence  he  was  removed 
to  Marischal  college,  Aberdeen.  He  there 
studied  Greek,  under  the  principal,  Thom- 
as Blackwell,  and  made  a  genersd  profi- 
ciency in  every  branch  of  education, 
except  mathematics.    In  1753,  he  ob- 

tained the  depee  of  A.  M.,  and  accepted 
the  ofiUce  or  school-master  and  parish- 
cleik  to  the  parish  of  Fordoun,  iooking 
forward  to  the  chnrch  of  Scotland  as  hi» 
principal  prospect,  for  which  reason  he 
still  attended,  during  winter,  the  divinity 
lecnires  at  Marischal  college.  In  June, 
1758,  these  views  were  somewhat  chang- 
ed, by  the  attainment  of  the  situation  of 
one  of  the  masters  of  the  grammar- 
school  of  Aberdeen.  In  1761,  he  pub- 
lished a  volume  of  poems,  which  were 
received  favorably,  but  which  he  subse- 

Suently  thouffht  very  Uttle  ofj  and  en- 
eavored  to  buy  up.  They  nevertheless 
procured  him  some  powerful  fi-iends, 
whose  patronage  obtained  him  the  ap- 
pohitment  of  professor  of  moral  philoso- 
])hy  and  logic  at  Marischal  college.  In 
1765,  he  published  a  poem,  the  Judg- 
ment of  Paris,  (4to.),  wluch  proved  a  fkn- 
ure,  altiiough  it  was  afterwards  added  to 
a  new  edition  of  his  poems,  in  1766.  The 
work  which  procured  him  the  greatest 
fame  was  his  Essay  on  Trutii,  which 
first  appeared  in  1770.  It  was  so  popular, 
that,  in  four  years,  five  large  editions  were 
sold;  and  it  was  translated  into  several 
foreign' languages.  Among  other  marks 
of  respect,  the  university  of  Oxford  con- 
feiTed  on  the  author  the  de^e  of  LL.  D. ; 
and  George  III  honored  him,  on  his  visit 
to  London,  with  a  private  conference  and 
a  pension.  He  was  also  solicited  to  enter 
the  church  of  England  by  flattering  pre- 
posals  fix)m  the  archbishop  of  York  and 
the  bishop  of  London ;  which  j)roposuIs 
he  declined,  lest  his  opponents  should 
attribute  the  change  to  self-interest.  The 
popularity  of  this  celebrated  essay,  which 
was  \vritten  in  opposition  to  the  prevalent 
scepticism  of  Hume  and  othei-s,  was  prin- 
cipally owing  to  its  easiness  of  stylo,  and 
to  a  mode  of  ti'eating  tlie  subject,  calcu- 
lated for  the  meridian  of'slifrht  scholar- 
ship and  medium  intellect,  'this  is  oflen 
a  great  source  of  immediate  celebritj'; 
but,  thus  produced,  it  is  usually  as  transi- 
tory as  spontaneous,  which  has  proved 
the  case  in  tiie  present  instance.  A  few 
months  after  the  appearance  of  the  Essay 
on  Truth,  B.  pubhshcd  the  first  book  of 
the  Minstrel  (4to.),  and,  in  1774,  tiie  sec- 
ond ;.  which  pleasing  poem  is,  indisputa- 
bly, the  wore  by  which  he  will  be  the 
longest  remembered.  To  a  splenditl  edi- 
tion of  his  Essay  on  Truth,  published,  by 
subscription,  in  1776,  he  {\(dded  some  mis- 
cellaneous dissertations  on  Poetry  and 
Music,  Laughter  and  Ludicrous  Compo- 
sition, &c.  In  1783,  he  published  Dis- 
sertations, Moral  and  Critical  (4to.) ;  and 

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in  1786,  appeared  his  Evidences  of  the 
Christian  Keliffion  (2  vola^  12mo.)  In 
1790,  he  published  the  first  volume  of  his 
Elements  of  Moral  Science,  the  second 
of  vehich  followed  in  1793;. and  to  the 
latter  was  appended  a  dissertation  against 
the  slave-trade.  His  last  publication  was 
an  Account  of  the  Lifb,  Character  and 
Writings  of  his  eldest  son,  James  Henry 
Beattie,  an  amiable  and  promising  young 
man,  who  died  at  the  age  of  23,  in  1790. 
This  great  affliction  was  followed,  in 
1796,  by  the  equally  premature  death  of 
his  youngest  and  only  surviving  son,  in 
his  18th  year ;  which  losses,  added  to  the 
melancholy  loss  of  reason  by  his  wife, 
wholly  subdued  his  constitution;  and, 
aficr  two  paralytic  strokes,  he  died  at 
Aberdeen,  in  August,  1803.  B.  was  a 
religious  and  an  amiable  man,  but  consti- 
tutionally more  calculated  for  a  poet  than 
a  philosopher,  and  for  a  pleader  than  a 
controversialist  He  was,  however,  a  re- 
spectable, if  not  a  strong  writer,  and 
might   have  been  thought  more  of  at 

£  resent,  had  he  been   thought  less  of 

Beaucaire  ;  a  small,  well-built,  com* 
merdal  city  of  France,  with  8000  inhab- 
itants (Ion.  4°  43^  E. ;  lat.  43°  48^  N.),  in 
Lower  Languedoc,  now  in  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Gard,  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Rhone,  opposite  Taiascon,  with  which 
it  communicates  by  a  bridge  of  boats.  It 
has  a  commodious  harbor  for  vessels 
which  ascend  the  river  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean, 7  leagues  distant,  and  is  famous 
for  its  great  foir  (founded  in  1217,  by 
Raymond  II,  count  of  Toulouse],  held 
yearly,  from  the  22d  Jul^,  during  10  days. 
In  former  times,  this  fou*  was  fm^uented 
by  merchants  and  manu&cturers  from 
most  countries  of  Europe,  the  Levant, 
and  even  from  Persia  and  Armenia,  so 
that  many  thousand  booths  were  erected 
for  foreigners  in  the  adioining  valley. 
Before  1632,  the  fiiir  of  B.  was  exempt 
from  all  taxes,  and  the  annual  sale 
.  amounted  to  several  miUion  dollars. 
Since  that  time,  B.  has  gradualljr  declined, 
and  its  trade,  the  articles  of  which  are  tlie 
productions  of  the  vicinity,  was  valued, 
m  1816,  at  23,000,000  fiancs. 

Beaufort;  a  seaport  and  post-town 
in  a  district  of  the  same  name,  in  South 
Carolina,  on  Port  Royal  island,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Coosawbatchie ;  60  miles 
N.  £.  Savannah,  72  8.  W.  Charleston : 
km.  80°  33^  W.;  laL  33P  31'  N. ;  popula- 
ikm  about  1000.  It  is  a  veiy  pleasant 
and  healthy  town,  with  tn  excellent  har- 
bor, though  but  little  commeroe.    It  con- 

tains 3  churehea  and  a  senunaiy,  which 
waa  incorporated  as  a  college,  endowed 
with  funds  amounting  to  60  or  $70,000, 
having  a  handsome  edifice,  ai^  a  library 
of  700  volmnes,  but  it  has  hitherto  aa- 
supied  only  the  form  of  an  academy. 

Beaufort,  Henry,  le^ttmate  brother 
of  Henry  IV,  king  of  England,  was  made 
bishop  of  Lincoln,  whence  he  was  trans- 
lated to  Winchester.  He  was  also  nom- 
inated chancellor  of  the  kingdom,  and 
sent  ambassador  to  France,  m  1426,  he 
received  a  cardinal's  hat,  and  was  ap- 
pointed leflate  in  Germany.  In  1431,  he 
crowned  Henry  VI  in  the  great  churdi 
of  Paris.  He  died  at  Winchester,  1447. 
He  was  a  haughty,  turbulent  prelate,  and 
Shakspeare  is  considered  as  giving  a  tnie 
portrait  of  him,  when  he  aesciK)e8  his 
fast  scene* 

Beauharnais,  Alexander,  viscounty 
bom  in  1760,  in  Martinioue ;  served  with 
distinction,  as  major,  in  the  French  forces 
under  Rochamb^u,  which  aided  the  U. 
States  in  their  revolutionary  war;  married 
Josephine  Tascher  de  la  Pagerie,  who 
was  afterwards  the  wifo  of  Napoleon. 
At  the  breaking  out  of  the  French  revo- 
lution, he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the 
national  assembly,  of  which  he  was,  for 
some  time,  president,  and  which  he  open- 
edy  ailer  the  king^  dcportorB,  mritfa  the 
following  words: — MestieurSy  U  roi  est 
parH  cette  nuU :  patsona  h  Vordre  du  jour, 
in  1792,  he  was  general  of  the  army  of 
the  Rhine,  and,  in  1793,  was  appointed 
minister  of  war.  In  consequence  of  the 
decree  removing  men  of  noble  birth  from 
the  army,  he  retired  to  his  country-seat. 
He  was  falsely  accused  of  having  pro- 
ipoted  the  surrender  of  Mentz,  and  wo» 
sentenced  to  death,  July  23,  1794,  when 
34  years  old.  (For  information  respecting 
his  son  Eugene,  viceroy  of  Itaiy,  see 
Ikigene ;  ^eqpecting  his  daughter  Hon 
tense,  see  Louu  BonaparU  ;  and  respecfe- 
in^  his  elder  brother,  Fran^^is  Beauhar- 
nais, see  the  next  wticle.) 

Beauharhais,  Frangois,  marquis  dej 
bora  at  La  Rochelle,  Aug.  12, 1756 ;  voted 
with  the  right  side  in  the  national  assem- 
blV.  He  violently  opposed  the  motion 
of  his  younger  brother,  the  viscount  Al- 
exander, to  take  from  the  king  the  chief 
command  of  the  army,  and  would  not 
listen  to  any  of  ihe  amendments  pro- 
posed, saying,  R  n'y  a  pomt  ^amendemad 
avu  PhKnmeur.  He  yna  called,  in  cqii8&- 
quence  of  this,  le  fid  BeaukarnaU  »an$ 
amendement  In  1792,  with  the  count 
d'Hervilly,  the  baron  de  'Viomenil  and 
others,  1^  formed  the  {voject  of  a  new 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 




flwht  of  the  royal  fiunily ;  but  the  airest 
ofnis  corapanioD,  the  biut>n  Chambon, 
prevented  tLe  execution  of  the  plan.  He 
was  appointed  major-general  in  the  army 
of  the  prince  of  Cond^,  and  wrote,  in 
1792,  to  the  president  of  the  national 
assembly,  protesting  against  their  unlaw- 
ful treatment  of  the  king,  and  offering  to 
appear  himself  among  his  defenders. 
When  Bonaparte  became  first  consul,  the 
marquis  sent  him  a  letter,  in  which  he 
exhorted  him,  by  the  glory  which  he 
would  gain  by  such  a  course,  to  restoro 
the  sceptre  to  the  house  of  Bourbon. 
The  empress  Josephine  married  her 
niece,  the  daughter  of  the  marquis,  to 
the  emperor's  aid,  Lavalette  (q.  v.],  and 
effected  the  recall  of  the  marquis.  Ap- 
pointed senator,  and  ambassador  to  the 
court  of  Spain,  he  united,  in  1807,  with 
tlie  prince  of  the  Asturias  (now  Ferdinand 
Vn),  against  the  prince  of  peace,  and  fell 
into  disgrace  with  Napoleon,  who  ban- 
ished him.  After  the  restoration,  he  re- 
turned to  Paris,  where  he  died,  Jan.  10, 

Beaumarchais,  Pierre  Augustin  Caron 
de ;  bom  at  Paris,  1732 ;  son  of  a  watch- 
maker, who  destined  him  for  his  trade. 
He  early  gave  striking  proofs  of  his  me- 
chanical and  also  of  nis  musical  talents. 
He  was  ufl.t;rwBrds  tbo-  toachpr  on  .the 
harp  of  the  daughters  of  Louis  XV,  and 
was  admitted  into  theur  society.  By  a 
rich  marriage,  he  laid  the  foundation  of 
bis  immense  wealth.  He  now  aspired  to 
literary  reputation.  His  Eugenie  appear- 
ed in  1767 ;  Lea  deux  Mda  in  1770.  The 
first  still  holds  its  place  on  the  stage.  He 
showed  all  his  talent  in  his  lawsuit  against 
Goesman  and  La  Blache,  when  he  wrote 
against  the  former  (who  belonged  to  the 
pcaiamtnt  Maupeou,  so  called,  which  was 
engaged  in  a  dispute  with  the  ministnr) 
his  celebrated  Memoires  (Paris,  1774), 
which  entertained  all  France.  Had  he 
remained  more  quiet,  he  probably  would 
have  gained  his  process.  The  fame  of 
his  Memoires  alarmed  even  Voltaire,  who 
was  jealous  of  every  kind  of  glory.  The 
Barber  of  Seville  and  the  Marriage  of 
Figaro  have  given  him  a  permanent  rep- 
utation. Shortly  before  the  revolution, 
he  was  involved  hi  the  process  agednst 
the  banker  Kommann.  In  1792,  he 
wrote  La  Mbrt  coupabUj  but  never  re- 
gained his  former  mme.  He  was  once 
more  in  his  true  element  in  his  memoir 
Me8  tix  ipoques.  He  relates,  in  that 
work,  the  dangers  to  which  he  was  ex- 
posed, in  a  revolution,  where  a  celebrated 
Dame,  talent  and  riches,  were  sufficient 

causes  of  proscription.  He  still  poaseaih 
ed,  at  the  age  of  more  than  sixty,!  all  the 
vigor  of  his  youtk  and  had  lost  nothing 
but  his  gayety.  Hjs  contract  to  supply 
the  U.  States  with  military  stores,  donng 
their  revolutionary  war,  had  increased  his 
fortune,  of  which  he  always  made  a  noble 
use ;  but  he  lost  about  a  million  livres  by 
his  famous  edition  of  the  works  of  Vol- 
taire, the  very  imperfect  execution  of 
which  was  not  answerable  to  the  im- 
mense cost  He  lost  still  more,  at  the  end 
of  1792,  by  his  attempt  to  provide  the 
French  army  with  60,000  muskets.  Dis- 
contented with  the  present,  despairing  of 
the  future,  wearied  with  struggling  against 
the  revolution  and  his  creditora  for  the 
ruins  of  his  wealth,  he  died,  at  the  age  of 
69  years,  without  any  particular  disease, 
in  Slay,  1799.  His  biography  appeared 
in  1802;  and,  in  1809,  an  edition  of.  his 
works,  in  7  vols. — B.  was  a  sin^Iar  in- 
stance of  versatility  of  talent,  being  at 
once  an  artist,  politician,  projector,  mer- 
chant and  dramatist  He  was  passion- 
ately attached  to  celebrity.  IDs  Marriage 
of  Figaro  excited  one  of  those  extraor- 
dinary sensations,  for  which  Paris  has 
always  been  remariiable.  The  English 
modifications  and  versions  of  this  comedy 
convey  but  a  slight  notion  of  the  mis- 
chievous subtlety  and  deep  spirit  of  in- 
trigue in  the  orieiniiJ.  B.  left  to  his  heirs 
a  claim  against  3ie  U.  States  of  a  million 
of  francs  for  supplies  furnished  during  the 
war,  which  has  been  repeatedly  presented 
to  conn-ess,  but  always  rejected  on  the 
ground  that  B.  acted  only  as  the  agent  of 
me  French  government,  from  whom  he 
received  funds  to  that  amount 

Beaumont,  Francis,  and  Fletcher, 
John ;  two  dramatic  writers.  The  former 
was  born  in  1585,  studied  at  Oxford,  and 
died  in  1616 ;  the  latter  was  bom  at  Lon- 
don in  1576,  and  died  there,  in  1625,  of 
the  plague.  Animated  by  the  same  in- 
clination, they  both  devoted  themselves 
to  poetry.  Their  plays,  about  50,  ap- 
peared under  their  joint  names  (London, 
1679,  and  lately,  1812,  in  14  vols.],  and  it 
is  impossible  now  to  determine  their  re- 
spective shares  in  these  productions. 
According  to  the  testimony  of  some  of 
their  contemporaries,  Fletcher  was  the 
inventing  genius,  while  Beaumont,  thoueh 
the  younger,  was  more  distinguished  for 
maturity  and  correctness  of  judgment 
Shakspeare  was  their  model,  and,  like 
him,  they  intermix  pathetic  and  low 
comic  scenes ;  but  their  attempts  to  sur- 
pass their  model  sometimes  lead  them 
mto  extravagances.    The  desir^  also,  of 

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plesaiDff  the  public  at  times  induces  them 
to  deviate  m>m  a  correct  standard  of 
aiste.  They  succeed  best  in  comic  scenes. 
Their  contemporaries  preferred  them 
even  to  Shakspeare,  ammiing  that  the 
English  drama  reached  its  perfection  in 
them.  Impartial  posterity  has  reversed 
this  decision,  and  adjudged  the  palm  to 
Shakspeare.  They  are  said  to  have  fire- 
quented  taverns  and  alehouses,  to  study 
the  human  character,  and  to  have  been 
arrested,  while  disputing  in  such  a  place 
respecting  the  conclusion  of  a  play.  One 
wished  to  have  the  king  in  the  piece 
assassinated,  the  other  opposed  it;  and, 
being  overheard,  they  were  apprehended 
on  suspicion  of  conspiring  the  death  of 
their  sovereign. 

Beaumont,  madame  Leprince  de ;  bom 
at  Rouen,  1711 ;  died  at  Annecy,  in  Sa- 
voy, 1780 ;  lived  partly  in  France,  partly 
in  England,  where  she  devoted  her  tal- 
ents to  the  instruction  of  youth.  A  sim- 
ple and  easy  style,  a  pleasmg  moral,  well 
chosen  historical  passages,  and  a  happy 
imagination,  render  her  writings  afireea- 
ble,  although  much  is  too  artmcial,  and 
the  theological  views  are  no  longer  of 
value.  She  has  written  a  great  many 
romances  and  works  for  children.  Her 
Magazin  des  Enfant  was  formerly  the 
manual  of  all  govemantes  and  French 

Beauty.  (See  PkUosophy.) 
'  Beaver  (castor,  L.) ;  a  genus  of  clavic- 
ulated,  mammiferous  <]|uadrupeds,  of  the 
order  ^lires,  Lu,  rodentyXj  C,  or  gnawers. 
— ^Havmg  drawn  up,  with  great  care,  tlie 
natural  mstory  of  this  species  in  another 
work  (American  Natural  History,  vol.  ii., 
p.  21),  we  shall  avail  ourselves  of  some 
of  the  most  interesting  statements,  and 
refer  the  reader  thereto  for  more  ample 
details,  as  well  as  for  the  fabulous  history 
of  the  animal — It  is  only  in  a  state  of 
nature  that  the  beaver  displays  any  of 
those  singular  modes  of  acting,  which 
have  so  long  rendered  the  species  cele- 
brated. These  may  be  summed  up  in  a 
statement  of  the  manner  in  which  they 
secure  a  depth  of  water  that  cannot  be 
frozen  to  the  bottom,  and  their  mode  of 
constructing  the  huts  in  which  they  pass 
tlie  winter.  They  are  not  particular  as  to 
the  site  which  they  select  for  the  establish- 
ment of  then-  dwellings,  but  if  it  is  in  a 
lake  or  pond,  where  a  dam  is  not  re- 

Suired,  they  are  careful  to  build  where 
le  water  is  sufficiently  deep.  In  stand- 
ing waters,  however,  mey  have  not  the 
advantage  afforded  by  a  current  for  the 
transportation  of  their  supplies  of  wood, 

which,  when  they  build  on  a  running 
stream,  is  always  cut  higher  up  than  the 
place  of  their  residence,  and  floated  down. 
The  materials  used  for  the  construction 
of  their  dams  are  the  trunks  and  branches 
of  small  birch,  mulberry,  willow  and  pop- 
lar trees,  &c.  They  begin  to  cut  down 
their  timber  for  building  early  in  the 
summer,  but  their  edifices  are  not  com- 
menced until  about  the  middle  or  latter 
part  of  August,  and  are  not  completed 
until  the  beginning  of  the  cold  season. 
The  strength  of  2ieir  teeth,  and  their 
persevertmce  in  this  work,  may  be  fiiirly 
estimated  by  the  size  of  the  trees  they 
cut  down.  Doctor  Best  informs  us,  that 
he  has  seen  a  mulberry  tree,  eight  inches 
in  diameter,  which  had  been  gnawed 
down  by  the  beaver.  We  were  shown, 
while  on  the  banks  of  the  Little  Miami 
river,  several  stumps  of  trees,  which  had 
evidently  been  felled  by  these  animals, 
of  at  least  five  or  six  inches  in  diameter. 
The  trees  are  cut  in  such  a  vniy  as  to  fall 
into  the  water,  and  then  floated  towards 
the  site  of  the  dam  or  dwellings.  Small 
shrubs,  &C.,  cut  at  a  distance,  they  drag 
with  their  teeth  to  the  stream,  and  then 
launch  and  tow  them  to  the  place  of  de- 
posit At  a  short  distance  above  a  beaver 
dam,  the  number  of  trees  which  have 
been  cut  down  appears  truly  siurprising, 
and  the  regularity  of  the  stumps  might 
lead  persons,  unacqumnted  with  the  habits 
of  the  animal,  to  believe  that  the  clearing 
was  tlie  result  of  human  industry. — The 
figure  of  the  dam  varies  according  to  cur- 
cumstauces.  Should  the  current  oe  very 
gentle,  tlie  dam  is  carried  nearly  straight 
across ;  but  when  the  stream  is  swift,  it 
is  uniformly  made  with  a  considerable 
curve,  having  the  convex  part  opposed  to 
the  current  Along  with  the  tiiiuks  and 
branches  of  trees  3iey  mtenniiigle  mud 
and  stones,  to  give  greater  security ;  and, 
when  dams  have  been  long  undisturbed 
and  frequently  repaired,  they  acquue 
great  solidity,  and  their  power  of  resist- 
ing the  pressure  of  water,  ice,  &c.,  is 
greatly  increased  by  the  willow  and  birch 
occasionally  taking  root,  and  eventually 
growing  up  into  somediing  like  a  regular 
hedge.  The  materials  used  in  consmict- 
ing  the  dams  are  secured  solely  by  the 
resting  of  the  branches,  &c.  against  the 
bottom,  and  the  subsequent  accumulation 
of  mud  and  stones  by  the  force  of  the 
stream,  or  by  the  industry  of  the  beavers. 
— ^The  dwellings  of  the  beavers  are  fonn- 
ed  of  tlie  same  materials  as  their  dams, 
are  very  rude,  and  adapted  in  size  to  the 
number  of  theur  inhabitants :  seldom  more 

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dnn  four  old,  or  six  or  ^ht  youn^ones, 
are  fi>and  in  one  of  the  knlges,  Siough 
double  that  number  have  been  eometimea 
seen.  In  building  their  houses,  they  place 
most  of  the  wocnd  crosswise,  and  nearly 
horizontally,  observing  no  other  order  than 
that  of  leaving  a  cavity  in  the  middle. 
Branches  projecting  inWards  are  cut  off 
with  their  teeth,  and  thrown  among  the 
rest  The  houses  are  not  of  sticks,  and 
then  plastered,  but  of  all  the  materials 
used  in  the  dams — sticks,  mud  and  stones, 
if  the  latter  can  be  procured.  This  com- 
position is  employed  from  the  foundation 
to  the  summit  The  mud  is  obtained 
fiom  the  adjacent  banks  or  bottom  of  the 
stream  or  pond  near  the  door  of  the  hut 
The  beaver  always  carries  mud  or  stones 
by  holding  them  between  his  fore  paws 
and  throat.  Their  woric  is  all  pertorm- 
ed  at  night,  and  with  much  expedition. 
When  straw  or  grass  is  mingled  with  the 
mud  used  in  building,  it  is  an  accident 
owing  to  the  nature  of  the  spot  whence 
the  mud  is  obtained.  As  soon  as  any 
portion  of  the  materials  is  placed,  they 
turn  round,  and  give  it  a  smart  blow  with 
ihe  tail  '  The  same  sort  of  blow  is  struck 
by  them  on  the  surface  of  the  water 
whenthey  are  in  the  act  of  divinff.  The 
outside  of  the  hut  is  covered  or  plastered 
with  mud,  late  in  the  autumn,  and  after 
frost  has  begun  to  appear.  By  freezing, 
it  soon  becomes  almost  as  haid  as  stone, 
efiectually  excluding  their  peat  enemy, 
the  wolverene,  during  the  wmter.  Their 
habit  of  walking  over  the  work  frequent- 
ly, has  led  to  the  absurd  idea  of  their 
using  the  tail  as  a  trowel.  Tlic  houses 
are  generally  from  four  to  six  feet  thick 
at  the  apex  of  the  cone :  some  have  been 
found  as  much  as  eight  feet  thick  at  top. 
The  door  or  entrance  is  always  on  tlie 
side  farthest  from  land,  and  is  near  the 
fbundation,  or  a  considerable  depth  under 
water :  this  is  the  only  opening  into  the 
hut  The  large  houses  are  sometimes 
found  to  have  projections  of  the  main 
building  thrown  out,  for  the  better  sup- 
port of  the  roo^  and  this  circumstance 
has  led  to  all  the  stories  of  the  different 
apartments  in  beaver  huts.  These  larger 
edifices,  so  far  from  having  several  apart- 
ments, are  double  or  treble  houses,  the 
parts  having  no  communication  except  by 
water.  It  is  a  fact,  that  the  muskrat  is 
sometimes  found  to  have  taken  lodgings 
in  the  huts  of  the  beaver.  The  otter, 
also,  occasionally  intrudes :  he,  however, 
is  a  dangerous  guest,  for,  should  provis- 
ions grow  scarce,  it  is  not  uncommon  for 
him  to  devour  his  host    All  the  beavers 

of  a  community  do  not  ctMfpento  m  fiib- 
ricatinff  houses  for  the  common  use  of 
the  whole.  The  oofy  afiair  in  which 
they  have  «  joint  interest,  and  upon  which 
they  labor  in  concert,  is  the  dam.  Bea- 
vera  also  make  excavations  in  the  adjacent 
banks,  at  regular  distances  from  each 
other,  which  have  been'  called  washts. 
These  are  so  enlaraed  within,  that  die 
beaver  can  raise  his  bead  above  water  to 
breathe  without  being  seen,  and,  when 
disturbed  at  their  huts,  they  immediately 
swim  under  water  to  these  washes  for 
greater  security,  where  they  are  easily 
taken  by  the  hunters. — ^The  food  of  the 
beaver  consists  chiefly  of  the  bark  of  the 
aspen,  willow,  birch,  poplar,  and,  occa- 
sionally, alder  I  to  the  pme  it  rarely  re- 
sorts, unless  from  severe  necessity.  They 
provide  a  stock  of  wood  from  the  trees 
firat  mentioned,  during  summer,  and 
place  it  in  the  water,  opposite  the  en- 
trance into  their  houses. — ^The  beaver 
produces  from  two  to  five  at  a  litter.  It 
IS  a  cleanly  animal,  and  always  performs 
its  evacuations  in  the  water,  at  a  distance 
from  the  hut:  hence  no  accumulation  of 
filth  is  found  near  their  dwellings. — The 
beaver  is  about  two  feet  in  length;  its 
body  thick  and  heavy;  the  hee^  com- 
pressed, and  somewhat  arched  at  the 
ttonti  the  upper  part  rather  narrow ;  the 
snout  much  so.  The  eyes  are  placed 
rather  high  on  the  head,  and  the  pupils 
are  rounded ;  the  eara  are  short,  elliptical, 
and  almost  concealed  by  the  fur.  The 
skin  is  covered  by  two  sorts  of  hair,  of 
which  one  is  long,  rather  stiff,  elastic,  ahd 
ofa  gray  color  for  two  thirds  of  its  length 
next  the  base,  and  terminated  by  shining, 
reddish-brown  points ;  the  other  is  short, 
thick,  tnfled  and  soft,  being  of  different 
shades  of  silver-gray  or  light  lead  color. 
The  hair  is  shortest  on  the  head  and  feet 
The  hind  legs  are  longer  than  the  fore, 
and  are  completely  webbed.  The  tail  is 
10  or  11  inches  long,  and,  except  the 
tWrd  nearest  the  body,  is  covered  with 
hexagonal  scales.  The  Uiird  next  the 
body  is  covered  with  hair  like  that  on  the 
back.  {See  Godman's  Am.  JVcrf.  /&/., 
vol.  ii,  p.  19,  et  seq.) 

Beccaria,  Cesare  Bonesan'a,  marchese 
di,  bom  at  Milan,  1735,  was  early  excited, 
by  Montesquieu's  LeUres  Persants,  to  the 
cultivation  of  his  philosophical  talents, 
and  afterwards  favorably  known  as  a  phi- 
losophical writer  by  his  memorable  worft, 
full  of  a  noble  phiknthropy,  Dei  Delitti  c 
deUe  Pent  (On  Crimes  ana  Punishments^ 
Naples,  17d4,  and  several  others.  Witt 
the  eloquence  of  true  feeling,  and  a  livdy 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



iimgimticai,  he  ojypoaea  capita}  punish* 
ments  and  the  tortUre.  This  -work  led  to 
the  estabiishment  of  more  settled  and 
more  eotrect  principles  of  penal  law,  and 
contributed  to  excite  a  general  horror 
against  inhiunan  punishments.  B»  was  a 
true  friend,  a  gpoa  aon,  a  tender  husband 
and  a  real  philanthropist  He  is  also 
known,  in  ItaJy,  as  the  author  of  a  philo- 
sophioal  ^ramoMur  and  theory  of  style, 
Rieerche  vntomo  aUa  JSTatura  dtUo  StUo 
(Milan,  1770),  and  of  several  good  trea- 
tises on  stylc^  on  rhetorical  ornament,  &c., 
contained  in  the  journal  II  Caffe^  edited 
by  him,  in  copjunotion  with  his  friends 
Visconti,  Veni  and  others.  A  fit  of  apo- 
plexy put  an  end  to  his  useful  life  in  No- 
vember, 1793. 

Beccaria,  Giovanni  Battista;  bom, 
1716,  at  Mondovi ;  went  to  Rome  iu  1732, 
where  he  studied,  and  afterwards  taught 
grammar  and  rhetoric^  at  the  same  time, 
he  a{)pUed  himself  with  success  to  math- 
ematics. He  was  appomted  professor  of 
philosopliy  at  Palermo,  and  aner\vards  at 
Rome.  Charles  Emanuel,  king  of  Sar- 
dinia, invited  him  to  Turin,  in  1748,  to  jfiU 
tlie  professorabip  of  natural  philosophy  at 
the  university  there.  Electricity  had,  at 
that  time,  tnrough  the  experiments  of 
Franklin  and  others,  become  an  object  of 
universal  jnterest  He  therefore  published 
his  IMT  Elettrxcigmo  naturcde  ed  artifiziale 
(Turin,  4to).  The  experiments  which 
this  work  conuuns  on  atmospherical  elec- 
tricity are  so  numerous  and  various,  tliat 
Priestley  affirmed,  in  his  History  of  Elec- 
tricity, that  Beccaria's  labors  tiu*  surpass 
all  that  had  been  done,  before  and  ailer 
•liim,  on  this  subject  The  academies  in 
London  and  Bologna  elected  him  a  mem- 
ber. He  wrote  many  other  valuable 
works  on  this  subject  The  most  impor- 
tant, DeW  EleUncismo  eaiifixiele  (1772), 
contains  all  that  was  then  known  of  elec- 
tricity. Franklin,  who  esteemed  the 
works  of  B.,  had  them  translated  into 
English.  In  1759,  the  kmg  employed 
him  to  measure  a  degree  of  die  meridian 
in  Piedmont  He  begax^  the  measure- 
ment in  1760,  together  with,  the  abbot 
Canonica,  and  published  the  resuk  in 
.  1774.  The  doubts  expressed  by  Cassbii 
of  the  exactness  of  this  measurement, 
drew  from  him  his  LeUert  d'un  BaHiam  ad 
vat  Parigino^  in  which  he  showed  the  in- 
fluence of  tlie  proximity  of  the  Alps  on 
the  deviation  of  the  pendulum.  As  his 
thoughts  were  entirely  absorbed  by  his 
studies,  he  often  neglected  the  nicer  rules 
of  good-breeding,  without  losing,  however, 
the  general  esteem.  He  died  April  27, 1781. 

VOL.  II.  3 

Becher,  John  Joachim ;  author  of  the 
first  theory  4>f  chemistry ;  bom  at  Spire,  in 
1635.  He  finished  his  restless  life  at  Lon- 
don, in  1685,  after  having  resided  in  many 
parts  of  Germany;  He  had  many  ene- 
mies, and  has  been  accused,  not  entirely 
vnthout  justice,  of  charlataniy ;  yet  his  in- 
fluence' on  the  science  of  chemistry  gives 
him  still  a  claim  to  remembrance.  He 
brought  it  into  a  nearer  connexion  vriih 
physics,  and  sought  for  the  causes  of  all 
the  phenomena  of  the  inorganic  universe 
in  these  two  departments  of  science. 
This  is  the  object  of  his  principal  work, 
Physka  aubttrranea.  At  the  same  time, 
he  began  to  form  a  theory  of  chemistry ; 
and  conceived  the  idea  of  a  primitive  acid, 
of  which  all  the  others  Were  only  modifi- 
cations. He  also  made  researches  into 
the  process  of  combustion.  He  mam- 
tained  tliat  every  metal  consists  of  a  com- 
mon earthy  matter,  of  a  common  com- 
bustible principle,  and  of"  a  peculiar  mer- 
curial substance.  If  we  heat  a  metal  so 
tliat  it  citanges  its  fonn,  we  disengage  the 
mercurial  s\ibstance,  and  nothing  remains 
but  tlie  metallic  calx.  This  was  the  first 
genn  of  the  yili logistic  theory,  wliich  was 
further  developed  by  Stahl,  and  prevaile<l 
until  the  time  of  Lavoisier.  The  numer- 
ous works  of  B.  are,  even  now,  riot  >vith- 
out  interest. 

Beck,  Christian  Daniel;  one  of  the 
most  active  living  philologists  and  histori- 
ans, bom  in  Leipsic,  Jan.  22, 1757.  He 
is  professor  at  the  university'  in  that  city, 
and  has  rendered  himself  famous  by  a 
great  number  of  excellent  works.  His 
editions  of  the  classics  are  in  high  esteem. 
Between  1787  and  1806  appeared  the  4 
volumes  of  his  work.  Introduction  to  a 
Knowledge  of  the  General  History  of  the 
World  and  of  Nations,  until  the  Discov- 
eiy  of  America.  He  also  translated  Gold- 
smith's History  of  Greece,  and  Ferguson's 
History  of  the  Roman  Republic.  Of  his 
theological  works,  we  may  mention  his 
C6mmenlarii  hxstond  Deerdorum  Rdigio- 
nx8  Chriatuaue^  et  Fhrmula  Luther  (Leipsic, 
1800).  He  has  also  edited  a  learned  pe- 
riodical work* 

Becket,  Thomas,  the  most  celebrated 
Roman  CathoUc  prelate  in  the  English  an- 
nals, was  bom  in  London,  1119.  He  was 
the  son  of  Gilbert,  a  London  merchant. 
His  mother  is  said  to  have  been  a  Saracen 
lady,  to  whose  father  Gilbert  was  prisoner, 
in  Jerusalem,  being  taken  captive  in  one 
of  the  cmsades.  The  lady  is  said  to  have 
fidlen  in  love  with  the  prisoner,  and  to 
have  followed  him  to  London,  where  he 
married  her.    After  studying  at  Oxford 

Digitized  by 





and  Pazifl,  B.  was  sent,  by  the  fiivor  of 
Theobald,  archbishop  of  Canterbuiy,  to 
study  civil  law  at  Bononia,  in  Italy,  and, 
on  his  return,  was  made  archdeacon  of 
Canterbury  and  provost  of  Beverley.  His 
claim  to  the  good  opinion  of  Theofalald  was 
founded  on  nia  skill  in  negotiation  shown 
in  a  matter  of  the  highest  importance  to 
Enffland— the  soliciting  &om  the  pope  the 
prohibitoiy  letters  against  the  crownmg  of 
Eustace,  the  son  of  Stephen,  by  which 
that  design  was  defeated.  This  service 
not  only  raised  Becket  in  tlie  esteem  of 
the  archbishop,  but  in  that  of  king  Heniy 
II,  and  was  the  foundation  of  his  high 
fortune.  In  1158,  he  was  appointed  high 
chancellor  and  preceptor  to  prince  Henry, 
and  at  this  time  was  a  complete  courtier, 
conforming,  in  everv  respect,  to  the  hu- 
mor of  the  king,  fie  was,  in  fiict,  his 
prime  companion,  had  the  some  hours 
of  eating  and  goinff  to  bed,  held  splendid 
levees,  and  courted  popular  applause.  In 
1159,  he  made  a  campaigii  with  tlie  king 
in  Toulouse,  having  ui  his  own  pay  700 
knifhts  and  1200  horsemen;  and  it  is 
said  he  advised  Heiuy  to  seize  tlie  person 
of  Louis,  king  of  France,  sliut  up  in 
Toulouse  witliout  an  army.  This  coun- 
sel, however,  so  indicative  of  the  future 
martyr,  being  too  bold  for  the  lay  coun- 
sellors of  one  of  the  boldest  monarchs  of 
the  age,  was  decluied.  In  the  next  year, 
he  visited  Paris,  to  treat  of  an  alliance  be- 
tween the  eldest  daughter  of  the  kuig  of 
France  and  prince  Henry,  and  returned 
with  the  young  princess  to  England.  He 
had  not  enjoy^  the  chancellorship  more 
than  four  years,  when  his  patron  Theo- 
bald died,  and  king  Henry  was  so  &r  mis- 
taken as  to  raise  his  favorite  to  die  pri- 
macy, on  the  presumption  that  he  would 
md  him  in  those  poUtical  views,  in  respect 
to  church  power,  which  all  the  sovereigns 
of  the  Norman  line  embraced,  and  which, 
in  fact,  caused  a  continual  struggle,  until 
its  teiiuination  by  Henrv  VIIL  It  has 
been  asserted,  that  B.  told  the  king  what 
he  was  to  expect  from  liim ;  but,  inde- 
pendent of  the  appointment  itself,  there 
IS  evidence  to  prove  his  eagerness  to  ob- 
tain tlie  dignity,  and  the  disgust  entertain- 
ed by  Henry  at  the  first  symptoms  of  tlie 
real  temper  of  the  man  whom  he  had  been 
so  anxious  to  promote.  B.  was  consecra- 
ted archbiflhop  in  11G2,  and  immediately 
affected  an  austerity  of  character  which 
formed  a  very  natural  prelude  to  the  part 
which  he  meant  to  play.  Pope  Alexan- 
der III  held  a  general  council  at  Tours, 
in  1163,  at  which  B.  attended,  and  made 
a  formal  complamt  of  the  infringements 

by  the  laity  on  die  ri^ifats  and  inmumitiefl 
of  the  church.  On  his  return  to  En^and, 
he  be^  to  act  in  the  spirit  of  this  repre- 
sentation, and  to  prosecute  several  of^the 
nobihty  and  others,  holding  church  pos- 
sessions, whom  he  also  proceeded  to  ex- 
communicato Henry,  an  able  and  polidc 
monarch,  was  anxious  to  recall  certain 
privileges  of  the  clergy,  which  withdrew 
diem  mm  the  jurisdiction  of  the  civil 
courts ;  and  it  was  not  without  a  violent 
strug^e,  and  the  mediation  of  the  pope, 
that  B.  finally  acquiesced.  The  kmg 
soon  afler  summoned  a  convocation  or 
parliament  at  Clarendon,  to  the  celebrated 
constitution  of  which,  although  the  arch- 
bishop swore  that  he  would  never  assent, 
he  at  lengtii  subscribed  it,  and,  alleging 
something  like  force  for  his  excuse,  by 
way  of  penance,  suspended  himself  from 
his   arcniepiscopal   functions   until   the 

Eope's  absolution  could  arrive.  Finding 
imself  the  object  of  the  king's  displeas- 
ure, he  soon  after  attempted  to  escqie  to 
France ;  but,  being  intercepted,  Henry,  in  a 
parliament  at  Northampton,  charged  him 
with  a  violation  of  his  allegiance,  and  all 
his  goods  were  confiscated.  A  suit  was  al- 
so coimnenced  against  him  for  money  lent 
him  diuring  his  chancellorship,  and  for  the 

Eroceeds  of  the  benefices  which  he  had 
eld  vacant  while  in  that  capacity.  In 
this  desperate  situation,  he,  vvith  great 
difiBculty  and  danger,  made  his  escape  to 
Flanders,  and,  proceeding  to  the  pope  at 
Sens,  humbly  resigned  his  archbishopric, 
which  was,  however,  restored.  He  then 
took  up  his  abode  at  the  abbey  of  Pon- 
tigny,  in  Normandy,  whence  he  issued  ex- 
postulatory  letters  to  the  king  and  bishops 
of  England,  in  which  he  excommunicated 
all  violators  of  the  prerogatives  of  the 
church,  and  included  in  the  censure  the 
principal  officers  of  the  crown.  Henir 
was  so  exasperated,  that  he  banished  all 
his  relations,  and  obliged  the  Cistercians 
to  send  him  avva^  from  the  abbey  of  Pon- 
tigny;  from  which  he  removed,  oh  the 
recommendation  of  the  king  of  France, 
to  the  abbey  of  Columbe,  and  spent  four 
yean  there  in  exile.  After  much  nego- 
tiation, &sort  of  reconciliation  took  place 
in  1170,  on  the  whole  to  the  advantage  of 
Becket,  who,  being  restored  to  his  see, 
with  all  its  fonner  privileges,  behaved,  on 
the  occasion,  with  excessive  haughtinessL 
Afler  a  triumphant  entry  into  Canterbury, 
the  younff  king  Henry,  crowned  duiinc 
the  life-time  of  his  fitther,  transmitted 
lihn  an  order  to  restore  the  suspended  and 
excommunicated  prelates,  which  he  re* 
fused  to  do,  on  the  pretence  that  the  pope 

Digitized  by 




plone  could  miit  the  &var,  althou^  the 
kOer  had  lodged  the  instniiiMiiti  of  oen- 
flure  in  hk  handiB.  The  prelttteB  immedi- 
ately appealed  to  Heniy  in  Normandy, 
iiiio,  in  a  state  of  extreme  exasperation, 
exclaimed,  <*  What  an  unhappy  prince  am 
I,  who  have  not  about  me  one  man  of 
spirit  enou^  to  rid  me  of  a  single  inso- 
lent prelate,  the  perpetual  trouble  of  my 
hfer  These  mAk  and  too  significant 
words  induced  four  attendant  barons, 
Reginald  Fitz-Urae,  William  de  Tracy, 
Hugh  de  Morville  and  Richard  Breto,  to 
resolve  to  wipe  out  the  king's  reproach. 
Having  laid  their  plans,  they  forthwith 
proceeded  to  Canterbury,  and,  having 
ibrmaliy  required  the  archbishop  to  re- 
store the  suspended  prelates,  thev  return- 
ed in  the  evening  of  the  same  day  (Dec. 
29,  1170),  and,  placin|^  soldiers  in  the 
court-yard,  ru^ed,  with  their  swords 
drawn,  into  the  cathedral,  where  the 
archbishop  was  at  vespers,  and,  advan- 
cing towards  him,  threatened  lum  with 
death  if  he  still  disobeyed  the  orders  of 
Heniy.  B.,  without  the  least  token  of 
fear,  replied,  that  he  was  readv  to  die  for 
the  rights  of  the  church ;  and  magnani- 
mously added,  ^  1  charge  you,  in  the  name 
of  the  Almij^ty,  not  to  hurt  any  other 
person  here,  for  none  of  them  have  been 
concetned  in  die  late  transactions."  The 
confederates  then  8tit>ve  to  drag  him  out 
of  die  church ;  but,  not  beine  able  to  do 
so,  on  account  of  his  resolute  deportment, 
they  killed  him  On  the  spot  with  repeated 
wounds,  all  which  he  endured  witnout  a 
groan. — ^The  conduct  of  Heniy,  and  the 
consequences  of  this  assassination,  form  b 
part  of  Endish  history  wherein  the  dis- 
cerning student  will  perceive  the  subtle 
policy  of  the  court  of  Rome,  which  eager- 
ly availed  itself  of  this  opportunity  to  ad- 
vance its  general  object,  with  a  due 
regard  to  the  power  of  Henry  and  his 
strength  of  character.  The  perpetrators 
of  the  deedf  on  taking  a  voyaie  to  Rome, 
were  admitted  to  penance,  and  allowed  to 
expiate  their  enormity  m  the  Holy  Land — 
Thus  perished  Thomas  BeckeC,  in  his 
59d  year,  a  martyr  to  the  cause  which  he 
espoused,  and  a  man  of  unquestionable 
vigor  of  intellect.  He  was  canonized 
two  years  after  his  death,  and  miracles 
^abounded  at  his  tomb.  In  the  reign  of 
Henry  HI,  his  bodv  was  taken  up,  and 
placed  in  a  magniaeent  shrine,  erected 
%y  archbiBhop  Stephen  Langton ;  and  of 
fb»  popularity  of  the  fnlgriniaces  to  his 
tomb,  the  Caoterbuiy  Tales  of  Chaucer 
will  prove  an  enduring  testimony. 
BBcxMAinr,  John,  tor  almost  45  yean 

professor  of  philoBophy,  econoniy,  policy, 
finance  and  commerce  in  G6ttingen,  was 
bQmatHoyauil799.  In  1763,  he  was  ap- 
pointed, on  Bto^hing's  recommendation, 
professor  of  the  Lutheran  gymnasium  in 
Sl  Petersburg.  In  1766,  he  became  pro- 
fessor in  G^ttingen,  where  he  lectured 
with  great  success.  B.  died  in  1811,  be- 
ing a  member  of  most  of  the  learned  so- 
cieties of  the  north  of  Emrope.  There 
are  a  number  of  text-books,  in  the  differ- 
ent sciences  above-mentioned,  by  him. 
Amon^  his  other  works  is  a  Historv  of 
Inventions,  Leipeic,  1780—1805, 5  vols. 

Bed,  in  fuimery;  the  fiame  of  tim- 
ber or  planks  in  which  cannon,  mortars, 
&c  are  placed,  to  give  them  a  steady  and 
even  position,  neoessaiy  for  aiming. 
Bin  OP  JusTiCB.  (See  LU  de  JiisUct.) 
Beoe,  or  Beda,  an  eminent  ecclesiastic 
of  the  eighdi  century,  usuallv  called  the 
ventrahU  Bede^  was  liom  in  the  year  672 
or  673,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Wear- 
mouth,  in  the  bishopric  of  Durham. 
From  the  a^  of  7  to  that  of  19,  he  pursued 
his  studies  m  the  monastery  of  St  Peter, 
at  Wearmouth.  Being  then  ordainea 
deacon,  he  was  employed  in  the  task  of 
educating  the  youth  who  resorted  to  the 
monastery  fer  instruction,  and  pursued 
his  own  studies  With  unremitting  ardor. 
In  his  thirtieth  year,  he  was  ordained 
finest ;  and,  his  fame  for  zeal  and  erudi- 
tion reaching  the  eara  of  pope  Sergius,  he 
was  invited  to  Rome,  bu^  in  consequence 
of  the  death  of  that  pontiff^  never  went 
there.  It  is  not  even  certain  that  he  ever 
lefl  Northumberiand,  which,  of  course, 
reduces  the  incidents  of  his  life  to  his  lit- 
erary pnreuits  and  domestic  occupations, 
as  he  accepted  no  benefice,  and  never 
seems  to  have  interfered  in  civil  transac- 
tions. His  church  history  was  published 
in  731.  His  last  literary  labor  was  a  trans- 
lation of  the  Gospel  of  St  John  into  Sax- 
on, which  he  completed,  with  difiicultv, 
on  the  very  day  and  hour  of  his  death. 
The  writings  of  Bede  were  numerous 
and  important,  considering  the  time  in 
which  the^  were  written,  and  the  sub- 
jects of  which  they  treat,  which  extended 
to  ecclesiastical  afrairs,  religion  and  edu- 
cation only.  His  English  Ecclesiastical 
History  is  the  greatest  and  most  popular 
of  his  works,  and  has  acquired  additional 
celebrity  by  the  translation  of  king  Alfred, 
The  collections  which  he  made  for  it 
were  the  hdbor  of  many  years.  Besides 
his  own  personal  investigations,  he  kept 
up  a  correqiondence  witii  the  monaste* 
ries  throughout  the  Heptarchy,  to  obtain 
archives  uid  records  fer  his  puqiose ;  and 

Digitized  by 




thus  nearly  all  the  knowledge  possessed 
of  the  early  state  of  Christianity  in  bis 
country  is  due  to  B..  There  have  been 
several  editions  of  the  oridnail  Latin, 
which  is  easy,  although  not  elegant.  The 
latest  and  best  is  that  of  Dr.  Smith,  Cam- 
bridge, 1722.  There  is  a  translation  into 
English  by  Thomas  Stapylton,  D.  D.,  Ant- 
werp, 1505,  l)esides  the  Saxon  version  of 
Alfred.  B.  ^vas  also  the  author  of  many 
other  works,  a  catalogue  of  which  he  sub- 
joined to  his  history.  Several  of  these 
were  jirinted  early ;  but  the  first  general 
collection  of  his  works  was  that  of  Paris, 
1554,  3  vols.  fol.  Some  of  his  treatises 
have  been  i)ublished  by  Mr.  Wharton, 
fi*oni  MSS.  in  the  library  at  Lambeth  pal- 
ace, London,  4to,  1693.  Wlule  the  num- 
ber and  variety  of  the  writings  of  B.  show 
the  extent  of  his  erudition,  his  probity, 
moderation  and  modesty  insured  him 
general  respect ;  and  his  disinterestedness 
is  proved  by  the  fact,  that  he  was  never 
any  thing  but  an  unbeneficed  priest  A 
letter  of  advice,  which  he  wrote,  late  in 
life,  to  Egbert,  archbishop  of  York,  proves, 
at  once,  the  purity  of  his  morals,  tnc  lib- 
erality of  his  sentiments,  and  the  excel- 
lence of  his  discernment ;  his  wish  being 
to  curtail  the  number  of  monasteries,'  and 
to  increase  the  efficacy  and  .respectability 
of  the  secular  clergy.  Notwithstanding 
the  veneration  with  which  he  was  regard- 
ed, not  a  single  niii^ocle  is  recorded  of 
him ;  and,  as  monks  were  tlie  great  mira- 
cle mongers,  and  his  views  of  monastic 
reform  such  as  we  have  mentioned,  this 
is  not  surprising.  The  manner  -of  the 
death  of  this  virtuous  ecclesiastic  was 
striking  and  characteristic.  He  was  dic- 
tating a  translation  of  tlie  gospel  of  St 
John  to  an  amanuensis.  The  young  man 
who  wrote  for  him  said,  "  There  is  now, 
master,  but  one  sentence  wanting ;"  upon 
which  he  bade  him  write  quickly ;  and, 
when  the  scribe  said,  **  h  is  now  done," 
the  dying  sage  ejaculated,  '*It  is  now 
done,"  and  a  few  minutes  afterwards  ex- 
pired, in  tlie  act  of  prayer,  on  the  floor  of 
his  cell,  in  the  63d  year  of  bis  age,  in  the 
month  of  May,  A.  D.  735. 

Beddoes,  Thomas;  a  physician  and 
author ;  born,  1760,  at  Shinhal  in  Shrop- 
sliire ;  died  1808.  He  was  educated  by 
his  grandfather.  He  made  ereat  progress 
at  school,  in  classical  studies,  and  dis- 
tinguished himself  at  Oxfbid  by  his 
knowledge  of  ancient  and  modem  lan- 
guages and  literature.  The  great  discov- 
eries in  physics,  chemistry  and  physiology, 
irresistibly  attracted  him.  He  contuiued 
his  studies  with  success  in  London  and 

Edinbui^h.  In'  his  26tb  year,  he  took 
his  doctor's  degree,  afterwards  visited 
Paris,  and  formed  an  acquaintance  with 
Lavoiaer.  On  his  return,  he  was  appoint- 
ed professor  of  chemistry  at  Oxford. 
There  he  pubtished  some  excellent  chem- 
ical treatises,  and  Observations  on  the 
Calculus,  Sea-Scurvy,  Consumption,  Ca- 
tarrh and  Fever.  But,  dazzled  by  the 
splehdid  promises  of  the  French  revolu- 
tion, he  offended  sonde  of  his  former  ad- 
mirers, and  excited  such  a  clamor  against 
him  by  the  pubhcation  of  his  political 
opuiions,  that  he  determined  to  resign  his. 
professorship,  and  retired  to  the  house  of 
his  friend  Mr.  Reynolds^  in  Shropshire. 
There  he  composed  his  observations  on 
the  nature  of  demonstrative  evidence,  in 
which  he  endeavors  to  prove,  that  mathe- 
matical reasoning  proceeds  on  the  evi- 
dence of  the  senses,  and  that  geometry  is 
founded  on  experiment.  He  also  pub- 
Ushed  the  History  of  Isaac  Jenkins,  wnich 
was  intended  to  impress  useful  moral 
lessons  on  the  labormg  classes  in  an  at- 
tractive manner.  Above  40,000  copies  of 
this  popular  work  were  sold  in  a  short 
time.  After  he'  had  married,  in  1794,  he 
formed  the  plan  of  a  pneumatic  institu- 
tion, for  Cluing  diseases,  particularly  con- 
sumption, by  means  of  factitious  airs  or 
gases.  He  succeeded,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  celebrated  Wedgewood,  in  opening 
this  institution,  in  17S6.  He  engaged,  as 
superintendent  of  the  whole,  a  young  man, 
Humphrey  Davy,  tlie  foundation  of  whose 
fiiture  fkme  was  laid  here.  The  chief 
purpose  of  the  institution,  however,  was 
never  realized,  and  B.'s  zeal  gradually  re- 
laxed, e(o  that  hp  relinquished  it  one  year 
before  his  death,  after  having  published  a 
number  of  valuable  works  upon  the  ap- 
pUcation  of  factitious  airs.  In  the  last 
yeai's  of  his  hfe,  he  acquired  the  reputa- 
tion of  the  best  medical  writer  in  Great 
Britain,  particularly  bv  his  Hvgew,  in  3 
vols.,  a  popular  work,  which  contains 
passages  of  extraordinary  eloquence. 
His  political  pamphlets,  mm  1795—87, 
are  forgotten. 

Bedford,  John,  duke  of;  one  of  the 
younger  sons  of  Henry  IV,  king  of  Eng- 
land ;  famous  as  a  statesman  and  a  war- 
rior. Shakspeare,  who  calls  him  jnrmce 
John  qf  Lancaster,  introduces  him,  m  his 
plays  of  Henry  IV,  as  distingiiishing  him- 
self by  his  youthfbl  courage  in  the  battle 
of  Shrevesburv,  in  1403,  and  fonmng  a 
kind  of  moral  contrast  to  his  more  dissi- 
peted  brother,  the  prince  of  Wales.  Du- 
ring the  reign  of  Henry  V,  he  participated 
in  me  fiune  acquired  by  the  conquest  of 

Digitized  by 




France ;  but  his  talents  were  fully  dis- 
played when,  after  the  death  of  that  king, 
he  became  regent  of  France,  having  been 
appointed  to  this  ])ost  by  Hernr,  in  his 
will.  At  Vemeuil,  in  lixi,  he  cUsplayed 
h^  military  talents ;  and  the  difSiculties, 
^^ich,  £rom  various  causes,  he  experi- 
enced in  endeavoring  to  maintun  pos- 
sesraon  of  the  conquered  provinces  in 
France,  afforded  frequent  occasion  for 
the  manifestation  of  his  ability.  The 
greatest  blemish  in  his  character  is  his 
cruel  execution  of  the  nuud  of  Orleans, 
in  1431.  He  survived  this  event  about 
ibur  years,  and  dying,  in  1435,  at  Rouen, 
was  buried  in  the  cathedral  of  that  city. 
The  duke  deserves  notice  also  for  his 
patronase  of  the  arts.  A  curious  monu- 
ment of^his  taste  still  exists— the  Bedford 
Missal.  Mr.  Dibdin,  in  his  BibKomamcif 
p.  253,  gives  an  account  of  it.  It  was 
made  for  the  duke  and  duchess,  and  con* 
tains  59  large,  and  more  than  lOOO  smedl 
miniature  pdntings.  In  1786.  it  was 
purchased,  by  Mr.  Edwards,  for  215  guin- 
eas, from  the  collection  of  the  duchess 
of  Portland ;  and,  a  few  yean  after,  500 
guineas  were  offered  for  it  In  a  histOTi- 
cal  point  of  view,  it  is  interestuig  on  ac- 
count of  several  portraits  of  eminent  per- 
sons ;  some  of  which  have  been  engraved 
by  Vertue,  for  his  portraits  to  illustrate 
the  history  of  {England.  For  the  anti- 
quarian and  the  student  of  the  fine  arts, 
it  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  monu- 
ments of  that  age.  Gougfa,  the  antiqua- 
rian, published  a  woik  in  8vo.,  describing 
the  Bedford  Missal. 

Bedford;  a  town  in  England,  and 
capital  of  the  county  of  Bedfbid,  to  which 
it  gives  name,  situated  on  the  Ouse ;  22 ' 
mfles  S.  E.  of  Northampton,  50  N.  of 
London ;  Ion.  0°.27'  W. ;  lat.  52°  S'  N. ; 
pop.  4605.  It  contains  5  churches,  3  on 
the  north  and  2  on  the  south  side  of  the 
river,  3  independent  meeting-houses,  and 
a  free  grammar  school  liberally  endowed. 
The  principal  manufacture  is  lace.  It  is 
a  place  of^  considerable  trade,  which  is 
much  assisted  by  the  river,  navigable  to 
Lynn,  and  is  the  (mly  maiket<town  of 
the  county,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Ouse. 
The  soil  about  it  is  fertile,  particularly  in 
excellent  wheat.  It  sends  two  repre- 
sentatives to  pariiament  It  has  two 
markets  weekly. 

Bedford;  a  borough  town,  and  capi- 
tal of  Bedford  county,  Pennsylvania ;  91 
miles  E.  hj  S.  of  Pittsburo,  190  W.  of 
Philadelphia:  population  oftlie  borough, 
789 ;  including  the  township,  211C,  It  is 
finely  situated  on  a  branch  of  the  Juni- 

atta,  regularlv  laid  out,  and  built  on  an  em  > 
inence  enveloped  by  mountains.  Wiirs 
mountain,  on  the  west  side  of  the  town, 
is  1300  feet  high,  and  Dunnihg's  moun- 
tain, on  the  east  side,  is  1100  feet  high. 
A  mile  and  a  half  south  of  the  town, 
there  are  mineral  springs,  which  were 
diKovered  in  1804,  and  are  much  resort- 
ed to,  and  found  useful  in  cutaneous 
complaints,  ulcers,  riiernnatisms,  chronic 
complaints,  &c.^— There  are  several  other 
towns  and  counties  of  the  same  name  ui 
the  U.  States :  as,  B.  in  the  state  of  New 
Yoric,  Westchester  county,  population 
nearly  2500 ;  B.  county  m  me  south  of 
VirKinia ;  and  another  in  West  Tennessee. 

Bedford  Levei.  ;  a  large  tract  of  land 
in  England,  in  the  counties  of  Cambridge, 
Norfi>lK,  Suffolk,  Huntingdon,  Northamp- 
ton and  Lincoln,  formerly  full  of  fens  and 
marshes,  and,  in  rainy  seasons,  for  the 
most  part  under  water;  but  drained,  at 
the  expense  of  £400,000,  by  the  noble 
femily  of  Russell,  earls  and  didi:es  of 
Bedford,  and  othera ;  bv  which  means 
100,000  acres  of  good  land  have,  been 
brought  into  use. 

Bedford;  New  ;  a  seaport  in  Massa- 
chusetts.   (See  AVw  Bedford,) 

Bedouins,  or  Bedoweens  (that  is,  tn- 
habitants  of  the  desert) ;  k ^numerous  Mo- 
hammede^  race,  which  d\vells  in  the 
deserts  of  Arabia,  Egypt  and  Nortliem 
Africa.  It  is  still  doubtml  whether  they 
belong  to  the  same  race  with  the  Arabs, 
or  differ  from  them  in  their  descent,  as 
they  do  in  their  manner  of  living.  The 
Bedouins  live  at  a  djstance  from  cities 
and  villages,  in  femilies,  under  sheiks^  or 
in  tribes,  under  emirs.  Their  dwellings 
are  tents,  huts,  caverns  and  ruins.  With 
their  henls  and  beasts  of  burden,  whioii 
cany  their  littie  properly,  they  wander  in 
quest  of  fresh  water  and  pasture.  They 
are  all  good  horsemen,  and  are  generally 
fond  of  hunting.  Th^  peacetul  tribes 
exchange  horses  (which  they  raise  with 
great  care)  and  fat  cattle,  fer  arms  and 
cloth,  witn  the  neighboring  nations. 
Other  hordes  are  such  open  robbers,  that 
it  is  dangerous  to  travel  through  their 
country  without  a  guard  or  a  passport, 
wliich  the  different  chiefe  sell.  They  not 
only  plunder  but  murder,  even  when  tiie 
travellers  offer  no  resistance.  Notwith- 
standing this  bad^arous  custom,  the  Bed- 
ouins hold  the  rights  of  hospitality  sa- 
cred ;  and  the  most  defenceless  enemy  is 
sure  of  their  protection,  if  they  have  once 
allowed  him  sheker.  But  the  Bedouin 
considers  every  one  his  enemy  who  Is 
not  his  brotlier,  kinsman  or  ally.   Always 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



careful  of  his  own  safety,  he  attacks  no 
caravan  or  camp  without  being  sure  of 
liis  superiority.  To  superior  numbers,  and 
a  bold  resistance,  he  yields,  and  saves 
himself  by  a  speedy  flight  A  terror  to 
the  neigliboring  nations,  tlie  rapacuous 
Bedouin  lives  in  a  state  of  contmual 
watchfubiess;  poor,  ignorant,  wild  and 
rude,  but  free,  and  proud  of  his  liberty. 
This  people  is  remariiable  for  lempei-ance 
in  regai'U  to  food,  amounting  almost  to 

Bee  (apis  meUificOy  L.) ;  a  species  of 
hynicnopterous  insect,  belonging  to  the 
family  apiaria, — The  honey-bee  is  uni- 
versally celebrated  for  its  singular  instincts, 
and  highly  prized  for  tlie  valuable  prod- 
ucts of  its  industry.  A  vast  number  of 
intpresting  facts  have  consequently  been 
rullected  in  relation  to  the  economy  of 
the  specie^  for  the  detail  of  whose  history 
a  vohime  of  considerable  size  would  he 
required.  We  shall  therefore  be  able  to 
present  nothing  more  than  a  sketch  of 
tlie  most  striking  generalities^  obtained 
from  the  admirable  works  of  Huber,  Cu- 
vier,  &;c.,  and  to  these  autlientic  sources 
must  refer  the  reader  desirous  of  more 
ample  information. — ^Three  sorts  of  indi- 
viduals are  found  to  form  a  community 
of  honey-bees ;  the  female,  motlicr,  or,  as 
slie  is  commonly  called,  queen ;  the  males, 
or  drones ;  and  the  working  bees,  improp- 
erly termed  neuters,  as  tliey  are  actually 
frmales,  tliough,  in  a  peculiar  respect, 
imperfect.  A  hive  commonly  consists 
of  one  mother,  or  queen,  from  6  to  800 
males,  and  fi-oin  15  to  20,000  working 
l)ees.  The  last  mentioned  are  the  small- 
est, have  12  joints  to  their  anienna,  and 
6  abdominal  rings :  the  first  joint  or 
square  portion  oi  the  posterior  tarsi  is 
enlarged  at  the  posterior  angle  of  its  base, 
and  shaped  Uke  a  pointed  auricle,  having 
its  internal  surface  covered  witli  a  fine, 
short,  close,  silky  down.  They  are  pro- 
vided with  stings.  The  mandibles  are 
spoon-shaped,  and  not  dentated.  There  is, 
on  the  outside  of  the  hind  lep,  a  smooth 
hollow,  edffed  with  hairs,  called  the  6cm- 
ket :  die  siUty  brush  of  the  first  joint  of 
the  posterior  tarsi  has  7  or  8  transverse 
stricB.  The  mother,  or  queen,  has  the 
same  characteristics,  but  is  of  larger  size, 
especially  in  the  abdomen:  she  has  a 
shorter  sucker  or  trunk,  and  the  mandi- 
bles grooved  and  velvet-like  ^eath  the 
tip.  The  males,  or  drones,  tlifiTer  from 
both  the  preceding  by  having  13  joints  to 
the  antennas ;  a  rounded  bead,  with  larger 
eyes,  elongated  and  united  at  the  summit ; 
smaller  and  more  velvety  mandibles,  and 

shorter  anterior  feet,  the  two  firet  of 
which  are  arched.  They  have  no  auric- 
ular dilatation  nor  silky  brush  on  the 
square  part  of  the  posterior  tarsi,  and  are 
destitute  of  stings.  The  genitals  consist 
of  two  bom<4haped  bodies  of  a  reddiab- 
yellow  color,  with  a  broad-ended  peni& — 
When  we  examine  the  internal  structure 
of  this  insect,  we  find  at  the  superior  base 
of  the  trunk  or  sucker,  below  the  Idbrumy 
a  considerable  aperture,  shut  by  a  small, 
triangular  piece,  which  has  been  callc,d 
tongue,  epipharynx,  &c.  Tins  opening 
receives  the  food,  which  is  thence  con- 
veyed by  a  delicate  jxsophagus,  through 
tlie  corselet,  to  the  anterior  stomach, 
which  contains  the  honey;  tlie  second 
stomach  receives  the  pollen  of  fioweisy 
and  has,  on  its  internal  surface,  a  number 
of  transvei-se  apd  annular  wrinkles.  The 
abdominal  cavity  of  the  oueen  and  work- 
ing bees  also  contains  the  little  bag  of 
poison  communicating  with  the  sting.  In 
the  queen,  there  are,  moreover,  two  large 
ovaries,  consisting  of  a  great  number  of 
small  cavities,  each  containing  16  or  17 
eggs.  These  ovaries  open  near  the  anus, 
previous  to  which  they  dilate  into  pouch- 
es, where  the  egf^  is  delayed  to  receive  a 
viscous  coating  fix>m  an  adjacent  gland. 
The  inferior  half^cii-cles,  except  the  first 
and  last,  on  the  abdomens  of  working 
bees,  have  each  on  their  inner  surface 
two  cavities,  where  the  wax  is  formed  in 
layers,  and  comes  out  firom  between  the 
abdominal  ripgs.  Below  these  cavities 
is  a  particular  membrane,  fi)nned  of  a 
very  small,  hexagonall^-meshed  network, 
which  is  connected  whh  the  membrane 
lininff  the  walls  of -the  abdominal  cavity. 
— ^Wax,  of  which  the  combs  are  formed, 
is  elaborated  fxoia  honey.  The  pollen 
collected  from  flowers,  mixed  with  a 
small  quantity  of  wax,  constitutes  tlie 
food  of^  bees  and  tlieir  larves ;  and  this 
food  appears  to  be  modified  in  its  com« 
position,  according  to  the  sort  of  indi- 
viduals it  is  intended  for.  Another  sub- 
stance collected  by  bees  firom  the  opening 
buds  of  poplar  and  other  trees,  and  used 
by  them  for  lining  tlieir  hives,  stopping 
holes,  &C.,  is  cdled  propolis, — Besides 
the  distinctions  remarked  in  the  female, 
male  and  working  bees,  Huber  regards 
the  working  bees  as  of  two  sorts ;  one 
devoted  to  the  collection  of  provisions, 
and  all  the  materials  necessaiy  to  the 
comb,  as  well  as  to  its  construction ;  these 
he  cidls  driirts.  The  others  are  more 
delicate,  small  and  feeble,  and  employed 
exclusively  within  tlie  hive,  in  feecung 
and  taking  care  of  the  young<— The  re- 

Digitized  by 




semblance  existing  between  the  woiking 
and  female  bees  firet  led  to  the  idea  that 
they  were  of  the  same  sex,  and  the  in- 
genious experiments  and  accurate  obser- 
Tations  olf  Huber  enabled  hiin  to  estab- 
lish this  fact  in  the  most  satisfactory 
manner.  Having  deprived  a  hive  of  the 
raotlier  or  queen,  he  found  that  the  work- 
lug  bees  immediately  begaiv  to  prepare  a 
larve  of  their  own  class  to  occupy  tliis 
important  station.  This  was  effected  by 
enJarginff  the  cell  to  tlie  dimensions  of  a 
niatemal  or  royal  chamber,  and  feeding 
the  selected  individual  on  food  exclu- 
sively destined  for  the  nourishment  of 
tlie  royal  larves.  If  merely  fed  upon  tliis 
food,  without  an  accompanyinff  enlarge- 
ment of  the  cell,  the  maternal  faculties 
were  but  imperfectly  acquired,  as  the 
female  did  not  attain  the  proper  size,  and 
was  incapable  of  laying  any^eggs  but 
those  which  produced  males.— The  cells 
of  the  comb  compose  two  opposite  ranges 
of  horizontal  hexagons,  with  pyramidal 
l)ases :  each  hiyer  of  the  comb  is  perpen- 
dicular, and  attached  by  the  summit,  and 
separated  from  the  rest  by  a  space  suffi- 
cient for  the  bees  to  pass  in  and  out. 
The  comb  is  always  built  from  above 
downward.  The  cells,  witli  tlie  excep- 
tion of  those  for  the  female  larve  and 
nymph,  are  nearly  of  equal  size,  some 
containing  the  urogeny,  and  others  the 
honey  and  pollen  of  flowers.  Some 
honey  cells  are  left  open,  others  are 
closed  for  future  use  by  a  flat  or  sligfitly 
convex  covering  of  wax.  TJie  matenial 
or  regal  cells  vary  from  2  to  40  hi  num- 
ber, are  greatly  superior  in  size,  nearly 
cylindrical,  and  soipe\vhat  larger  at  the 
extremity.  They  have  small  cavities  on 
the  outside,  and  commonly  depend  from 
the  comb  like  stalactites,  so  that  the  lai-ve 
has  its  head  downwards. — ^Tbe  season  of 
fecundation  occurs  about  tlie  begiiming 
of  summer,  and  the  meeting  between  the 
females  and  males  takes  place  higli  m 
the  air,  whence  the  female  returns  with 
the  sexual  parts  of  the  male  attached  to 
the  extremity  of  the  abdomen.  This  one 
fecundation  is  tiiou^t  to  be  sumcient  to 
vivify  the  eggs  which  the  motfier  may 
lay  in  the  course  of  two  years.  The  lay- 
ing begins  immediately  afterwards,  and 
continues  until  autunm,  Reaumur  states 
that  the  female,  in  the  spring,  lays  as 
many  as  12,000  eggs  m  the  lapse  of  24 
days.  Each  sort  of  egg  is  deposited  in 
the  appropriate  cell,  unless  a  sufficient 
number  of^  cells  have  not  been  prepared : 
in  this  case,  she  places  several  eggs  in 
one,  and  leaves  to  the  woriring  bees  the 

task  of  subsequently  arranging  them. 
The  eggs  laid  at  the  commencement  of 
fine  weather  all  belong  to  the  working 
sort,  and  hatch  at  the  eiul  of  4  days.  The 
larves  are  regularly  fed  by  the  workers 
for  6  or  7  days,  when  they  are  enclosed 
i^i  their  cell,  spm  a  cocoon,  and  become 
nymphs,  and  in  about  12  days  acquire 
their  perfect  state.  The  cells  are  then 
immediately  fitted  up  for  the  reception 
of  new  eggs.  The  eggs  for  producing 
males  are  laid  two  months  later,  and 
those  for  the  females  immediately  after- 
wards. This  succession  of  generations 
forms  so  many  particular  communities, 
which,  when  increased  beyond  a  certain 
degree,  leave  the  parent  hive  to  found  a 
new  colony  elsewhere.  Three  or  four 
swarms  sometimes  leave  a  hive  in  a  sea- 
son. A  good  swarm  is  said  to  weigh  at 
least  six  or  eight  pounds.  The  life  of  the 
bee,  like  that  of  all  tlie  other  insects  of 
its  class,  does  not  continue  long  after  the 
great  business  of  providing  for  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  species  is  completed. — 
The  history  of  tlie  bee,  as  already  stated, 
is  too  extensive  to  aUow  us .  to  attempt 
more  than  this  brief  sketch.  But  to  such 
as  have  leisure,  and  are  desirous  of  in- 
structive amusement,  we  know  of  no 
study  which  promises  a  greater  decree 
of  satisfaction ;  and  there  is  no  book  oet- 
ter  adapted  for  this  purpose,  than  the 
excellent  treatise  of  Huber,  which  may 
almost  be  regarded  as  the  n«  jdua  vUra  of 
its.  kind.  A  beautiful  httle  poem,  called 
The  BeeSy  written  by  the  Florentine  Gi- 
ovanni Ruccllai,  appeared  in  1539. 

Beech.  The  beech  (fagus  aylvatica)^ 
one  of  our  handsomest  forest-trees,  is 
known  by  its  waved  and  somewhat  oval 
leaves,  and  its  triangular  fiiiit,  consisting 
of  three  cells,  and  enclosed,  by  pairs,  in  a 
husk,  which  is  covered  vritn  simple 
prickles. — Beech  woods  are  very  com- 
mon in  almost  all  the  New  England  and 
Middle  States,  in  tlie  states  of  Maine, 
Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  &c.  They  are  very 
luxuriant  in  their  growtli.  These  woods, 
it  has  been  observed,  are  peculiarly  dry, 
and  pleasant  to  walk  in,  and,  under  tlieir 
shaik,  afford  to  the  botanist  many  inter- 
esting plants,  such  as  the  bird's  nest 
[mofnoiropa)y  winter-green  (mrola\  and 
some  rare  orehidea.  Beecn-trees  bear 
lopping  well,  and  may  be  trained  so  as  to 
forin  loflj^  hedges,  which  are  valuable  for 
shelter,  since  the  leaves,  though  faded, 
remam  through  the  winter,  and  the 
twisted  branches  mfiy  be  formed  into  a 
veiy  strong  fence.  The  wood  is  hard 
and  brittle,  and,  if  exposed  to  the  air,  ia 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


BEECH— Bras. 

fiable  Boon  to  decay.  It  is,  howefver,  pe- 
culiarly usefbl  to  cabinet-^makeiB  and 
ti2ttnerB :  caipentera'  planee,  &c.  are  made 
of  it  When  split  into  diin  layers,  it  is 
used  to  make  scabbards  for  swords. 
Chaixs,  bedsteads  and  other  furniture  are 
occasionally  formed  of  beech.  Tlie  fruit 
of  this  tree,  which  has  the  name  of  beech- 
fiuut^  and  falls  in  September,  is  Tery  pal- 
ataMB,  but,  if  eaten  b  great  quantity, 
it  occaaons  giddiness  and  headaches; 
when,  however,  it  is  dried  and  powdered, 
it  ma^  be  made  into  a  wholesome  bread. 
The  mhabitants  of  Scio,  one  of  the  Ionian 
islands,  were  once  enabled  to  endure  a 
memorable  siege  by  the  beech-mast 
which  their  island  supplied.  This  fruit 
has  occasionally  beeii  roasted,  and  used 
as  a  substitute  for  coffee.  Wlien  sub- 
jected to  pressure,  it  yields  a  sweet  and 
palatable  oil,  which  is  equal  in  quality  to 
the  best  olive-oil,  and  has  the  advantage 
of  continuing  longer  tlian  that  without 
becoming  rancid.  Beech-oil  is  manufac- 
tured in  several  parts  of  France,  and  is 
used  by  the  lower  classes  of  Silesia  in- 
stead of  butter.  The  cakes  wliicli  remain 
after  the  oil  is  extracted  are  a  wholesome 
food,  and  may  be  also  advantageously 
employed  for  the  fattening  of  swane, 
poultry  and  oxeu.  In  some. countries, 
the  leaves  of  the  beech-tree  are  collected 
in  the  autunm,  before  they  have  been 
injured  by  the  frost,  and  are  used  instead 
of  feathers,  for  beds  ;  and  mattresses 
formed  of  them  are  said  to  be  preferable 
to  those  either  of  straw  or  chan. 

Beef-'Eaters  (a  corruption  from  the 
Fi^ench  buffetiers,  firom  iuj^^^  sideboard) 
are  yeomen  of  the  guard  of  the  king  or 
Great  Britain.  They  are  stationed  by  the 
sideboard  at  ^at  royal  dinners.  There 
are  now  100  m  service  and  70  supernu- 
meraries. They  are  dressed  after  the 
fesliion  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII. 

Bekiapoor  (Bija-pur,  a  corruption  of 
V^cyorpwri^  the  city  of  victory,  tiie  orig- 
inal name  of  tlie  capital) ;  a  large  prov- 
ince of  Deccan,  between  the  Idtli  and 
18tli  degrees  of  N.  lat ;  bounded  N.  and 
E.  by  Aurungabad  and  Beder,  9*  by 
North  Canara  and  the  river  Toonibudra, 
and  W.  by  the  sea ;  about  350  miles  long, 
and  200  broad.  It  is  watered  by  tlie 
Crishna,  Toombudra,  Beemah  and  6at- 
purba;  and  is  traversed  by  tlie  Ghaut 
mountains.  The  soil  is  generally  fertile, 
and  provisions  plmitiful.  The  chief  cities 
are  Beejapoor,  JBoonah  (the  capital  of  tlie 
Malirattas),  St.  Kuttany  and  Nubely. 
Four  fifths  of  the  country  are  subject  to 
the  Mahrattas,  the  rest  to  the  Nizam. 

The  population  is esdmated  at  7,000^000$ 
one  twentieth  Mohammedans,  ^  reel 
Hindooft  The  province  is  divided  hito 
15  territorial  diviaona  In  the  soutfaem 
part  of  ConCan,  one  of  these  divisions^ 
Goa  ( Gowahi  or,  more  prop^!jly,  Goveaf\ 
the  camtal  of  the  Portuguese  settlements 
in  the  East,  is  situated.  (See  Goa.)  The 
productions  •f  B.  are.  in  general,  similar 
to  those  of  tlie  rest  or  the  Deccan.  One 
part— the  neighborhood  of  the  Beemah — 
IS  celebrated  for  its  breed  of  horses,  and 
supplies  the  best  cavalry  in  the  Mahratta 

Begapoor;  the  former  capital  of  the 
above  province.    (See  B^a-jnar,) 

Beek,  David,  a  portralt'-painter  of  con- 
siderable merit,  was  bom  in  1€21,  at  Am- 
heim,  in  Gruelderland ;  became  a  pupil  of 
Vandyck ;  resided,  for  some  time,  at  the 
court  of  Sweden,  and  died  in  1656.  It  is 
related  of  him,  that,  on  a  journey  through 
Gemiany,  he  fell  sick,  and  became,  to 
appearoitce,  dead ;  when  one  of  his  ser- 
vants pouring  a  glass  of  wine  into  his 
throat,  to  amuse  his  companions,  B. 
opened  his  eyes,  and,  after  a  while,  re- 
covered his  health. 

Beelzebub  fin  Hebrew,  (he  god  of 
flies) ;  an  idol  or  the  Moabltes  or  Syrians. 
This  tenn  is  applied,  in  the  Scriptures,  to 
the  chief  of  the  evil  spirits.  We  must 
remember  what  a  terrible  torment  insects 
often  are  in  the  East,  in  order  to  conceive 
how  this  name  came  to  be  given  to  one 
of  the  sreatest  of  the  imaginary,  spirits  of 
evil.  We  find  that  ahnost  all  nations, 
who  believe  in  evil  spirits,  represent  the^ 
as  the  rulers  of  disgustuig,  tormenting  or 
poisonous  animals — ^flies,  rats,  mice,  rep- 
tiles, &c.  The  Greeks  worshipped  sev- 
eral of  their  chief  deities  under  tne  char- 
acter of  protectors  against  these  animals ; 
for  instance,  Apollo  Z/ifydev^,  the  destroyer 
of  rats.  Every  one  knows,  that  Christ 
was  charged  by  the  Jews  with  driving 
out  demons  by  the  power  of  Beelzebub. 
(MaU,  xii.  24.) 

Beer.  (See  Me  and  Brewing.)  We 
have  evidence  of  the  use  of  this  hquor  for 
more  than  2000  years.  The  Grecian  poet 
and  satirist  Arehiiochus,  who  lived  about 
700  B.  C,  and  the  Grecian  tragedians 
iEschylus  and  Sophocles,  who  Uved  more 
than  4p0  B.  C,  call  it  wvne  qf  barky,  Dio« 
dorus  of  Sicily,  who  lived  about  the  time 
of  Julius  Ctesar,  about  50  B.  C,  mentions 
beer  in  liis  History  (lib.  i.  chap.  20).  Pliny 
also,  about  tlie  middle  of  the  first  century 
after  Christ,  speaks  of  this  beverage  m 
several  places  of  his  Natural  History.  He 
says  that  it  is  prepared  in  difierent  ways,    . 

Digitized  by 



and  that  there  it  a  species  more  intoxi- 
cating than  wine.  He  says,  further,  that, 
in  Spain,  it  is  called  edia  and  ceria ;  but, 
in  Gaul  and  in  other  proyinces  of  the 
Roman  empire,  c^reviaia ;  that  it  was  in 
general  use  among  the  ancient  Ctermans, 
who  also  called  it  cerevisia^  (from  Cerea^ 
the  ffoddess  of  grainy,  and  visy  power.) 
The  Egyptians,  as  the  first  promoters  of 
agriculture,  are  said  to  have  invented  beer, 
and  to  have  prepared  a  kind,  in  later  times, 
at  Pelusium,  which  was  called  by  tlie 
name  of  that  city,  and  was  much  cele- 
brated. Beer  was  afterwards  unknown 
in  E^ypt,  until  the  French  army  intro- 
duced it  anew,  since  which  it  is  said  that 
l)e€r  is  still  brewed  there.  We  are  igno- 
rant how  far  the  beer  of  the  ancients 
resembled  the  modem  artiele.  The  word 
beer  may  most  naturally  be  derived  firom 
bibere,  to  drink. 

Beer,  Micliael,  sometimes  called  Mi- 
chael Berr^  a  learned  Jew  in  Paris,  bom  at 
Nancy,  in  1784,  was  the  first  of  his  reU- 
gion  who  pursued  the  profession  of  an 
advocate  in  France.  His  success  in  this 
career  was  brilliant;  but  he  Soon  gave 
hunself  up  exclusively  to  literature,  and 
received  the  honor,  never  before  confer- 
red on  a  Jew,  of  beuiff  adfiiitted  into  the 
learned  academies  of  France.  He  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  royal  society  of 
antiquaries,  of  the  philotechnic  society, 
of  the  aciidemies  of  Nancy,  Strasburg, 
^  Nantes  and  G6ttingen.  Napoleon  in- 
vited him,  in  1807,  to  the  assembly  'of 
Jews,  who  were  to  advise  concerning 
the  amehoration  of  the  condition  of  that 
people;  and  the  general  sahhedrim  for 
France  and  Italy  chose  him  their  secre- 
tary. At  the  erection  of  the  kingdom  of 
WestpheJia,  on  account  of  his  knowledge 
of  the  language  of  the  comitry,  he  receiv- 
ed an  appointment  in  the  ministry  of  the 
interior,  and,  afterwards,  vrua  appointed  to 
a  corresponding  office  in  the  French  min- 
istry :  he  also  delivered  a  course  of  lec- 
tures on  German  literature  in  the  athense- 
um  of  Paris.  Amone  his  niunerous  worics 
is  an  ISoge  de  Chanes  VtUers. 

BEERuva,  Vitus,  captain  in  the  Russian 
navy,  bom  at  Horsens,  in  Jutland,  being  a 
skilful  seaman^  was  employed  by  Peter 
the  Great  in  the  navy, which  ne  had 
newly  estabhshed  at  Cronstadt  His  tal- 
ents, and  the  undaunted  courage  display- 
ed by  liim  m  the  naval  wars  against  the 
Swedes,  procured  him  the  honor  of  being 
chosen  to  command  a  voyage  of  discovery 
in  tlie  sea  of  Kamtschatka.  He  set  out 
from  Petersbm^,  Feb:  5, 1725,  for  Siberia. 
In  the  year  17S&,  he  exammed  the  north- 

ern coasts  of  Kamtschatka  as  ftr  as  lat 
67°  18^  N.,  and  proved  that  Asia  is  pot 
united  to  America.  It  remained,  however, 
to  be  determined  whether  the  land  oppo- 
site to  Kamtseiiatka  was,  in  reality,  the 
coast  of  the  American  continent,  or  mere- 
ly islands  lying  between  Asia  and  Amer- 
ica. June  4, 1741,  he  sailed,  with  two 
ships,  from  Ochotsk,  and  touched  the 
north-western  coast  of  America,  between 
lat  35°  and  69°  N.  Tempests  and  sick- 
ness )»revented  him  from  pursuing  his 
discoveries:  he  was  cast  on  a  desolate  isl- 
and, covered  with  snow  and  ice,  where 
he  grew  dangerously  sick,  and  died  Dec 
8, 1741.  .  The  straits  between  Asia  and 
America  have  received  the  name  oTBeer- 
w's  gtraits  {aHao  called  JhtianX,  and  the 
island  on  which  he  died  that  oiBeering^a ' 
island,  (See  MfiUer's  Voyages  et  IMcow. 
faiUespar  Us  Rusaes^  Amsteraam,  1766]. 

Beeriivo's  Isi.Ain>  ^  an  iskmd  in  N.  Pa- 
cific ocean,  about  90  miles  long,  and  25  to 
30 wide;  Ion.  163°  12^  to  164°  12^^;  lat 
54°  45^  to  56°  lO'  N.  Neither  thunder  nor 
the  aiuora  borealis  have  ever  been  observ- 
ed here.  The  island  has  springs  of  excel- 
lent water,  and  beautiful  cataracts.  No 
animab  are  found  here  but  ice-foxes,  seals, 
sea-bears,  sea^^Uons,  sea-cows,  &c  No 
wood  grows  here,  but  several  kinds  of 
plants  axe  seen.  The  island  is  uninhab- 
ited. It  was  discovered  by  Vitus  Beering 
(q.  V.)  in  1741.  It  is  sometimes  classed 
with  the  Aleutian  chain. 

Beerino's  Straits;  the  narrow  sea 
between  the  north-west  coast  of  N.  Amer- 
ica and  the  north-east  coast  of  Asia;  dQ 
miles  wide  in  the  narrowest  part;  Ion. 
168°  15^  to  169°  20^  W.;  lat  65^46^  to  65° 
52^  N.  There  is  a  remarkable  simikrity 
in  ^e  portions  of  both  continents  nortn 
of  the  strait :  both  are  without  wood ;  the 
coasts  are  low,  but,  &rther  firom  the  sea, 
they  rise  and  form  considerable  moon- 
tains.  The.  depth,  in  the  middle  of  the 
straits,  Is  fit>m  29  to  30  fathoms ;  towards 
the  land,  the  water  on  the  Asiatic  side  is 
deeper.  Cafitam  Vancouver,  who  visited 
these  shores  in  1740,  gave  this  name  to 
the  straits  in  honor  of  Vitus  Beerina 
(q.  v.),  because  he  thmks  that  he  anchored 
there.  Some  have  also  called  these  straits 
Cook^s  siraUs. 

Beet  (beta  vulgaris)  is  a  well-known 
valuable  succulent  root,  which  is  culti- 
vated in  our  kitchen  ^[ardens,  and  grows 
wild  in  several  countnes  of  the  south  of 
{lurope.  There  are  two  principal  vari- 
eties of  beet,  one  of  which  is  of  a  deep 
red  x>r  purple  color,  and  the  other  is  while, 
crossed  with  bands  of  red.— Red  beet  is 

Digitized  by 



{nrSnciptlly  used  at  table,  in  aalad,  boiled^ 
and  cut  into  alices,  aa  a  piekle,  and  some- 
timea  stewed  with  anions ;  but,  if  eaten  in 
great  quantity,  it  is  saod  to  be  injurious  to 
me  stomach.  The  beet  niay  be  taken  out 
of  the  ground  fbr  use  about  tbe  end  of 
August,  but  it  does  not  attain  its  full  eaze 
and  perfection  till  the  month  of  October. 
When  good,  it  is  lai^,  and  of  a  deep  red 
color,  and,  when  boiled,  is  tender,  sweet 
and  palatd^le.    It  has  lately  been  ascer- 
tained, that  beet  roots  may  be  substituted 
for  malt,  if  deprived  of  the  greater  part  of 
their  juice  by  pressure,  then  dried,  and 
treated  in  the  same  manner  as  the  grain 
intended  for  brewing.     The  beer  made 
from  the  beet  has  \^en  ibund  perfectly 
wholesome  and  paktidale,  and  httle  infe- 
rior to  that  prepared  from  malt. — ^From 
the  white  beet  the  French,  during  the 
late  wan  in  Europe,  endeavored  to  pre- 
pare sugar,  that  article,  as  British  colo- 
nial prGKduce,  having  been  prohibited  in 
France.    For  this  purpose,  tne  roots  were 
boiled  as  soon  as  possible  after  they  were 
taken  from  the  etuth.    When  cold,  they 
were  sliced,  and  afterwards  die  juice  was 
(Hissed  out,  and  evaporated  to  the  con- 
sistence of  sirup.    Hie  sugar  was  obtain- 
ed from  this  sirnp  by  ciystallization.   110 
pounds  weight  of  me  roots  yielded  41^ 
pounds  ofjulce,  which,  on  further  evap- 
oration, af^ed  somewhat  more  dian  4j| 
pounds  of  brown  sugar;  and  these,  by  a 
subsequent  operation,  produced  4  pounds 
of  well-grained  white  powder  sugar.  The 
reaiduum,  together  with  the  sirup  or  mo- 
hisses  which  remained,  produced,  after 
distilladon,  3)  .quarts  of  rectified  spirit, 
oomewhat  similar  to  rum.     But  many 
subsequent  experiments,  both  in  Fiance 
and  in  Prussia,  have  tended  to  prove,  that 
sugar  can  never  be  advantageously  man- 
uoictured  from  the  beet  upon  a  large 
■cala^  it  yielding,  unon  a  &ir  average, 
bare^  an^ugh  lo  denay  the  expenses  of 
making.    The  leaves  of  the  beet,  when 
raised  in  richly-manufed  soil,  have  been 
found  to  yieM  a  considerable  quanti^  of 
pure  nitre,  proceeding,  in  all  probability, 
from  die  decomposition  of  the  animal 
matter  contamed  in  the  manure ;  but  this, 
like  the  sugar  of  the  ropt,  will  probably 
never  pa^  the  expenses  of  cultivation, 
whidi  wul   bUbo  increase   rather  than 
diminish ;  so  that  it  may  be  considered 
Tahnble,  at  present,  only  as  an  esculent 
ijant    The  French,  however,  and  other 
Europ^iB  natioos,  still  persevere  m  man-* 
ufiictunng  beet  sucar,  and  make  great 
quantities  of  it,  alttiougfa  it  can  never 
Bupenede  the  use  of  common  sugar,  unless 

its  production  be  encouraged  by  bounties 
ana  prphibitions. 

Beethoven,  Louis  von,  bom  in  Bonn, 
1772,  was  the  son  of  a  man  who  had  been 
a  tenor  singer  in  that  place  (according  to 
another  account,  in  FayoUe's  Dictionary 
of  Musicians,  a  natural  son  of  Frederic 
William  II,  king  of  PrussiaV.  His  great 
talent  fbr  music  was  early  cultivated.  He 
astonished,  in  his  eighdi  year,  all  who 
heard  him,  by  his  execution  on  die  violin, 
on  which  he  was  in  the  habit  of  perform- 
ing, with  sreat  diligence,  in  a  little  garret. 
In  his  11th  year,  he  played  Bach's  Wohl 
Temperirtes  ekmier,  and,  in  his  13th, 
composed  some  sonatas.  These  promis- 
ing appearanc^  of  great  talent  induced 
the  then  reignL^  elector  of  Cologne  to 
send  him,  in  179!^  in  the  character  of  hia 
organist,  and  at  his  expense,  to  Vienna^ 
that  he  mig^ht  accomplish  himself  there 
in  composition,  uniAer  the  mstmction  of 
Haydn.  Under  Haydn  and  Albrechtsber- 
ger  he  made  rapid  progress,  and  became, 
likewise,  a  great  player  on  the  piano  forte, 
astonishing  eveij  one  by  his  extempore 
performances.  In  1809,  he  was  invited 
to  the  new  court  of  the  king  of  Westpha- 
lia, at  which  several  men  of  distinction, 
and  among  them  his  pUpil  in  music  the 
archduke  Kodolph,now  bishop  of  Olmfltz, 
persuaded  him  to  remain,  by  the  promise 
of  a  yearly  salaiy.  He  composed  his 
principal  works  after  1801.  A  few  years 
Defore  his  death,  a  cold,  which  he  had 
caught  by  composing  in  the  open  air^ 

Sroduced  a  deamess,  which  became,  by 
egrees,  very  ^reat  He  lived,  afterwards, 
very  much  retired,  in  the  village  of  M6d- 
lingen,  near  Vienna.  Instrumental  music 
has  received  from  his  compositions  a  new 
character.  Beethoven  united  the  humor 
of  Haydn  with  the  melancholy  of  Mozart, 
and  the  character  of  his  music  most 
resembles  Cherubini's.  His  boldness  is 
remarkable.  Reichhardt,  in  a  comparison 
of  Beethoven  with  Haydn  and  Mozart, 
says, «  The  QuarUU  of  Haydn  was  the  off- 
spring of  his  amiable  and  oriffinal  charac- 
ter. In  naivete  and  good  hamor  he  is 
unrivalled.  The  more  powerful  nature 
and  richer  imagination  or  Mozart  embra- 
ced a  wider  fidd,  and  many  of  his  com- 
positions express  the  whole  lieight  and 
depth  of  his  character.  He  placed  more 
value  also  on  exquisite  finish.  Beethoven, 
early  acquainted  with  Mozart's  composi- 
tions, gave  a  still  bolder  cast  to  his  ideas.** 
Besides  his  great  sjrmphonies  and  over- 
tures, his  ouintetts,  quartetts,  and  trios 
lor  stringea  instruments,  his  numeioua 
sonatas,  variations,  and  other  pieces  |br 

Digitized  by 



Ike  iMano  fiurte,  in  wblch  he  shows  the 
great  richttesB  <xf  his  imagination,  he  also 
composed  vocal  music,  but  with  leas  suc- 
cess. To  this  department  belongs  his 
opera  Leonore  (in  its  altered  state,  called 
FMio),  some  masses,  an  oratorio  (Christ 
OB  the  Mount  of  Olives)^  and  songs  for 
the  piano  forte,  among  which  the  compo- 
sidon  of  Matthison's  Mdaidt^  called,  by 
the  EngluA,  RotaUt^  and  some  sonp  of 
€roethe  are  celebrated.  R  died  March 
9^  1827,  near  Vienna,  in  the  greatest 

Bestlx  (scorakBut,  L.) ;  a  tribe  of  co- 
leopterous insects,  beiongmg  to  the  &mily 
lamdlicorniua,  0.  The  beeUe  tribe  com- 
prises a  large  nunfiber  of  insects,  among 
which  some  are  very  remarkable  for  pro- 
jections or  horns  growing  from  the  head 
and  corselet  The  species  found  in  warm 
climates  are  generally  of  large  size  and 
formidable  appearance,  though  by  no 
means  noxious.  The^  all  are  wingeo,  fly- 
ing with  much  rapidity  and  force ;  when 
on  the  ground,  their  movements  are  slow 
and  heavy.  The  body  of  the  perfect  insect 
is  onJ,  or  nearly  so,  and  the  mitetmct  are 
composed  of  eight  or  ten  pieces,  inserted 
into  a  cavity  under  the  border  of  the  head. 
From  the  arrangement  of  the  anUrmcBf 
which  is  pecuhar  to  this  family,  its  essen- 
tial or  distinctive  character  is  formed. 
The  extremities  of  the  antenna  are  club- 
shaped,  and  composed  of  plates  or  joints, 
either  disposed  like  the  leaves  of  a  book,  or 
arranged  perpendiculariy  to  the  axis,  like 
the  teeth  of  a  comb.  .  The  two  first  legs 
of  beetles,  and  even  the  others,  in  some 
instances,  are  dentated  externally,  and 
suited  for  burrowing.  The  trachea  are  all 
vesicular. — ^The  larves  or  young  are  soft, 
flexible,  whitish,  somi-cylindric  worms, 
having  the  body  divided  into  12  rin^^, 
and  having  a  scaly  head,  armed  with 
stronv  jaws.  They  have  nine  sti^matcL,  or 
breathing  holes,  on  e<ich  side ;  and  the  feet, 
which  are  dx,  are  scaly.  The  body  is 
thicker  at  the  posterior  than  at  the  aute- 
nar  extremity,  rounded,  and  almost  uni- 
formly curved  downwards,  so  that  the 
larve  moves  with  difficulty  over  an  even 
surfiice,  and  ffref}uentJy  tumbles  down. 
The  period  dunng  which  the  larves 
remain  in  the  state  of  destructive  worms 
varies  in  different  species ;  those  of  some 
kinds  becoming  nymphs  at  the  end  of 
several  months,  and  or  others,  not  sooner 
than  in  three  or  four  years.  During  this 
period,  they  live  in  the  earth,  where  they 
feed  upon  the  roots  of  vegetables,  animal 
matter  in  a  state  of  decomposition,  &c. 
It  is  in  this  stage  of  their  existence  that 

various  species  Pfowe  esDsedii^ily  ii^ini- 
ous  to  femiers,  vom  tfaehr  great  numbers 
and  voracity.  When  about  to  undergo 
their  change  of  finrm,  they  make  an  egg- 
shaped  cover  or  cocoon  fit)m  firagmenti 
gnawed  off  wood,  &C.,  whidi  are  stuck 
together  by  a  peculiar  glutinous  fluid  fbr- 
nished  by  their  bodies.  The  larves  have 
a  cylindnc  stomach,  surrounded  fay  three 
ranges  of  minute  caco,  a  very  short,  small 
intestme,  an  exceedingly  large  colony  abd 
moderate-sized  rechmu  In  the  perfect 
insect,  none  of  these  inequalities  exist,  as 
there  is  but  one  long  intestine,  of  equal 
size  throughout.  All  of  the  beetle  tribe 
are  not  destructive  or  injurious  in  their 
inceptive  state,  as  many  of  them  breed  in 
the  dunff-heap,  or  feed  upon  the  excre- 
ment of  animals,  which  they  serve  to 
prepare  more  completely  as  manure.  The 
tumble-bug,  which  is  well  known,  forms 
a  ball  of  dung,  in  the  centre  of  which  the 
egff  is  deposited,  rolls  it  off  to  a  distance, 
and  buries  it  m  the  ground.  Great  num- 
bers, uniting  in  this  work,  speedily  dear 
away  excrementitious  matter,  that  might 
otherwise  soon  prove  offensive.  Among 
the  ancient  Egyptians,  a  species  of  beede 
was  held  in  great  veneration,  and  Euse- 
bius  infonns  us  (De  Prop,  Evarif.)  that  it 
was  regarded  as  the  animated  'image  of 
the  sun.  We  find  it  generally  embalmed 
with  the  Egyptian  mummies,  placed  im- 
mediately upon  the  root  of  the  nose.  A 
numberof  models  of  these  insects,  in  clay 
and  stone,  have  been  found  in  the  places 
already  explored  in  the  ancient  domin- 
ion of  the  rharaohs.  LinnaBus  bestowed 
the  name  of  scarabiBus  aacer  on  this 
species,  which  is  found  in  Africa  and 

Bef ANA  (Ital. ;  fi^m  Befaniay  which  sig- 
nifies Epiphany)  is  a  figure,  generally  repre- 
senting an  old  woman,  wbicli  is  exhibited, 
in  Italy,  on  tlie  day  of  Epiphany,  by  chil- 
dren, or  in  shops,  &c.,  where  things  for 
children  are  sold.  In  Germany,  presents 
are  given  to  children  on  Chnsmias-eve, 
and  in  France,  on  new-year's  evening,  but 
in  Italy,  on  the  day  of  Kpiphany,  and  it  is 
said  that  the  befaua  brings  them  to  good 
children.  Generally,  a  little  bag  is  hung 
in  the  chimney,  and,  next  morning,  the 
children  find  the  presents  there. 

Beg  (prince,  or  lord) ;  the  title  of  certain 
Turkish  ofi[icer8,  several  of  whom  are 
subject  to  a  beglerbe^.    (See  Bey.) 

Beooart.    (See  Pauperism,) 

Beolerbeo  i^prince  of  prineeSf  or  lord 
of  lords)  is  the  tide  of  a  lugti  ofilcer  among 
the  Turks,  the  governor  of  a  province, 
called  a  h^lerbegUc^  who  has  under  him 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



sevdFBl  BaojBpacfl^  beffs,  asiiSi  &c  The 
governors  of  Sophia,  funtfuia  and  Damas- 
cus, in  paitipular,  have  this  title. 

BEenARBs,  or  Beoha&ds.  (See  Be- 

Beguines  {heguUa);  females  who,  with- 
out having  taken  the  monastic  vows,  or 
bound  themselves  to  obey  the  rules  of  an 
order,  unite  for  the  purpose  of  devotion 
and  charity,  and  form  societies,  living 
together  in  houses  called  beguinages 
(wJiicb  have  been  frequently  eniiched 
DY  donations),  distinguishing  fiiemselves, 
above  otliers  of  the  laity,  by  weir  industry, 
their  retired  hfe,  and  their  attention  to  the 
education-  of  children.  These  societies 
originated,  towards  the  end  of  the  lltli 
century,  in  Germany  and  the  Netherlands, 
and  were  very  flourishing  in  the  12th  and 
13th  centuries.  They  ^1  exist  in  con- 
siderable numbers  in  the  Netherlands.  In 
imitation  of  them,  males  formed  similar 
societies,  under  the  name  of  be^kards. 
These  societies,  whose  names  signify  sup- 
pliants, or  beggars,  underwent  many  per- 
secutions from  the  jealousy  of  the  clerical 
orders,  and  were  sometimes  confounded 
with  the  Lollards.  (See  Brotherhoods,) 
There  are,  in  some  places  of  Geniiany,  be- 
guinagea,  which  ai-e,  however,  only  elee- 
mosynary institutions,  whefe  unmarried 
.  females,  of  the  lower  class  of  people,  have 
a  lodging  free  of  expense,  and  enjoy  some 
otlier  advantages. 

Behai9i,  Martin,  bom  at  Nuremberg, 
about  1430,  is  distinguished  as  one  of  the 
most  leanied  matliematicians  and  astron- 
omers of  his  age.  He  was  engaged  in 
commerce,  and  travelled,  for  the  purpose 
of  carrying  on  his  business,  from  1455 
to  1479 ;  but  he  also  devoted  himself  to 
the  study  of  the  mathematical  and  nanti- 
cal  sciences,  in  which  liegiomoiitanus  is 
said  to  have  been  his  master.  He  went 
from  Amwerp  to  Lisbon,  in  1480,  where 
he  was  received  with  marks  of  distinction. 
He  sailed  in  tlie  fleet  of  Diego  Can,  on  a 
voyage  of  discovery,  and  explored  the 
islands  on  tlie  coast  of  Africa  as  far  as  the 
river  Zaire.  He  is  also  said  to  have  dis- 
covered, or,  at  least,  to  have  colonized,  the 
island  of  Fayal,  where  he  remained  for 
several  years,  and  assisted  in  the  discovery 
of  the  other  Azores.  He  was  afterwards 
knighted,  and  returned  to  liis  native  coun- 
try, where  he  constructed  a  terrestrial 
glol)e,  in  1492,  which  bears  the  marks  of 
die  unperfect  acquauitance  of  that  ase 
with  the  true  dimensions  of  the  earth.  B. 
died,  after  many  voyages,  in  Lisbon,  1506. 
Some  ancient  Spanish  historians  assert 
that  he  mode  many  discoveries,  and  tliat 

he  gave  to  his  fiiend  ColuinbuB  the  idet 
of  another  hemisphere.  Robertson  (in  hit 
History  of  Amenca)and  others  contradict 
this  statement.  It  m  also  rejected  by 

Beheadino  ;  a  capital  punishment, 
wherein  the  head  is  severed  ftom  the 
body  l^  the  stroke  of  en  axe,  BW<nd,  or 
other  cutting  instrument.  DecoUatioy  or 
beheading,  was,  a  military  punishment 
among  die  Romans.  In  eany  times,  it 
was  performed  with  an  axe,  aiid  after- 
wards with  a  sword.  It  is  wordi  remark- 
ing, that,  in  all  countries  where  beheading 
and  hanging  are  used  as  capital  punish- 
ments, the  former  is  always  considered 
less  ignominious.  Thus,  in  EIngland, 
beheading  is  often  the  punishment  of 
nobles,  when  commoners,  for  the  same 
crime,  are  hanged.  The  crime  of  high 
treason  is  there  punished  with  beheading. 
Commoners,  however,  are  hanged  before 
the  head  is  cut  oft*,  and  nobles  also,  unless 
the  king  remits  that  part  of  the  pmiish- 
ment.  In  Prussia,  formerly,  a  nobleman 
could  not  be  hanged,  and,  if  his  crime  was 
such  tliat  the  law  required  this  punish- 
ment, he  was  degraded  before  the  execu- 
tion. At  present,  hanging  is  not  used  in 
that  country,  and,  since  so  many  mstances 
have  occurred  of  extreme  suffering,  on 
the  part  of  the  cruninal,  caused  by  the 
unskilfulness  of  the  executioner  in  behead- 
ing with  the  sword,  this  mode  of  execu- 
tion has  been  abolished.  Beheadmg,  in 
Prussia,  is  now  always  performed  with  a 
heavy  axe,  the  sufierer  being  previ- 
ously tied  to  a  block.  In  France,  during 
the  revolutionary  government,  beheading 
by  means  of  a  niachine,  the  guillotine 
(q.  v.),  came  into  use,  and  still  prevails 
there,  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  modes 
of  ca])ital  punishment.  A  person  who 
has  murdered  his  father  or  mother,  how- 
ever, has  his  right  aim  cut  ofi^the  moment 
before  he  is  guillotined.  In  the  middle 
ages,  it  was,  in  some'  stales,  the  duty  of 
tlie  youngest  magistrate  to  perform  the 
executions  with  the  sword.  In  China,  it 
is  well  known  that  beheading  is  practised, 
sometimes  accompanied  with  the  most 
studied  torments.  In  the  U.  States  of 
America,  beheading  is  unknown,  the  hal- 
ter being  the  only  instrument  of  capital 
punishment  Respecting  the  bad  or  good 
consequences  of  public  beheading,  the 
same  remarks  may  be  made,  which  are 
apphcable  to  pubhc  executions  in  general 
In  many  £u|*opean  countries,  beheading 
with  the  sword  still  prevails. 

Behn,  Aphara.  a  lady  of  some  celebrity 
as  a  writer  of  plays  and  novels,  was  de- 

Digitized  by 




annded  from  a  good  &mily  in  Center- 
boxy,  of  tlie  name  of  Johnson,  and  was 
born  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  Her  &tber, 
through  the  interett  of  his  relation,  lord 
Wtilou^by,  being  appointed  lieutenant- 
Mieml  of  Surinam,  embarked  with  his 
nmily  for  the  West  Indies,  taking  with 
ham  Aphara,  who  was  then  very  yoong. 
The  fetber  died  at  sea;  but  his  &mily 
arrived  safety  at  Surinam,  and  remain'^ 
ed  there  some  years,  during  which  time 
Aphara  became  acquainted  with  the 
-American  prinoe  Ofoonoko,  whom  she 
made  the  sabj<^ct  of  a  novel,  subsequently 
dramatized  by  Southern.  On  her  return 
to  England,  she  married  Mr.  Behn,  a  mer- 
eha&t  jof  London,  of  Dutch  extraction ; 
but 'Was  probablj  a  widow  when  selected 
by  Charles  II  aa  a  proper  person  to  ac- 
ouire  intelligence  on  the  continent  during 
the  Dutch  war.  She  accordingl'y  took  up 
her  rendence  at  Antwerp,  where  she  en- 
'  gaged  in  gallantries  for  the  good  of  her 
country ;  and  it  is  said  that,  by  means  of 
one  of  her  admirers,  she  obtained  advice 
of  tha  intention  of  the  Dmch  to  sail  up 
the  Thames,  which  she  transmitted  to 
England.  This  intelligence,  although  true, 
being  discredited,  sfa£  gave  up  politics, 
returned  to  England,  and  devoted  herself 
to  intrigue  and  writing  for  support ;  and, 
as  she  had  a  cood  peraon  and  milch  con- 
versational tafent^she  became  ftdhioiiaHle' 
among  the  men  of  wit  and  pleasure  of 
the  time.  She  pubhsbed  three  volumes 
of  Doems,  by  Rochester,  Etherege,  Crisp 
and  others,  with  some  poetry  of  her  own ; 
and  wrote  17,  plays,  me  heartless  licen- 
tiousness of  which  was  disgraceful  both 
to  her  sex  and  to  the  age  which  tolerated 
the  performance  of  them.  She  was.  also 
the  author  of  a  couple  of  volumes  of 
novels,  and  of  the  celebrated  loVe-letters 
between  a  nobleman  and  his  Mster-in- 
law  (lord  Gny  and  lady  Henrietta  Berke- 
ley). '  Pope,  m  his  character  of  women, 
alludes  to  Mrs.  Behn,  under  her  poetical 
mune  cfAttrea : 

The  ata^  hcnv  lootdy  does  Astrea  tread, 
Who  Aiirly  puts  all  cnancfters  to  bed. 

She  d^ed  in  1669,  between  40  and  50 
years  of  age,  and  was  buried  in  the  clois- 
ters of  Westminster  abb^. 

BERKmo,  Berriro's  Straits,  Berr- 
iifo's  IsLAim.    (See  Beernig,) 

BsiRA  t  aprevince  of  Portugal,  bounded 
chiefly  by  the  river  Douro  on  die  north, 
by  Spain  on  the  east,  by  the  Tagos  and 
Portognese  Estremddura  on  the  somh, 
and  by  the  Atlantic  on  the  west  Its 
extent  is  computed  at  11,000  square  miles, 
and  the  popiAitkMi  at  nearly  900,000, 

VOL.  II.  4 

which  is  f£out  82  persons  to  a  square 
mile,  or  rather  leas  than  the  average  num- 
ber &r  the  whole  kinadom.  B.  contains 
7  episcopal  cities,  and  about  230  other 
towns :  toe  chief  one  is  Coimbnu  (cuv*) 
It  is  mountainous  and  w^  watered.  The 
produce  of  wine  and  olives  is  conndera- 
ble.    {See  PotiugaL) 

Beiram.    (See  Bammu) 

Bekker,  Elizabeth;  an  ornament  of 
putch  literature  in  the  depaitinent  of  the 
belles-lettres.  FeW  female  authora  have 
miited  with  iso  great  talents  so  much  dig- 
nity ani  purity  of  morals.  The  influence 
of 'her  numerouis  works  was  much  in- 
creased by  her  character,  and  several  of 
them  are  considered  classics  in  Dutch 
literamre;  particulariy  her  ifnuances  Wil-« 
lem  Xeevend,  in  8  vols. ;  Lettere  of  A. 
Blankart  to  C.  Wildschut,  and  the  His- 
tory of  Sara  BOrgerhait.  She  wrote  her 
most  important  works  in  conjunction  with 
her  friend  Agatha  Ddcen  [q.  v.),  and  the 
share  of  each  in  the  composition  of  them 
is  unknown.  Ehzabetli  was  bom  at 
Flushing,  in  1738,  and  died  at  the  H^ie, 
in  1804.'  Her  inseparable  friend  in  life 
followed  her  nine  days  later  in  death. 

Bekker,  Immanuel,  member  of  the 
academy  of  sciences,  and  raofessor  in  the 
university  of  Berlin,  is  known  for  bis 
learning  in  the  ancient  languages,  partic- 
ulariy flie  Greeki  displayed  in  many  val- 
uable works.  He  was  born  at  Berlin,  in 
1785.  He  was  a  pupil  of  the  famous  nbi- 
lologet  Wolf,  at  Halle,  who  declared  nmi 
the  person  most  capable  of  continumg 
hifi  researches  in  philology.  B.  was  ap- 
pointed pityfessor  m  the  new  academy  of 
Berlin,  and  set  out.  May,  1810,  for  Paris, 
wiiere  he  remained  until  Dec,  1818,  and 
made  use  of  the  manuscripts  of  the  libraiy, 
principally  collatinff  those  of  Plato,  and 
some  rhetorical  and  grammatical  writers. 
The  academy  of  sciences  of  Berlin  elected 
him  a  member  m  1815,  and  sent  him  back 
to  Pfflis  to  exawesM  the  papen  of  Four- 
mom,  fertile  sake  of  a  Cwyua  ^Mcr^rfM- 
num  Onecatum,  which  they  intended  to 
pulifish.  He  retomed  the  same  year.  In 
1817,  he  was  sent  to  Italy,  to  examine, 
with  his  colleagoe  Ooschen,  the  Institu- 
tions of  Gains  at  Verona,  discovered  by 
Niebuhr  in  a  Codex  rescrifhtSy  and  to  pre- 
pare an  edition  of  Aristotle,  i»*ich  the, 
academy  had  iA  view.  He  sp^t  two 
wintera  in  Rome,  particnlariy  ftvored  in 
the  use  of  the  libraries  by  mf^ans  of  his 
friend  Niebuhr.  In  1819,  he  went  throng^ 
Turin  to  P^iis ;  spent  the  summer  of  IfissO 
in  England,  prindipally  in  Oxfbrd,  Cam- 
bridge and.  London ;  and  letomed  through 

Digitized  by 



rrd  of  the  emperor,  ao(»  afler  obtained 
chief  cQinmaiid  of  an  army  of  ^25,000 
men,  stationed  on  the  Persian  fiontierB, 
and,  in  the  year  5d0,  gamed  a  complete 
Tictory  over  a  Persian  army  of  not  leas 
than  40,000  soldiers.  Tlie  next  year,  how- 
ever, he  lost  a  battle  against  the  same  en- 
emy, who  had  forced  Ins  way  into  Syria — 
the  only  battle  which  he  lost  during  his 
whole  career.  He  was  recalled  fit>m  the 
nnny,  and  soon  became,  at  home,  the  sup- 
porf  of  his  master.  In  the  year  532,  civil 
commotions,  proceeding  m>m  two  rival 
parties,  who  called  themselves  tlia  green 
and  the  Hue,  and  who  caused  great  disor- 
ders in  Constantinople,  brought  the  lifb 
and  reign  of  Justinian  in  the  utmost  peril, 
and  Hypatiue  was  aheady  chosen  empe- 
ror, when  5,  with  a  small  body  of  feith- 
ful  adherents,  restored  order.  Justinian, 
with  a  view  of  couquerinff  tlie  dominions 
of  Gelimer,  lung  of  the  Vandals,  sent  B., 
with  an  army  of  15,000  men,  to  Africa. 
Afler  two  victories,  he  g^cured  the  peraou 
and  treasures  of  the  Vandal  king.  GelK 
mer  was  led  in  triumph  through  the 
streets  of  Constantinople,  and  Justinian 
ordered  a  medal  to  be  struck,  witli  the  in- 
scription Belisaritis  gloria  Romanoinmj 
vi4iich  has  descended  to  our  times.  By 
the  dissentions  existing  in  the  royal  fairo- 
1y  of  the  Ostrogoths  (see  Goths)  in  Italy, 
Justinian  was  induced  to  attempt  to  bring 
Italy  and  Rome  under  his  sceptre,  a, 
vanquished  Vitiges,  kmg  of  the  Goths, 
made  him  nrisoner  at  Ravenna  (540),  and 
conducted  him,  together  with  many  other 
Goths,  to  Constantinople.  The  war  in 
Italy  against  the  Goths  continued;  but 
B.,  not  being  sufficiently  supplied  /with 
money  and  troops  bv  the  emperoi',  de- 
manded his  recall  (5^8).  He  afterwards 
commanded  in  the  war  against  the  Bulra- 
rians,  whom  he  conquered  in  the  year  5o9. 
Upon  his  return  to  Constantinople,  he 
was  accused  of  having  taken  part  in  a 
conspiracy.  But  Justinian  was  copvinced 
of  his  innocence,  and  is  said  to  have  re- 
stored to  him  his  propert)'  and  diiaiities, 
of  which  he  had  been  deprived.  B.  died 
in  tlie  year  565.  His  history  has  been 
much  colored  by  the  poets^  and  particu- 
larly by  Marmontel,  in  his  otherwise  ad- 
mirable pohtico-philosophical  romance. 
Accoiding  to  his  narrative,  the  emperor 
caused  tlie  eyes  of  the  hero  to  be  struck 
out,  and  B.  was  compelled  to  beg  his 
bread  m  the  streets  of  Constantinople. 
Other  Mrriters  say,  that  Justmian  had  him 
thrown  into  a  prison,  which  is  still  shown 
under  the  appellatran  of  the  iotMr  ofBel^ 
* — "^    From  this  tower  be  is  reported 

to  have  letdown  a  bag  ftstened  to  a  io|i«, 
and  to  have  addressed  the  passengers  in 
these  words:— l>firte  ^  Beliiario  obolumj 
quern  virtus  evexU^  iuoidia  d/epre$sit  (Give 
an  obolus  to  Belisarius,  whom  virtue  ex- 
alted, and  envy  has  oppressed).  Of  this, 
however,  no  contemporary  writer  makes 
any  mention,  Tzet^s,  a  alighdy-esteemed 
writer  of  tlie  ^Si^h  century,  was  tlie  first 
who  related  this  faUe.  Certain  it  is,  that, 
through  too  great  indul||[ence  towards  his 
wife  Antonina,  B.  was  impelled  to  many 
acts  of  injustice,  and  that  he  evinced  a 
servile  submissiveness  to  tlie  detestable 
^  Theodora,  the  wife  of  Jusdnian. 

Belknap,  Jeremy ;  an  American  cler- 
gyman and  author,  of  considerable  repu- 
tation. He  was  bom  in  June,  1744, 
graduated  at  Harvard  college  in  1762, 
and  ordained  pastor  of  the  church  in  Do- 
ver, New  Hampshue,  in  •  1767.  Here  he 
spent  20  years  in  the  dih^nt  performance 
of  his  clerical  duties,  and  the  cultivation 
of  Ut^rature.  It  was  during  this  period 
that  he  composed  his  History  of  New. 
Hampshire,  a  work  by  which  he  estab- 
Ushed  himself  as,  an  author  in  the  good 
opinion  of  his  countrymen.  In  1787,  he 
took  charge  of  a  church  in  Boston,  where 
he  continued  to  officiate  until  his  deaths 
in  1798.  Besides  Ins  History,  he  publish- 
ed twp  volumes  of  his  imfinished  Ameri- 
can Biography,  and  a  number  of  political, 
religious  and  literary  tracts.  Doctor  BL 
wrote  with  ease  and  correcmess,  thoucb 
not  with  elegance :  h^  was  more  reman- 
aUe  for  research  and  exten^ve  informa- 
tion, than  for  brilhancy  or  orLrinaUty  of 
talents.  The  Histoiy  of  New  Hampshire 
and  the  American  Biosraphy,  above  men- 
tioned, are  often  consulted.  His  sermons, 
and  many  dissertations,  are  but  htde 
known.  As  a  public  preacher  and  citi- 
zen, he  enjoyea  the  highest  estimation. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Mas* 
sachusetts  historical  society,  whose  Col- 
lections are  important  to  me  pubhc  an- 

Bell.  Church  bells  originated  m  Ita- 
ly, being  formed,  by  decrees,  out  of  the 
cymbals,  small  tinkling  bells  and  hand- 
bells of  vthe  East,  used,  in  rehgious  cere- 
monies, as  a  means  of  honoring  the  gods^ 
or  of  summoning  them  to  the  roast.  The 
feast  of  Osuris,.paiticularly,  is  known  ta 
have  been  announced  by  beUs,  and,  ia 
AthenS)  the  priests  of  Cybele  made  uae 
of  them  at  their  sacrifices.  Pliny  sa^ 
that  bells  were  invented  lony  befere  his 
time.  They  were  called  fm^Mma&tcloi ; 
and  Suetonius  tells  us  that  Augustus 
caused  one  to  be  hung  before  the  temple 

Digitized  by 




of  Jupiter.  Aflnoog  Christiaas,  thev  ware 
first  employed  to  call  together  religiouB 
coDgregationB,  for  which  purpose  nuiners 
had  b^n  employed  before.  Afterwards, 
Uie  people  were  assembled  by  the  sound 
of  little  pieces  of  board  stnick  together ; 
hehcG  called  sacred  boards.  To  the  ora- 
ent  day,  the  Catholics  use  such  boaros  in 
Pas^on-week  and  Lent,  because  the  noise 
of  bells  seems  to  them  unsuited  to  the  so- 
Wmnity  of  the  season.  On  the  first  day  of 
E^aster,  the  beUs  ring  again,  and  the  return 
of  the  accustomed  sound  produces  a  very 
cheerfid  efiect  Paolinus,  bi8h<Hy  of  Nola, 
in  Campania,  is  said  to  have  mst  intro- 
duced cnurch  bells,  in  the  fourth  centunr, 
and  thence  the  Latin  names  of  the  bell, 
eampcma  and  nokij  are  said  to  have  origi- 
nated. In  the  sixth  cenmry,  bells  were 
used  in  the  convents ;  they  were  suspend- 
ed on  the  roof  of  the  church  in  a  mune. 
Towards  the  end  of  this  century,  bells 
were  placed  on  some  churches  at  the 
expense  of  certain  cities..  Abgut  550,  (bey 
were  introduced  into  France.  Pope  Se- 
bastian, who  died  in  605,  first  ordered  that 
the  hours  of  the  day  should  be  iannounced 
by  striking  the  bell,  that  people  might 
better  attend  to  the  hone  ca/umiaBj  that  is, 
to  the  hours  for  onginff  and  praying.  In 
610,  Clothair  besieged  Sens,  when  Lupus, 
bldiop  of  Orleans,  ordered  me  bells  of  St 
Stephen  to  be  rung.  The  sound  so  fright- 
ened Clothair,  that  he  eave  up  the  siege. 
In  the  eighth  century,  me  custom  of  bap- 
tizing and  naming  bells  began.  (Seer 
JBc^phsni,)  Church  bells  were  probkbly 
introduced  into  England  soon  after  theur 
invention.  They  are  first  mentioned  by 
Bede,  about  the  close  of  the  seventh  cen- 
tury. In  the  East,  they  came  into  use  in 
the  ninth  century;  in  Switzerland,  in 
1090 ;  at  what  period  they  were  brought 
into  Germany  is  uncertain.  In  the  11th 
century,  the  cathedral  at  Aupburg  had 
two  bells.  The  same  spirit  which  induced 
people  to  bmld  immense  minsters,  and  to 
apply  their  wealth  in  ornamenting  tlie 
places  of  worship,  made  them  vie  with 
each  other  in  the  size  of  their  bells.  The 
great  beU  of  Moscow,  cast  in  1653,  in  the 
reign  of  the  empress  Anne,  is  said,  by  Mr. 
Clarke,  to  be  computed  to  weigh  443,772 
lbs.  A  bell  in  the  church  of  St.  Ivan,  in 
the  same  city,  weiffhs  127,836  lbs. ;  anoth^ 
er,  356cwt;  and[  the  one  cast  in  1819 
weighs  1600  cwt,  the  clapper  alone  weigh- 
inff  18  cWt  On  the  cathedral  of  Paris  a 
beU  was  placed,  in  1680.  which  weighed 
340  cwt.,  and  measured  x5  feet  in  circum-* 
ibrence.  In  Vienna,  a  bell  was  cast,  In 
17)1,  of  354  qwt  In  Olmfitz  is  one  of 

358  cwt  •  The  fiuuous  bell  at  Erfim,  in 
Germany,  which  is  considered  to  be  of 
the  finest  bell-metal,  having  the  hrpst 
proportion  of  silver  in  it,  and  is  baptized 
^SWm^ie,  weighs  375^  cwt,  is  more  than 
24  feet  in  circumference,  and  has  a  clap- 
per of  4  feet,  wei^^g  11  cwt  Great 
Tom,  of  Christ  churchy  Oxford,  weifdis 
17,000  lbs.,;  of  Lincohi,  9894  lbs. ;  the  beU 
of  St  PauFs,  London,  8400  lbs.;  a  bell  at 
Nankin;,  in  China,  is  said  to  weicb  50,000 
lbs.;  and  seven  ajt  Pekin,  lUBfiOO  lbs. 
each.'  The  inscriptions  on  old  bells  are 
curious,  and.  in  some  cases,  have  even 
historical  value.;,  and,  at  this  time,  when 
curiosities  of  all  kinds  are  eagerly  sought 
'  fer,  a  collection  of  these  inscriptioDat' would 
not  be  uninteresting.  The  different  uses 
of  bells  have  given -rise  to  many  poems, 
some  of  which  are  inscribed  on  the  beUs 
themselves.  Onis  of  the  most  conmion  is 
the  following: 

FWera  plaiiigo,  fiilgofa  finuigo,nbbata  paogo 
Ezcito  leotJos,  cUssipo  venUM^paoo  cnieqtos. 

Perhaps  the  finest  poem  which  has  ever 
been  written  oa  beds  is  Schiller's  poem. 
Die  Glodx  (The  Bell),  m  which  he  de- 
scribes the  castuig  of  the  bell,  and  all  its 
uses,  in  a  highly  poetical  manner.  This 
has  been  translated  itato  many  lan- 
guages, and  lately  into  Greek  and  Latin, 
by  |i  professor  at  Liege.  (For  the  metal 
of  which  ,  bells  are  made,  called  MI* 
meUd,  see  Copper,)  A  bell  is  divided  into 
the  body  or  barrel^  the  dcmper^  and  the 
ear  or  caiman^ — ^The  word  out  is  used  in 
many  arts  and  sciences  for  instruments 
similar  in  form  to  church  bells. 
Bbll.  (See  Lancaster.) 
Bell-Metal.  (See  Copper.) 
Bell-Rock,  sometimes  called  hich  cape ; 
a  dangerous  rock  of  Scotland,  about  12 
miles  from  Ari>roath,  nearly  opposite  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Tay ;  Ion.  2P  22^  W. ; 
lat  56°  29^  N.  A  hght-house  has  been- 
erected  on  it,  finished  in  1611,  115  feet 
high.  During  high,  tides,  the  rock  is  en- 
tirely covered.  It  is.  said  that,*  in  former 
ages,  the  monks  of  Aberiirqthock  caused 
a  oeU  to  be  suspended  on  this  rock,  which 
was  rung  bv  tne  waves,  and  warned  the 
marinera  of  this  hiffhly  dangerous  place. 
The  Bell-rock  hght^ouse  is  famous  fer  its 

Bella,  Stefimo  de  la;  an  engraver,  bom 
at  Florence,  in  1610.  He  followed,  at 
first,  Callot's  manner,  but  soon  adopted 
one  of  his  own.  In  1642,  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  was  emploved  bv  cardi- 
nal Richelieu.  He  returned  to  Florence, 
and  became  the  teacher,  in  diawikig,  of 
Cosmo,  the  son  of  the  great  duke,  and 

Digitized  by 




died  in  1664.    It  10  said  <hat  he  engrayed 
1400  plates. 

Be&lamy,  James,  a  Flemisli  poet,  was 
bom  at  Flushinir,  in  the  year  1757,  and 
dM  in  1796.  He  was  35  years  old,  and 
following  the  trade  of  a  baker,  when,  in 
the  year  1772^  the  second  secular  festival, 
in  commemonition  of  the  foundation  of 
Jdie  repuUic,  was  celebrated  throughout 
Holland.  HLs  senius,  suddenly  inflamed 
by  the  ioveof  nis  native  land,  rendered 
him  a  poet,  and  Ins  first  productions  met 
with  success.  He  studied  Latm,  made 
himself  better  acquainted  with  his  mother 
ton|[ue,and  cosnposed  several  pieces  of 
ment  sufficient  to  induce  the  society  of  arts 
at  the  Hague  to  incorporate  them  in  their 
colIectionB.  He  puUished  his  patriotic 
sonjis  under  thetitle  VaderkMdse-Gexefigen, 
which  secure  [liflr  a  p9aoe  among  the  first 
poets  of  his  nation,  >  B.  sung,  likewise,  the 
praise  of  love.  The  later  works  of  this 
poet  betray  a  certain  inelahcholy,  which 
renders  them  still  more .  interesting.  A 
biographical  account  of  him  has  been 
written  by  G.  Kniper.  He  may  be  placed 
by  the  side  of  Biiderdyk,  Helmers,  Loots, 
IL  Feyth,  &c.,  as  one  of  the  Testorefcs  bf 
modem  Dutch  poetry. 

Bellahhin,  Robert,  a  cardinal,  and 
celebrated  controversialist  of  the  Roman 
church,  was  bom  at  Monte  Pulciano,  in 
Tuscany,  in  1542.  At  the  age  of  18,  he 
entered  into  die  college  of  Jesuits,  where 
he  soon  distinguished  himself;  and  his 
reputation  caused  him  to  be  sent  into  the 
Low  Countries,  to  oppose  the  projgress  of 
the  Reformers.  He  was  ordained  a,  priest, 
in  1569,  by  Jansemus,  bishop  of  Ghent, 
and  placed  in  the  theological  chair  of  the 
university  of  Louvain.  After  a  residence 
of  seven  years,  he  returned  to  Italy,  and 
waseent  py  Sixtus  V  to  France,  as  com- 
panion to  the  legate.  He  was  made  a 
cardinal,  on  account  of  his  learning,  by 
Clement  VIII,  and,  in  I60S,  created  arch- 
bishop of  Capiia.  At  the  elections  of 
Leo  XI  and  Paul  V,  he  was  thought  of 
ibr-th^  pontificate,  and  nnght  have  been 
chosen,  tiad  he  not  been  a  Jesuit.  Paul 
V  recalled  him' to  Rome,  on  which  he 
resigned  his  arehbish(^c  without  retain- 
ipg  any  pension  <m  it,  as  he  might  have 
done.  In  16121,  he  left  his  apartments  in 
the  Vatican,  and  returned  to  a  houete  of 
Ins  order,  vvliere  he  died  the  seme  year, 
at  the  age  of  71.  So  impressed  were  the 
people  with  the  idea  of  Ins  sanctity,  that 
It  was  necessary  to  place  guards  to  keep 
4>ff  the  crowd,  which  pressed  round  to 
touch  his  body,  or  procure  some  relics  of 
his  garments.    B.  had  the  dooblc  merits 

with  the  coccrt  of  KoHfe^  of  sanportmg  her 
temporal  power  and  spiritual  supremacy 
to  the  utmost,  and  of  strenuously  opposing 
the  Refomiers*  The  talent  he  displayed 
in  the  latter  controversy  called  forth 
all  the  similar  abili^  on  the  Protestant 
side ;  and,  for  a  number  of  years,  no  em- 
inent divine  among  the  Reformers  fiiled 
to  make  his  arguments  a  particular  sub- 

iect  of  refutation.  The  great  work  which 
le  coraj^osed  in  this  war&re  is  entitled 
A  Body  of  Controversy f  vmtten  in  Latin, 
the  style  of  which  is  perspicuous  and  pre- 
cise, without  any  pretension  to  purity  or 
eile^an6e.  He  di^^lays  a  vast  amount  of 
Scriptural  learning,  and  is  deeply  versed 
m  the  doctrine  and  practice  of  the  church 
in  all  ages,  as  becomes  one  who  deter- 
mines every  point  by  authority.  To  his 
credit,  he  exhibits  none  of  the  lax  moral- 
ity of  Ills  order,  and,  in  respect  to  the 
doctrines  of  predestination  and  efficacious 
grace,  is  more  9  follower  of  St.  Augustine 
Uian  a  Jesuit.  His  maxims  on  .the  right 
of  pontiff  to  depose  princes  caused  his 
work  on  the  temporal  power  of  the  poped 
to  be  condemned  at  Paris.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  did  not  satisfy  the  court  of  Rome,  ' 
because  it  asserted,  not  a  direct,  but  an 
indirect,  power  in  the  popes  in  temporal 
matters;  which  reservation  so  offended 
Sixtus  V,  that  he  placed  it  among  the  list 
of  proliibited  books.  These  dinerences 
amoitg  the  Catholics  necessarily  gave 
strength  to  tlie  Protestant  side,  and  pro- 
duced a  work  from  Mayer  in  exposition 
of  them.  In  the  rancor  of  controversy, 
some  malignant  calumnies  were  uttered 
against  the  morals  of  B. ;  but  it  is  evident, 
that  he  inclined  to  superstition  in  faith^ 
and  scmpulosity  in  practice.  At  his  death, 
he  bequeathed  one  naif  of  his  soul  to  the 
Virgin,  and  the  other  to  Jesus  Christ  His 
.  society  thought  60  higl^dy  of  his  sanctity, 
that  proofi  were  collected  to  entitle  him 
to  canonization ;  but  the  fear  of  giving 
offence  to  the  sovereigns,  whose  rights  he 
oppugned,  has  always  prevented  a  com- 
pliance with  the  ardent  widies  of  tlie 
Jesuits.  Tlie  best  edition  of  his  contro- 
versial works  is  that  of  Prague,  1721,  4 
vols.,  foho. 
Belle  Alliance.    (See  WisUedoo.) 


(anciendy  VindUis);  an  island  in  the  bay 
of  Biscay,  115  miles  from  the  westxoast 
of  France,  about  nin^  miles  liiu^,.  and 
from  two  to  four  broa4,*'Surr6uhded  by 
sharp  rodcB,  which  lekve  'only  .three 
fortified  passages  to  the  island.  The 
soil  is  diverse,  consisting  of  rock,  salt 
marsh,  and  fertile  grounds.    Palais  is  the 

Digitized  by 



It  contBiiiB  three  other  'small 
townsi  and  many  villages.    Loii.dP6^W.; 

Bbli^e-Isle,  or  jBellisub;  an  island 
K.  £.  of  the  golf  of  St  Lawrence,  about 
31  miles  in  circuit ;  on  the  north-west  side 
has  a  small  harbor,  fit  for. 401811  craft, 
^Bailed  LarkharhoTf  within  a  little  island 
which  lies  close  to  the  shore.  At  the  east 
point,  it  has ;  another  small  harbor  or 
€X)Ye,  that  will  only  admit  fishin(|  shallops ; 
from  whence  it  Is  about  16  miles-  to  the 
coast  of  Labrador.  Th^  narrow  channel 
between  Newfoundland  and  the 'coast  of 
Labrador  is  .called  the  draU$of  BdUtU ; 
*  15  miles  N.  Newfoundland.  Lon.  55^^  15^ 

Bellboa&de,  count,bom  at  Chamberry, 
in  Savoy,  in  the  year.  1760,  of  one  of  the 
oldest  Savoyard  families,  early  entered 
the  Austrian  service,  and  distinguished 
himself  during  the  campaigns  of  1793—96 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  become  a  member 
of  the  archduke  Charles's  counsel  of  war, 
and,  in  1796,  field-marshal  lieutenant.  ,  In 
this  capacity,  he  concluded,  in  1797,  an 
armifitice,  at  Leo'ben,  with  Bo^pQrte,^and, 
in  1799,  oonunanded  the  corps  that  was 
to  maintain  the  connexion  between  Su-. 
waroff  and  the  archduke  Charles.  After 
the  campiign  in  Italy,  in  1800,  he  was 
made  privy  counsellor  of  the  archduke 
FVedenc,  who  commanded  the  army  of 
Italy.  In  July,  1805,  the  chief  command 
in  the  territories  of  Venioe  was  committed 
to  him.  In  1806,  he  was  created  field- 
marshal,  and  appointed  civil  and  military 
governor  of -both  the  Galicia&  In  the 
campaign  of  1809,  he  distinguished  him- 
self at  Aspem.  B.'aftierward9became  pres- 
ident of  the  council  of  war  at  Vienna,  act- 
ed in  Italy  against  Murat,  was  appointed 
governor  of  Lombardy,  and  lives  now 
retired  fifom  the  service  on  account  of  a 
disorder  in  his  eyes. 

BzLLEQAKBK,  €rabriei  du  Pac  de ;  bora 
at  the  palace  of  Belle|pude,  in  the  year 
1717 ;  one  of  the  mbst  mdeiatigable  com- 
pilers of  history,  who  has  thrown  much 
light  on  the  historical  events  of  the  17th 

'  Beuueisle  (Charles  Louis  Auguste 
Fouquet),  count  de,  maraud  -of  France, 
bom  at  Villeftanche,  Sept  22, 1684,  dis- 
tinguished himself  during  the  fiimous 
siege  of  Lille,  and  became  brigadier  in 
the  n^  forces.  After  the  condusion  of 
the  war  of  the  Spanish  succession,  he 
went,  with  marshal  VilkM,  to  Rastadt, 
Where  he  dkplayed  diplomatic  talents. 
The  oesBion  of  Lorraine  to  France,  in 
1796^  was  principal^  bis  work.  CaidiBal 

Fleury  reposed  confidenee  in  him ;  Loiua 
XV  made  him  governor  of  Melz  and  the 
three  bishoprics  of  Loiraine^  which  office 
he  held  until  his  death.  Beme  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  war,  in  1741,  he  visited  the 
pnncipal  comrts  of  Gennany  with  the 
design  of  disposing  them,  after  the  death 
of  Charies  VX  to  choose  the  elector  of 
Bavaria  emperofr  of  Germany;  and 'he 
displayed  so  much  address,  on  this  occa- 
sion, as  to  excite  the  admiration  of  Fred- 
eric II.  After  his  return,  he  placed  him- 
self, together  with  Broglio,'at  the  head  of 
th^  French  forces,  to  oppose  those  of 
Maria  Theresa.  He  took  Prague  by  as- 
sault; but,  the  king  of  Prussia  having  made 
a  separate  peaee,  he  was  compelled  to  a 
retreat^  which  he  performed  with  admi- 
rable skill  In  Dec.,  1744,  when  on  a 
diplomatic  journey  to  Bniin,  he  was 
arrested  at  Elbintferode,  a  Hanoverian 
post,,  and  sent  to  England,  where  he  was 
exchanged,,  however,  in  1746. .  In  the 
following  year,  he  forced  general  Browne, 
who  had  entered  the  south  of  France 
from  Italy,  to  raise  the  siege  of  Antibes, 
and  to  retreat  over  the  Var.  In  1748,  the 
king  made  him  a  duke  and  peer  of  Fiuice, 
and  the  department  of  war  was  committed 
to  bis  charge.  He  reformed  the  army  by 
abolishing  many  abuses,  enlarged  the  mil- 
itary academy,  and  caused  an  order  of 
merit  to  be  established.  The  city  of  Metz 
is  indebted  to  him  for  an  academy.  He 
died  in  1761. 

Bellerden,  William ;  a  Scottish  writer 
of  the  17th  century,  disdnguished  for  the 
elegance  of  his  Latin  style.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  Paris,  where  he  was  professor 
of  beUes-rlettres  in  1602,  imd,  though  he 
was  made  master  of  requests  by  James  I, 
he  still  continued  to  reside  in  the  French 
metropolis.  In  1606,  he  published  a  work 
entitled  dcero  Princepg,  containing  a  se- 
lection ftpm  the  works  t>f  Cicero,  consist- 
ing; of  passages  relating  to  the  duties  of  a 
prmce,  &c:  He  afterwards  republi^ed 
this  work,  with  some  other  treatises,  in  his 
BdlmdenuB  de  Statu.  This  work  was 
published  again,  in  1787,  by  an  anony- 
mous editor,  since  known  to  have  been 
doctor  Samuel  Parr,  who  added  a  Latin 
preftice  on  the  pohtics  Off  that  time. 
Beulerophon.  ^See  Hapwnieiu.) 
Beluss-Lettrbs  {DrenA)  signifies  the 
soma  with  poUte  UUmhare.  It  is  impossh- 
ble  to  give  a  satisfiu^xr  explanation  of 
what  is  or  has  been  called  %eUes-leUrt$: 
in  ftct,  the  Vaguest  definition  would  be 
the  best,  as  almost  every  branch  of  knowl- 
edge has,  at  one  time,  been  included  in, 
at  another,  excluded  fi«an,thi»dfflimniiia*' 

Digitized  by 



tion.  The  most  correct  definitioD^  tliere- 
Ibre,  would  be,  periiaps,  such  as  enibrdced 
all  knowledge  and  eveiy  science,  not 
merely  abatiact,  nor  simply  useful.  In 
the  division  of  the  departments  at  the 
lyceum  of  arts,  established  at  Paris  in 
179S,the  be]les4ettre8  comprehended  gen- 
eral grammar,  langua^  rhetoric,  geog- 
raphy, histonr,  antiquities  and  numismat- 
ics ;  whilst  philosophy,  mathematics,  &c., 
were  called,  in  contradistinction,  $cienciea. 
If  the  name  of  heUe84ettre8  ought  to  be 
retained  at  all,  it  would  seem  proper  to 
include  under  it  poetry,  rhetoric,  and  all 
prose  which  has  pretensions  to  elegance. 
A  historical  worii,  therefore,  would  fall 
within  the  definition  of  belles-letties,  only 
if  its  style  was  distinguished  for  elesance. 
The  same  would  be  the  base  with  pooks 
of  travels,  &;c.  It  is,  however,  to  be  hoped 
that  this  vague,  unnecessary  name  will 
soon  be  ahandoneiQ,  in  imitation  of  the 
example  of  the  Germans,  who,  bavinff 
investigated  the  philosophy  of  the  arts  and 
sciences  more  thoronghly  than  any  other 
nation,  and  critically  anidyzed  their  prin- 
ciples, have  rejected  the  term;  so  that  it 
is  known  in  Germany  only  as  matter  of 
history.  They  class  poetry  with  the  fine 
arts,  and  its  history,  like  the  history  of 
any  other  art,  science,  nation  or  thing, 
with  the  sciences.  Rhetoric,  too,  is .  call^ 
a.  fine  art.  It  was  formeriy  said,  that  the 
difierence  of  heUes4dires  and.  heij^ux-arls 
consisted  in  the  difierence  of  the  means 
employed  by  each  respectively.  The  for- 
mer, it  was  said,  used  arbitrary  signs^  by 
which  was  meant  language ;  the  latter, 
natural  signs,  L  e.,  sounds  and  visible 
forms.  It  is  easy  to  see  how  untenable 
this  division  is. 

Bkllevue  (Fr.  fne  jtrosptdX  This 
name  is  given  to  several  villas  and  pijdaces, 
but  particularly  to  a  beautiful  country 
palace  in  the  neighborhood  of  Paris,  situ- 
ated on  the  ridge  of  those  mountains 
which  stretch  mm  St  Cloud  towards 
Meudon.  Mad.  de  Pompadour  (q.  v.] 
built  It  The  building  was  commencea 
in  July,  1748,  and  finished  in  November^ 
1750.  After  the  death  pf  Louis  XY ,  the 
use  of  it  was  granied  to  the  aunts  of 
Louis  XVI,  m^ames  de  Franee.  The 
first  French  artists  6f  the  time,  Coustou, 
Adam,  Salu,  PigaUe,  Gragenard,  Laprenue, 
'  had  exerted  aJl  their  talents  in  embellish- 
ing Bellevue ;  so  that  this  palace,  at  the 
period  when  it  was  built,  was  considered 
the  most  charming  in  all  Europe.  Afler 
the  revolution,  the  convention  decreed 
that  Bellevue  should  be  kept  in  repair  at 
the  eiqpense  of  the  nation,  and  that  it 

should  be  devoted  to  public  amusemaiittl 
Nevertheless,  it  was  pubCcly  sold,  during 
the  highest  phch  oi  revolutionary  excite- 
ment, and  the  purchaser,  M.  iJench^re, 
a  iK>8t-ma8ter  in  Paris,  had  it  demolished, 
quite  in  the  spirit  of  the.  Bamdt  noirt. 
(q.  V.)  Its  -ruins  aie  frequently  visited,  on 
account  of  the  beautiful  view. of  Paris 
fit>m  this  spot 

-  Beixini,  James,  and  his  two  sons.  Gen- 
tile and  Giovanni  (who  surpassed  their 
fiither) ;  celebrated  painters,  who  made  a 
new  epoch  in  the  Venetian  school  Of 
James's  works  nothing  has  been  lefl ;  but 
several  of  Gentile's  (e.  g.,'a  Si,  Mark)  have  ^ 
reached  our  times.  In  the  year  1479,* 
Gentile  went  to  Constantinople,  M6ham- 
med  II  having  sent  to  Venice  for  a  skil- 
fbl  painter.  He  is  said  tp  have  there 
copied  the  bass-reliefs  of  the  column  of 
Theodoeius,  and  to  have  died  at  Venice, 
in  the  year  150L  The  most  distinguished 
of  the  fiimlly  was  Giovanni  B.,  who  was 
bom  at  Venice,  about  1^,  and  died  about 
1516.  He  studied  nature  diligently,  and 
his  drawing  was  good.  He  contributed 
much  to  make  oil  paiiiting  popular,  and 
has  lefl  man^r  excellent  pictures,  of  which 
one,  the  Savior  pronouncing  his  Benedict 
(ton,  is  to  be  found  in  the  gulery  of  Dres- 
den. His  own  reputation  was  much  in- 
creased by  that  of  his  celebrated  disciples, 
namely,  Titian  and  Gioi^one.  As  their 
instructer,  he  is  somfetimea  called  the 
founder  of  the  Venetian  schooL 

Belli^le.    (See  BeUe-Idt.)  > 

Beli.hai?n,  Charies  Michael,  the  most 
original  atnong  the  Swedish  poets,  was 
bom  at  Stockholm,  in  1741,  and  grew  up 
in  the  quietude  of  domestic  life.  The 
first  proofs  which  he  gave  of  his  poetic 
talents  were  reli^ous  and  pious  effusions. 
The  dissipated  life  of  young  men,at  Stock- 
holm, devoted  to  pleasure,  was  afterwards 
the  subject  of  his  poems.  By  these  his 
name  was  spread  over  all  Sweden.  Even 
the  attention  of  Gustavus  III  was  attract- 
ied  to  him,  and  he  received  fi^m  the  king 
an  appointment,  which  enabled  him  to 
devote  himself  almost  entirely  to  poetical 

Sursuits,  in  an  easy  independence,  until 
is  death,  in  1795.  His  songs  are  truly 
national,  principally  describing  scenes  of 

«  Bellona;  the  goddess  of  vnir;  daugh- 
ter of  Phorcys  andf  Ceto.  She  was  caUed 
by  tiie  Greeks  Enyo,  and  is  often  con- 
founded with  Minerva.  She  was  anciently 
called  DueUionOy  and  was  the  sister  ot 
Mars,  or,  according  to  some,  his  daugh- 
ter or  his  Wife.  She  prepared  his  chariot 
when  he  was  going  to  war^and  drove  his 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



Med»  through  lh9  tumult  of  the  battle 
with  a  bloody  scourge,  her  hair.diaheveU 
led,  and  a  torch  ia  her  hand*  The  Ro- 
mans paid  great  adoration  to  her ;  but  she 
was  held  in  (he  highest  veneration  by  the 
Cappadocions,  chiefly  at  Cotpaua,  where 
she  had  above  3000  priests.  Her  temple 
at  Rome  was  near  the  Porta  Carmentali^ 
In  it  the  senators  gave  audience  to  foreign 
ambassadors  and  to  generals  returned  Scorn 
war.  At  the  gate  was  a  stoall  coIun:in, 
called  the  column  qf  tpcoTf  against  which 
they  threw  a  spear,  whenever  war  was 
declared.  The  priests  of  this  goddess 
consecrated  themselves  by  making  ffreat 
•  incisions  in  their  bodies,  and  particularly 
in  the  thi|;h,  from  which  they  received 
die  blood  m  their  hands  to  offi^r  as  a  sac- 
rifice to  tlie  goddess.  In  their  wild  en- 
thusiasm, they  oflen  predicted  bloodshed 
and  wars,  the  defeat  of  enemies,  or  the 
besieging  of  towus. 

Bellows  ;  a  machine  so  formed  as  to 
expire  and  mspire  air  by  turns,  by  the 
enWgement  and  contraction  of  the  ca- 
pacity. As  soon  as  men  began  to  make 
use  of  fire,  the  importance  of  bellows  was 
felt,  since  the  natural  bellows,  if  we  xuay 
give  this  name  to  the  lungs,  coul4  not  be 
applied  to  any  great  extent.  The  inven- 
tion of  bellows  is  ascribed  to  Anacharsis 
the  Scythiaji.  Probably,  this  invention, 
like  so  many  others,  took  place  in  difier* 
ent  countries,  since  the  want  which,  oc- 
casioned it  is  universal.  The  first  devia- 
tion firom  the  pncieut,  and  stiJl  cominon 
form  of  the  J^ows,  was  piade  by  the 
Germans,  aiwut  100  years  ago,  and  the 
forms  at  present  are  very  various,  as  many 
attempts  nave  been  made  for  the  improve^ 
ment  of  Uiis  highly  impwtant  machine, 
which  becomes  necessary  wherever  « 
powerful  flamie  is  reqilired  in  the  arts. 
As  mining  is  carried  on  extensively  in 
Germany,  and  great  hea^  is  required  in 
smelting  die  ores^  and  working  the  metals, 
many  new  kinds  of  bellows  have  been 
invented  in  that  country,  of  which  we 
only  mention  that  of  Mr.  von  Baader,  in 
Munich  (known  as  the  inventor  of  a  new 
kind  of  rail-roads).  It  consists  of  an  emp- 
ty box,  which  moves  up  and  down  m 
another,  partially  filled  with  water.  Be- 
tween die  bottom  of  the  empty  box  and 
surface  of  the  water  is  a  space  filled  ^ith 
air,  which  is  driven  out  by  the  desceat 
of  the  endoeed  box.  •  BeUow^  of  very 
great  power  are  generally  ealled  Uowtt^- 
raackmes.  One  of  the  kar|^  ia  that  re* 
ceody  erected  m  England,  at  the  amhh- 
eiy  in  the  king's  dockryard«  at  Woolwich. 
It  m  adequate  to  the  supply  of  air  ibr  40 

forge  firea,  amongst  vbich  are  aeveral 
foi*  the  fhrffne  of  anchors,  iron  knees,  and 
many  other  heavy  pieces  of  (unidiery. 
The  common  Chinese 'bellows  consist  of 
a  box  of  wood  about  two  feet  long,  and 
one  foot  square^  in  which  a  thick,  square 
piece  of  board,  which  exacdy  fits  the 
mtemalcavity  of  the  box,  is  puwed  back- 
wards and  fi)rward8.  In  the  bottom  of 
the  box,  at  ^ach  end,  there  is  a  sniall  coni- 
cal or  plug  valve  to  admit  the  air,  and 
valves  above  to  discharge  it. 

BfiLLOY,  Pierre  (jaurent  Buirette  die, 
die  first  French  dramatist  who  success- 
fully  introduced  i^itiv(9  heroes  upon  the 
French  stage,  instead  of  those  of  Greece 
and  Rome,  or  the  great  men  of  other  na- 
dons,  was  bom  at  §t  Flour,  in  Auvergne, 
in.  1727. .  He  went  tx>  Paris  when  a  child, 
lost  his  fioher  soon  ^fier,  and  was  sup- 
ported by  his  uncle,  a  disdnguished  ad- 
vocate in  the  parliament  of  Paris,  who 
designed  him  fi>r.the  same  profession. 
He  applied  hin^self  to  this  profession  with 
reluctanoe,  while  he  showed  much  genius 
for  .the  drama.  His  uncle  oppos^  this 
taste,  and  the  young  man  secredy  left 
hi^  house.  He  now  made  his  appearance 
at  several  northern  courts,  as  an  actor, 
under  the  name  of'DormofU  de  fieUoy, 
Every  where  his  character  gained  him 
love  and  esteem.  -  He  spent  several  years 
in  Petersburg,  where  the  empress  Wmt- 
beth  showed  him  mUch  kindness.  In 
1758,  he  returned  to  Fnmee,  with  the  in- 
tendon  of  having  his  tragedy  Tihu  rep- 
resented. His  uncle  obtuned  a  warrest 
of  imprisonment  against  him,  in  case  he 
should  appear  on  the  stage.  B.  had 
hoped  to  reconcile  his  famuy  to  him  by 
the  success  of  TUut,  but  this  hope  was 
disappointed  by  the  fiulure  of  the  piece ; 
and  the  audior  virent  once  more  to  Pei> 
tersburg.  Shordy  after,  his  unde  died, 
and  B.  returned  again  to  France,  where 
he  brought  out  his  tragedy  Zdndn^ 
which  was  acled  with  .the  most  complete 
success.  In  1765  followed  his  SUgt  de 
CakMt  a  tragedy  which  produced  a  great 
sensation,  aim  is  sdll  esteemed,  though  it 
owes  the  applause  bestowed  on  it  rather 
to  its  subject  than  to  its  poedcal  merit 
He  received  the  medal  'promised  by  the 
king  t6  those  poets  who  should  produce 
three  successrul  pieces,  and  which  baa 
been  awarded  only  on  this  occaaioii.  On 
account  of  the  great  applause  with  wMoh 
the  Siege  of  Calais  was  reoetved,  it  was 
ooui^ted  as  two,  it  being,  in  fiiet,  onl^  the 
second  successfiil  piece  of  B.  The  city  of 
Calais  sent  him  the  fipe^om  of  the  eity,  in 
a  gold  box,  with  the  inseiiption  .' 

Digitized  by 




hditj  emeam  rte^pt  B.  has  written  sun- 
dry other,  dramatic  pieces,  of  which  Gtu- 
ton  et  Bt^orof  procured  his  reception  into 
t^eAcadimitFrangaMt.  Upon  the  whole, 
he  was  not  happy  in  the  oxpression  of 
tragical  pathos.  .  He  died  in  1775. 
Bell-Rock.  {See  BeiiL-JZocX^) 
Beloochistan.  (See  Bdajiatan) 
Belt,  the  Great  and  Little ;  two  straits 
of  Denmark,  connecting  the  Baltic  with 
the  Cattegat  The  former  hins  between 
the  islancb  of  Zealand  and  Funen,  and  is 
about  15  miles  in  width,  where  it  is  Crossed 
fiom  Nybon^,  in  Funen,  to  Corso^r,  in 
Zealand.  The  greatest  breadxh  of  the 
strait  is  20  miles.  The  navigation  is  veiy 
dangerous,  on  account  of  the  many  small 
islands  and  sand4NU]Ju,  by  which  the 
channel  .is  impeded.  Vessels  sailing 
through  this  strait  pay  tribute  at  Ny- 
borg.  The  Little  Belt  is  between  the 
island  of  Funen  and  the  coast  of  Jutland, 
and  the  narrowest  part  of  the  strait  is  not 
more  than  a  mile  in  width.  At  this  place 
stands  the  fortress  Fredericia,  where  the 
tolls  are-  paid^  T)ie  fortress  i commands 
completely  the  entrance  from  the  Catte- 
gat The-  sound  between  Zealand  .and 
me  Swedish  coast  is  preferred  for  all 
large  vessels 

JBelujistazt,  or  Beluchistan  ;  a  coun- 
try in  Asia,  situated  on  the  north-west  of 
mib  peninsula  of  Hindostan,  formerly  be- ' 
longing  to  Persia;  now  connected  with 
GabulStan.  It  comprehen()s,'in  ii^ '  most 
eztensivB  acceptation,  all  die  space -4)6- '•' 
tween  Ion.  58^  and  67^  E.;  lat.  W  and 
3(f  N.  It  extends  fio'm  the  country  of. 
the  Afghans  on  ^e  north*  to  the  Indiaii. 
ocean,  and  from  die  provinces  of  Lari^tan 
and  Kezman  on  the  west  to  that  of  Sind 
on  the  east  It  contaiijs  ^  principal  di- 
visions : — I.  Jhalawan  and  Sarawan,  with 
the  district  of  Kelat ;  2.  Macran  and  Les ; 
3.  Kohistan,  that  is,  the  mountainous  re- 
mon  west  of  the  Desert ;  'Aj.  the  Desert  ^  5. 
Cach  Gandavah  ai^d  tb^  district  of  Her- 
rend  Dajel ;  6.  the  prpvince  of  Sind.  It 
is  very  mountainous.  Many  of  the  moun- 
tains are  of  great  height,  covered'  with* 
snow.  In  the  plains,  the  heat  is  very 
great;  in  summer,  water  is  raieraUy 
scarce.  The  rivers  are  the  Pooralle 
Muktoo,  Dast,  Nughor,  Sinroo  and  Sud- 
gee.  The  desert  of  Belujistan  is  300 
miles  Imig,  and  upwards  of  200  broad, 
consisting  of  waves  of  sand  ejctremely 
difficult  to  be  traversed.  The  minerals 
are  gold,  silver,  lead,  iron,  copper,  tin, 
rock  sah,  alum,  saltpetre  and  sulphur. 
The  soil  produces  jpnin,  cotton,  indigo, 
madder  and  asBaftstida.    The  Belooches,' 

or  Balojes,'  consist  of  three  tribes — the 
Beluches,  the  Brahuis,  the  Dehwara. 
They  are  wariike  and  semi-barbarous. 
They  live  a  pastoral  life,  and  are  of  the 
Mohammedan  reti^ion.  Little  was  known 
of  this  country,  till  Mr.  Pottinger,  and 
some  other  enterprising  officers  in  the 
East  India  company's  service,  explored  it 
in  1809  and  1810. 

Belvedere  (Ital.  iEne  sigU.  See  BdU" 
ime.)  The  name  of  buildings  in  Italy  des- 
tined for  the  enjoyment  df  prospects. 
The  name  is  also  given  to  the  small  cupokiB 
on  houses,  which  are  ascended  for  the 
sake  of  fresh  air,  or  of  the  view  which 
they  afford.  Many  of  the  buildings  in 
Rome  are  furnished  with  such  cupolas ; 
yet  the  term  hdotdert  is  generally  applied 
only  to  those  on.  the  pamces  of  the  rich. 
In  France,  the  name  oeUevut  is  given  to 
smitU  countrv-seats,  in  a  simple  style^ 
or  to  arched  bowers  at  the  end  of  a  gar- 
den or  park,  intended  for  the  enjoyment 
of  fresh  air,  er  as  places  of  sheher  against 
the  burning  sun.  This  vi  the  name,  also, 
of  a  port  oithe  Vatican,  where  the  famous 
statue  of  Apollo  is  placed,  which,  on  this 
account,  is  called  ApoUo  Belvedere, 
'  Belzoni,  Giambattista,  that  is,  ^ohn 
Baptist ;  bom  at  Padua,  and  educated  at 
Rome.  He  was  destined  for  the  monastic 
life^  but  left  the  city  when  it  was  occu- 
pied by  the  French  armies,  and,  in  1803, 
went  to  England,  where  he  acted  the 
parts  of  Apouo  and  HeKsule^  at  Astley's 
mnpliitheatre.  Here  he  acquired,  besides 
an  acquaintance  with  the  English  lan- 
guage, much  knowledge  of  the  science 
of  hydraulics,  the  study  of  which  had 
been  his  chief  occupation  in  Rome,  and 
which  afterwards  carried  him  to  Egypt: 
He  left  England,  after  a  residence  of  nme 
years,  accompanied  by  his  vrife  (who 
faced  the  Arabs  with  the  courage  of  an 
Ama^on),  and  took  his  way  through 
Portugal,  Spain  and  Malta  to  Egypt 
There  he  hved,  from  1815  to  1819,  at 
first  as  a  dancer,  till  he  won  the  favor  of 
the  pacha,  who  made  use  of  his  services. 
K,  though  often  alone  amidst  the  rude 
inhabitants  of  the  country,  kept  them  in 
awe  by  his  extraordinary  stature  and 
strength.  He  succeeded  m  opening,  not 
only  the  pyramid  of  Ghiza,  which  had 
been  already  opened,  in  the  17&  century, 
by  Pietro  della  Valle,  and  to  which  the 
French,  dnring  their  expedition  to  Egypt, 
could  not  find  the  entrance,  but,  a£lo,  a 
second,  known  by  the  name  of  Cepkrenes^ 
9^d  several  catacombe  n^ar  Thebes,  es- 
j^cially'one,  m  a  fine  state  of  preserva- 
tion, in  the  valley  of  Biban  e)  Molook, 


^  by  Google 


yMch  iB  coandeved  to  be  theroauspleum 
of  Psamnus  (400  B.  C).  The  drawings 
which  he  has  ftmished  of  these  an- 
tiquities are  the  most  exact  which  we 
possess.  In  the  year  1816,  his  perpe- 
TCrance  and  skill  succeeded  in  trans- 
porting the  bust  of  Jupiter  Memnon,  |o- 
gether  with  a  sarcophagus  of  alabaster, 
u>und  ui  the  catacombs,  fiom  Thebes  to 
Alexandria,  from  whence  they  came,  to 
the  British  itiuseum.  On  the  ilst  of 
August,  1817,  he  opened  the  temple  of 
Ipeambul,  near  the  second  cataract  of  the 
Nile,  which  two  Frenchmen,  Oailliaud  aitfd 
Drovetti  (the  French  consul-ffeneral),  had 
discoFered  the  year  before,  out  had  not 
succeeded  in  opening.  B  discovered  a 
subterraneous  temple  in  its  ruins,  which, 
until  that  time,  had  been  unknown.  He 
then  visited  the  coasts  of  the  Red  sea,  and 
the  city  of  Berenice,  and  made  an  expe- 
dition into  the  Oasis  of  Jupiter  Anmion. 
His  joiuney  to  Berenice  was  rewarded  by 
the  discoverv  of  the  emerald  mines  of  Zu- 
bara.  3.  refuted  Cailliaud^s  assertion,  that 
he  had  found  the  femous  Berenice,  the 
great  emporium  of  Europe  and  India,  hy 
subsequent  investigations  on  the  spot,  and 
by  the  actual  discovery  of  the  ruins  of 
that  great  city,  four  days  journey  from  the 
place  which  Cailliaud  had  taken  for  Bere- 
nice. B.'s  Narrative  of  the  Operations 
and  recent  Discoveries  within  me  Pyra- 
mids,, Temples,  Tombs  and  Excavauons 
in  Ein^pt  and. Nubia ;  and  of  a  Jouniey  to 
the  Coast  of  the  Bed  Sea,  in  Search  of 
Berenice ;  also  of  another  to  the  Oasis  of 
Jupiter  Ammon  (London,  1820) ;  acpom- 
panied  by  a  folio  vol  of  44  copper-plates ; 
was  received  with  general  approoation. 
Padua,  his  native  city,  requited  nis  present 
of  two  Egyptian  statues  from  Thebes, 
with  a  medal  by  Manfredini.  ^Concerning 
the  models,  which  B.  placed  m  Bullock's 
museum,  see  Afuseum.)  In  the  year  1823, 
this  enterprising  traveMer  had  niade  prep- 
arations for  passing  from  Benin  to  Hous- 
sa  and  Timbuctoo,  when  he  died,  at 
Gate,  on  his  way  to  Benin,  Dec.  3, 1823. 
He  believed  the  Nile  and  the  Niger  to  be 
different  streams,  and  that  the  Niger  emp- 
ties its  waters  into  the  Atlantic  ocean. 

Bembo,  Pietro ;  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated of  the  Italian  scholars,  that  adorned 
the  16thcenturv ;  bom  at  Venice,  m  i47Q. 
He  very  early  learned  the  Latin,  and  af- 
terwards^ at  Messina,  under  the  direction 
of  Lascaris,  the  Greek  kn^age ;  afler 
which  ha  letumed  to  his  native  country, 
and  there  published  a  small  treatise  on 
mount  Etna*  In  compliance  with  the 
Will  of  his  ftther,  he  entered  upon  the 

career  of  public  btta&eas,  but,  soon  eon- 
ceiving  a  dislike  for  it,  he  devoted  him- 
self to  science  and  the  theological  pro- 
fession. At  Feirara,  where  he  completed 
his  philosophical  studies,  he  entered  intp 
a  condeadon  with  Eroole  Strozzi,  Tibal- 
deo,  and  particularly  with  Sadoleto.  From 
Ferrara  he  returned  to  Venice,  where  a 
literary  sodetyhad  beep  established,  in 
the  house  pf  the  printer  Aldus  Manutius. 
B.  became  one  of  its  principal  members, 
and,  for  some  time,  took  pleasure  in  cor- 
recting the  beautiful  editions  which  pro- 
ceeded from  this  celebrated  press.  After 
visiting  Rome,  lie  went,  in  1506,  to  the 
court  of  Urbkto,  at  that  time  one  pf  those 
Italian  coiuts  where  the  sciences  stood 
higheet  in  esteem.  He  lived  there  about 
suL  years,  and  niined  several  powerful 
friends.  In  1512,  he  went  to  Rome  with 
Giuho  de'  Medici,  whos^  brother,  pope 
Leo  X.  made  lum  h»  secretary,  and  gave 
him  his  fii^nd  Sadoleto  for  a  colleague. 
About  this  time,  B;  became  acquainted 
with  the  young  and  beantiful  Morosina, 
with  whom  he  lived,  in  the  most  tender 
union,  during  22  years.  She  presented 
him- with  two  sons  and  a  daughter,  whom 
he  educated  with  the  ffreatest  care.  His 
many  labors,  arising  mm  hi6  office,  as 
well  as  his  literary  pursuits,  and,  perhaps, 
tod  ||;reat  an  induIgenGe  in  pleai^ure,  hav- 
ing  unpaired  his  health,  he  was  u^g  the 
baths  of  Padua,  when  he  was  apprized 
of  the  death  of  Leo  X.  Being  by  this 
time  possessed  of  several  church  bene- 
fices, he  resolved  on  withdrawing  entirely 
from  business,  and  on  passing  his  days  at 
Padua,  (the  air  of  wluch  he  had  f^und 
very  beneficial),  occupied  only  with  lit- 
erature and  science,  and  enjoying  the  so- 
ciety of  his  fiienda.  The  leamcSl  mem- 
bers of  the  famous  university  of  this  city 
eagerlv  fi*equented  his  house,  and  stran- 
gersi  also  flocked  thither.  B.  collected  a 
considerable  library :  he  had  a  cabinet  of 
medals' and  antiquities,  which,  at,  that 
time,  passed  for  one  of  the  richest  in  Ita- 
ly, ana  a  fine  botanical  jgarden.  He  spent 
me  sprintf  and  autumn  at  a  villa  called 
J^ozzo,  which  had  always  belonge(^  to  bis 
.fanuly.  He  devoted,  the  leisure  of  a 
country  life  principally  to  his  literary  pur- 
suits. In  the  year  1529,  kfler  the  death 
of  Andreas  Navagero,  tlie  office  of  histo- 
riographer of  the  republic  of  Venice  was 
offered  to  him,  which  he  accepted,  afler 
some  hesitation^  and  declbiuig  the  salary 
connected  with  it.  At  the  same  time,  he 
was  nominated  librarian  of  the  library  of 
St.  Mark.  Pope  Paul  IH,  havin{|;  re- 
solved upon  a  new  promotion  of  cardmals, 

Digitized  by 



ftom  iSm  inofit  dMngtiifliwd  men  of  his 
Hme,  conferred  on  mm,  in  1599,  the  bat 
of  a  cwdinaL  From  that  time,  B.  re- 
nounced the  belles-lettrea,  and  made  the 
ftthenB  and  the  Holy  Scriptures  his  chief 
study.  Of  his  former  labors,  he  continued 
only  the  Histoiy  of  Venice.  Two  years 
later,  Paul  III  bestowed  the  bishopric  of 
Gubbio  on  him,  and,  soon  after,  tlie  rich 
bishopric  of  Bergaino.  He  died,  loaded 
with  honors^  1547,  in  the  77th  year  of  his 
ftge,  B.  united  in  his  person,  his  chaiiac- 
ter  and  conversation,  all  that  is  amiable. 
He  was  tbe  restorer  of  a  pure  style,  as 
Well  in  Latin  composition,  in  which 
Cicero,  Vii^il  and  Juhus  Ctesar  were  his 
constant  models,  as  in  the  Italian,  in  which 
he  chiefly  imitated  Petrarca.  ^  He  wa?  so 
rigorous  with  regard  to  puritv  of  style, 
that  he  is  said  to  have  had  40  diflereht 
partitions,  through  which  his  writings,  as 
he  polished  them  by  degrees,  successive- 
ly passed ;  nor  did  he  publish  them  till 
they  had  sustained  these  40  examinations. 
A  collection  of  all  his  works,  which  were 
fiequently  printed  singly,  appeared,  in 
1729,  at  Venice,  in  4  folio  vols.  The 
most  important  of  them  are,  Histoiy  of 
Venice  from  1487  to  1513,  in  12  books, 
which  he  wrote  both  in  Latin  and  Italian ; 
Le  Proscj  dialogues,  in  which  the  rules 
of  the  Italian  language  are  laid  down : 
Gli  AsoUmiy  dialogues  on  the  nature  of 
love;  Ia  Rime,  a  collection  of  beauti- 
jful  sonnets  and  canzonets;  his  letters, 
both  in  Latin  and  Italian:  De  VtrgUii 
CuUce  et  Terentii  Fabidis  Liber ;  Ccmm- 
no,  which  are  ingenious  and  elegant,  but 
mora  free  than  the  author's  profession 
would  lead  us  to  expect ;  besides  scveml 

Ben  [Hehretp,  son);  a  preiKwitive  syl- 
lable, found  in  many  Jewish  names ;  as, 
Bendavidj  Benasser,  &c.,  which,  with  the 
Jews  in  Germany,  has  been  changed  into 
the  German  Sohn  (son))  e*  g<,  Mendds- 
wAn,  Jacohs9fihn^  &c.  liie  origin  of  this 
manner  of  naming  is  to  be  found  in  the 
ancient  custom  of  the  Israelites'  having 
no  fiuiiily  names,  which  is  still  their  Usage 
in  many  countries. 
Beitares  ;  a  t9wn  and  district  in  the 
ipvinoe  of  Allahabad,  in  Bengal.  It 
as  an  area  of  12,000  square  miles,  10,600 
of  which  are  rich.*cultivated  flats  on  each 
«de  of  the  Ganges.  The  heat,  in  sum- 
mer, is  excessive,  but,  in  winter,  fires  are 
requisite.  Garden-stufl^  grain  of  differ- 
ent kinds,  flax  for  oil  (no  Unens  are  man- 
ufactured here),  and  sugar,  are  the  prin- 
cipal objects  of  cultivation.  Thcjjross 
revenue,  in  1813,  amounted  to  4,562,707 


rupees  (£570,338).  Muslins,  silks  and 
^uzes,  sah,  indigo  and  opium  are  made 
m  this  district  The  principal  towns  are 
Benares,  Miraa-pur,  Chunargarh  and 
Ghazi-pur.  The  population  exceeds 
3,000,000,  and  the  Hindoos  are  to  the 
Mussulmans  as  10  to  1  in  the  town,  and 
as  20  tQ  1  in  the  villages.  The  rajah 
Chet  Suiffh  was  expelled  by  Mr.  Has- 
tmgs  in  1/81. 

Benares  (in  Sanscrit,  Vara  Nasi,  from 
the  two  streams,  Vara  and  Nasi)  stands 
in  lat  25°  W  N.,  and  ton.  83«  1'  E.,  on 
the  high  bank  and  northern  side  of  the 
Ganges.  The  town  rises  like  an  amphi- 
theanrie.  The  height  of  the  houses  and 
narrowness  of  the  streets  give  it  all  the 
usual 'inconveniences  of  an  Asiatic  town. 
Its  inhabitants  are  more  than  600,000,  of 
whom  8000  are  said  to  be  Bramins ;  and, 
at  the  great  Hindoo  festivals,  the  concourse 
is  immense ;  for  Coii,  or  Cashi,  the  tpUndid, 
as  the  Indians  commonly  caTl  it,  is  one 
of  the  most  sacred  places  of  pilgrimage  in 
all  India.  To  die  at  B.  is  the  greatest 
happinesB  for  a  Hindoo,  because  he  is 
then  sure  of  immediate  admission  into 
heaven.  The  number  of  pious  founda- 
tions and  temples  is  exceedingly  great. 
Several  of  the  Hindoo  princes  have  agents 
here  to  offer  up  sacrifices  in  their  behalf 
The  ]3rincipal  temple  is  called  Fhweswar 
or  Bisesar,  and  is  dedicated  to  Siva, 
whose  sacred  relic  it  contains.  Aurung- 
zeb  built  a  splendid  mosque  on  the  high- 
est ground  in  the  city,  and  on  the  nims 
of  a  temple.  At  the  end  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury, an  observatory  was  erected  in  this 
city,  which  still  exists ;  and  a  college  for 
the  instruction  of  Hindoos  in  their  own 
literature  was  established  by  ^e  British 
ffovcmmeni  in  1801 ;  but  it  h«a  not  yet 
done  much  for  the  revival  of  Icammg 
among  the  natives,  owing  to  the  pride  of 
the  Bramins.  B.  has  long  been  tlie  great 
mart  for  diamonds  and  other  gems, 
brought  principally  from  the  Bundel- 
cund.  xhe  merchants  hnd  bankeiB 
are  numerous  and  wealthy.  There  are 
few  English  inhabitants,  except  the  ffov- 
emment  officers  and  the  members  of  the 
circuit  court  Casi  yras  ceded  to  the 
East  India  company  by  the  nabob  of 
Aud'h  (Oude),  m  1775,  and,  since  1781, 
has  enjoyed  uninterrupted  tranquillity. 
The  inhabitants  are  better  informed  than 
the  natives  of  the  countiy  in^^neraL 
The  reader  will  find  an  interesting  ac- 
count of  B.  in  bishop  Heber's  Narrative 
of  a  Journey  through  the  Upper  Prov- 
inces of  India,  in  1834—26;  Londom 
1828,  Philadelphia,  1829,  vol.  1. 

Digitized  by 




Bkr AYiDBfl  ;  an  outlaw  and  pirate, 
who,  for  several  years,  proved  the  scourge 
of  the  aoittheni  parts  of  Chile.  He  was 
a  native  of  Qninhue,  in  the  {Province  of 
ConcepcioD,  and  entered  the  patriot  army 
as  A  common  soldier  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  revolution.  Having  deserted 
to  the  Spaniards,  and  being  made  pris-s 
oner  by  the  ChiUans,  at  me  batde  of 
Membnlla,  in  1814,  he  was  to  have  been 
tried  for  desertion,  but  effected  his  es- 
cape. Being  made  prisoner  again  at  the 
battle  of  Maypu,  in  1818,  he  was  sen- 
tenced to  be  shot,  and  was  supposed  to 
have  been  killed  \  but,  although  shoc]|:- 
ingly  wounded,  and  left  for  dead,  he  re- 
covered, and,  having  obtained  a  com- 
mission from  the  Spanish  commander 
Sanchez,  he  commenced  a  war  upon  the 
southern  frontier  of  Chile,  never  surpass- 
ed in  sava^je  cruelty.  He  laid  waste  the 
country  with  fiie  and  sword,  murdered 
bis  prisoners,  and  perpetrated  the  most 
homd  cruelties  upon  the  unarmed  peas- 
ants, including  women  and  children,  who 
chanced  to  &U  into  his  power.  Notwitk- 
standing  repeated  engiagements  with  the 
Chilean  ibrces  of  th^  province  of  Con- 
cepcion,  he  sustained  himself^  for  a  Ions 
time,  in  diis  atrocious  course.  At  length 
he  undertook  to  establi^  a  navy,  and,  for 
this  purpose,  piratically  seized  upon  sev- 
eral English  and  American  vessels,  which 
unsuspectingly  stopped  for  refreshment 
not  &i  from  the  town  of  Arauco,  the 
centre  of  his  operations.  So  intolerable 
had  the  {^evance  become,  that,  in  1821, 
the  Chihaos  fitted  out  an  expedition 
against  Arauco,  and  succeeded  m  break- 
ing up  the  robber's  strong  hold.  He  at- 
temptied  to  escape  to  Fern  in  a  launch, 
but,  being  captured,  was  condemned  to 
death,  and  executed  Feb.  23, 1822.— Ht9- 
tory  oflitv»  in  Sppmsk  Americcu 

Bej(bow,  John ;  an  English  naval 
character  of  distinguished  merit  ;•  bom  in 
Shrewsbury,  about  1650,  and  brou«[ht  up 
to  the  sea  in  the  merchant  service ;  fought 
so  desperately  against  a  pirate  from  Sal- 
lee,  in  one  of  h&  trips  to  the  Mediterra- 
iMsan,  about  the  year  1686,  as  to  beat  her 
off,  though  oeatly  his  superior  in  men 
and  metal.  For  this  gallant  action,  he 
was  promoted  at  once,  by  James  II,  to 
the  command  of  a  ship  of  war.  William 
III  employed  him  in  protecting  the  Enj^- 
Ush  trade  in  the  channel,  which  he  did 
with  great  efiect  His  valof  and  activity 
secured  him  the  confidence  of  the  nation, 
and  h^  was  soon  promoted  to  the  tank 
of  rear-admiral,  and  cfairrged  with  the 
Uockade  of  Dunkirk.   'But.  the  squadron 

VOL.  I.  5 

in  that  port,  under  Uie  command  of  Du 
Bart,  managed  to  slip  out  of  port ;  nor 
could  Benbow,  though  he  sailed  instantly 
in  pursuit,  overtake  >t  In  1701,  he  sailed 
to  the  West  Indi^  with  a  small  fleet, 
haviilg  accepted  a  coininand  previously 
declined  by  several  of  his  seniors,  from 
the  supposed  superiority  of  the  enemy's 
force  m  that  quarter.  In  August  of 
the  following  year,  he  fell  in  with  the 
French  fleet  under  t>u  Casse,  and  for 
five  days  maintained  a  nmning  nght  with 
them,  when. he  at  length  succeeded  in 
bringing  the  enemy's  stemihost  ship  to. 
close  quarters.  In  the  beat  of  the  action, 
a  chain-shot  carried  away  one  of  his  legs, 
and  he  was  tdien  below ;  but  the  mo- 
ment the  dressing  had  been  anpUed  to 
the  wound,'  he  caused  himself  to  be 
brought  again  on  deck,  and  continued 
the  action.  At  this  criti<»l  instant,  beinff 
most  disgracefully  abandoned  by  sevenu 
of  the  captains  under  his  conunand,  who 
signed  a  mper  expresshig  their  opinion 
that  **  nothing  more  was  to  be  done,"  the 
whole  fleet  effected  its  escape.  B.,  on 
his  return  to  Jamaica,  bsQUffht  the  delin- 
quents to  a  court-martial,  by- which  two 
of  them|  were  convicted  of  cowardice  and 
disobedience  of  orders,  and  condemned 
to  be  shot ;  which  sentence,  on  their  arri^ 
val  in  England,  was  carried  into  execution 
at  Plymouth.  B.,  who  suffered  equally 
in  nund  mid  body  firom  this  disgraceful 
business,  gradually  sunk  under  lus  feel-' 
ings,  and  expired  at  Jamaica,  Nov.  4, 1702. 
Bemcoolen,  or  BERKA9in;.£ ;  a  seaport 
of  Sumatra,  on  the  S.  W.  coast ;  Ion.  102° 
11'  E.;  laL  3°  SO'  a  The  English  set- 
tled here  in  1685,  and,  in  1690,  the  East 
India  company  buuh  a  fort  here,  calling  it 
fart  York.  A  convenient  river  on  its  N. 
W.  side  brings  the  pepper  out  of  the  in- 
land country  f  but  tbere  is  great  incon- 
venience in  shipping  it,  by  reason  of  a 
dangerous  bar  at  the  river's  mouth.  The 
place,  which  is  almost  two  miles  in  com- 
pass, is  known  at  sea  by  a  high,  slender 
inountam,  which  rises  in  the  eountir,  20 
miles  beyond  it,  called  the  Sugar-Locf. 
It  is  inhabited  by  a  mixed  population. 
The  medium  heat  throughout  the  year  is 
fit)m  SV  to  82^.  B»  is  the  chief  establish- 
ment of  the  East  India  company  on  the 
island  of  Sumatra.  The  settlement,  lat- 
terlv,  is  of  but  little  importance.  Pepper 
is  Ane  only  {nroduce  of  the  adjacent  coun- 
tty,  which  is  mpontsdnous  and  woody. 
The  air  is  fiiU  of  msMgnaiir  vapors,  and 
the  mountains  always  covered  with  thick 
clouds,  which  burst  m  storms  of  thunder, 
rain,  &c 

.Digitized  by 




BszvDA,  Geoiigei  director  of  the  ehftpel 
at  Gotha,  bom  at  Junfibuntzlau,  in  Bo- 
hemia, 1731,  received  mm  Fredmc  II 
the  place  of  the  second  violinist  in  the 
chai)el  at  Berlin,  but,  in  1748,  entered  the 
service  of  the  duke  of  Gotba,  as  chapel- 
master,  where  he  constantly  cultivated 
his  talents  for  composition,  particulariy 
of  sacred  music.  His  Ariadne,  an  opera, 
was  received  with  enthusiastic  applause 
in  Germany,  and  afterwards'  in  all  Europe, 
being  distinguished  for  ori^ality,  sweet- 
ness and  ingenious  execution,  nis  com- 
positions are  numerous;  but  his  Ariadne 
IS  his  best  work.  He  died'  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Gotha,  1795.  His  absence  of 
mind  has  given  rise  to  many  amusing 
anecdotes.'  His  elder  brother,  Francis, 
was  a  distinguished  violinist  Their  fa- 
ther was  a  poor  linen- weaver. 

Bender  (in  the  Moldau  language,  Ti' 
gino) ;  the  cliief  city  of  a  district  in  the 
Russian  province  Bessarabia,  on  the 
Dniester ;  Ion.  24<»46'  E. ;  lat.  46°  51'  N. ; 
population,  10,000.  It  is  built  in  the 
shape  of  a  crescent,  is  well  fortified,  has 
12  mosques  and  1  Armenian  church. 
The  streets  are  narrow  and  dark.  Its 
commerce  is  important,  and  it  .carries  on 
some  branches  of  manu&cture.  Here 
resided  Charles  XIL  j(q.  v.)  In  1771,  the 
Russians  took  the  place,  and  killed  most  of 
the  troops  and  citizens,  amounting  to 
neariy  30^000  persons.  The  peace  of 
Cainardsbi,  in  1774,  restored  it  to  Turkey. 
In  1809,  it  was  conquered  by  the  Rus- 
sians, but  again  restored  to  the  Turks  by 
the  peace  of  Jassy.  Since  the  peace  of 
Bucharest,  in  1812^  it  has  belonged  to 

Benedict  XIV  (Prosper  Lambertini), 
bom  at  Bologna,  in  i675^of  a  very  respect- 
able &mily,  distinffuished  himself  in  his 
youth,  by  a  rapid  j^ogiess  in  all  the 
sciences.  His  mvonte  author  was  St 
Thomas.  He  applied  himself  vnth  suc- 
cess to  the  canon  and  civil  law,  and  be- 
came advocate  to  the  consistory  at  Rome. 
Afterwards,  he  was  appointed  nramoior 
JUeij  and  wrote  a  valuable  worn  on  the 
Ceremonies  used  in  BeatiAcatioiis  (Boloff- 
na,  1734, 4  vols.  foL)  He  veas  passionateTy 
fond  of  learning,  of  historical  research^ 
and  monuments  of  art,  and  also  associated 
with  the  disdnguished  men  of  his  time; 
among  others,  with  fother  Montfaticon, 
who  said  of  him, ,  ^  Benedict  has  two 
wmls;  one  for  science,  and  the  o&er  for 
flodeQr."  He  abo  made  himself  fiuniliar 
with  the  best  poedcal  works,  whereby 
his  mind  became  devated  and  his  style 
animated.    Benedict  XIII  made  him,  in 

1797,  bishop  of  Ancona ;  in  1738,  caidinal^ 
and  in  1733,  archbishop  of  B<riogna.  In 
every  station,  he  displayed  great  talents, 
and  flilfiUed  his  duties  with  the  most 
conscientious  zeal.  He  opposed  fonati- 
cism  even  at  the  risk  of  his  own  safety, 
defended  the  oppressed,  and  expressed 
himself  with  the  greatest  frankness  to 
Clement  XII,  without  losing  his  favor. 
When,  after  the  death  of  Ctement  XII, 
in  1740,  the  election  of  a  new  pope  in 
the  conclave  was  retarded  by  the  in- 
trigues of  cardinal  Tencin,  and  the  car- 
dinals could  not  agree,  Lambertiiu,  With 
his  Usual  good  nature,  said  /to  them,  <*  If 
you  want  a  saint,  take  Gotti ;  if  a  politi- 
cian, Aldobrandi ;  if  a  good  old  man, 
myself."  These  words,  thrown  out  in  a 
humorous  manner,  operated  on  the  con- 
clave like  inspiration,  and  Lambertini, 
under  the  name  of  Benedict  XTT,  ascend- 
ed the  papal  throne.  His  dboice  of  the 
ipinisters  and  fiiends,  whom  he  assembled 
around  him,  does  the  greatest  honor  to 
his  judgment  The  condition  of  the 
chui^,  and  of  the  Roman  court,  had  not 
escaped  his  penetration.  Since  the  ref- 
ormati<Mi,  princes  no  longer  trembled  at 
the  thunders  of  the  Vatican.  The  popes 
had  renounced  their  pretensions  to  wond- 
)y  authori^,  and  Lambertini  knew  that 
respect  for  the  papal  authority  could  be 
mamtained  only  bv  a  wise  moderatioit 
He  constantly  regulated  his  measures  by 
this  principle,  and  thus,  succeeded,  even 
in  difficult  circumstances,  in  satisi^g, 
not  only  the  Catholic,  but  even  the  Prot- 
estant princes.  The  sciences  were  a 
special  object  of  his  care.  He  established 
academies  at  Rome ;  promoted  the  pros- 
perity of  the  academy  at  Bologna ;  caused 
a  degree  of  the  meridian  to  be  measured ; 
the  obelisk  to  be  erected  in  the  Campus 
Martius ;  the  church  of  St  Maroellino  to 
be  built  after  a  plah  projected  by  him- 
self;  the  beautiful  pictures  in  St  Peter's 
to  be  executed  in  mosaic ;  the  best  Eng- 
lish and  French  works  to  be  translated 
into  Italian ;  and  commanded  a  cataloffue 
of  the  manuscripts  contained  in  the  Vati- 
can library  (the  number  of  which  he  had 
enlarged  to  3300)  to  be  printed.  His  gov- 
ernment of  the  papal  states  did  eqnfel 
honor  to  Ins  wisdom.  He  enacted  severe 
laws  agamst  usury,  fiivored  commercial 
liberdr,  and  diminished  the  number  of 
holydays.  His  jnety  was  sincere,  yet 
enlightened  and  forbearing.  *  He  strove 
to  maintain  puritv  of  doctrine  and  of 
morals,  giving^  in  his  own  character,  the 
most  praiseworthy  example.  He  died» 
after  a  painftil  udoieeBi  during  which  Ins 

Digitized  by 




ehaerfbhiflfli  and  yvm^  never  deeened 
him,  Maj  3;  1758.  The  sole  reproach 
broucfat  agaixiBt  him  by  the  Romans  ynm, 
that  ne  wrote  too  much,  and  governed 
too  litde.  ffis  works  compose,  in  the 
Venice  edition,  16  vols.  ^L  The  most 
important  of  his  woiics  is  that  on  the 
synods,  in  which  we  recognise  the  great 

Benedict,  St ;  the  rounder  of  the  first 
religious  order  in  the  West ;  bom  at  Nor- 
cia,  m.  Spoleto  (in  the  present  Ecclesiasti- 
cal States),  480.  In  the  14th  year  of  his 
age,  he  retired  to  a  cavern  situated  in  the 
desert  of  Subiaco,  40  miles  fipom  Rome, 
and,  in  515,  drew  up  a  rule  for  Ids  monks, 
which  was  first  introduced  into  the  mon- 
astery  on  Monte  Ca8sino,in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Naples,  founded  hy  him  (529)  in 
a  grove  of  Apollo,  after  the  temple  had 
b^n  demolianed.  This  gradually  be- 
came the  rule  of  all  the  Western  monks. 
The  abbots  of  Monte  Cassino  afterwards 
acquired  episcopal  jurisdiction,  and  a  cer- 
tain patriarchal  authority  over  the  whole 
order.  B.,  with  the  intention  of  banish- 
ing idlene^  prescribed,  in  addition  to  the 
work  of  God  (as  he  called  prayer  and  the 
readipff  of  reli^ous  writings),  the  instruc- 
tion of  youth  m  reading,  writing  and  ci- 
phering, in  the  doctrines  of  Christianity, 
m  manual  labors  (including  mechanic  aru? 
of  every  kind),  and  in  the  management 
of  the  monastery.  With  regard  to  dress 
and  food,  the  rule  was  severe,  but  not 
extravagant  B.  caused  a  libraiy  to  be 
fbunde<^  fi>r  which  the  aged  and  infirm 
brethren  {ordo  gcnpioTius)  were  obliged  to 
copy  manuscripts.  .  By  this  means  he 
contributed  to  preserve  the  literary  re- 
mains of  antiqmty  fit>m  ruin ;  for,  thoush 
he  had  in  view  only  the  copying  of  reli- 
gious writings,  yet  die  practice  was  after- 
wards extended  to  classical  works  of 
every  kind;  and  the  learned  world  is 
indebted  for  the  preservation  of  great 
literary  treasures  to  the  order  of  St  &ne- 
dict    (See  Btnedidines.) 

BENEOicTBEnRN ;  formerly  an  abbey, 
situated  in  the  Bavarian  circle  of  the 
Jser,  about  40  miles  distant  fit)m  the  city 
of  Munich,  on  the  descent  of  the  moun- 
tains towards  the  Tyrol.  The  convent 
was  founded  as  early  as  740. .  In  our 
days,  it  is  only  remarkable  for  the  manu- 
fictoij  of  optical  instruments  belonging 
to  Reichenbech  and  Liebherr,  who  have 
fiumished  instruments  to  almost  all  the 
observatories  of  Europe. 

Benedictines.  From  the  6th  to  the  10th 
century,  almost  all  monks,  in  the  West, 
might  bie  so  called,  because  they  followed 

theiule  of  StBenediot  of  Norcia.  fSee  ibk 
article,  JIfimiufety  and  Order.)  Tne  rules 
which,  at  that  tim^  the  monasteries,  iQ 
Spain  and  France,  received  firom  theb 
bishops^  as  welt  as  the  rule  of  the  Irish  St 
Columba  (bom  560,  died  615\,  were  essen^ 
tially  the  same  as  those  of  St  Benedict ; 
and,  in  die  progress  of  his  order,  the  monas- 
teries in  Spain  and  France,  as  well  as  those 
of  the  order  of  Columba,  united  themselves 
with  it  Monte  Cassino,  the  magnificent 
primitive  monastery,  of  die  Benc^ctines, 
became  the  model  of  all  others.  At  that 
time,  the  monasteries,  having  no  common 
superiors,  were  under  the  immediate  con-i 
trol  of  the  bishops  in  their  respective  dio^ 
ceses,  and  differed  firom  one  another  in 
many  qualifications  of  the  primitive  rule. 
Not  even  the  color  of  their  dress  vfas  the 
same.  The  disciples  of  Columba  wore 
white  garments,  like  the  fafst  Benedictine 
nuns,  who  originated  in  France,  in  the  6tb 
century.  After the'unions  which  tookplace 
at.  a  later  period,  all  the  members  or  this 
order  wore  black,  as  the  founder  is  said 
tp  have  done*  The  decline  of  monastic 
discipline,  after  the  8th  centunr,  occasion-^ 
ed  the  reforms  of  Benedict  of  Aniana,  in 
France,  the  renewed  inculcation  of  the 
old  rule,  and  the  adoption  of  new  ordi- 
nances suited  to  the  times,  by  the  coun- 
cil of  Aix-la-Ghapelle  (817),  as  well  as  the 
particular  rules  and  ficatemities  of  theceU 
ebrated  monasteries  in  France,  Germany 
and  England,  which,  in  those  barbarous 
times,  became  seats  of  dvilization ;  and, 
finally,  the  institution  of  the  Cluniacs,  a 
new  branch  of  the  Benedictines,. which 
proceeded  fix)m  the  convent  of  Clugny,  in 
Burgundv,  founded  in  the  year  910.  The 
Benedicnne  monasteries,  in  thp  middle 
ages,  were  often  asylums  in  which  sci-; 
ence  took  refiige,  and  found  protectioni 
In  the  place  of  the  discordant  and  uncer-r 
tain  rules  which  had  hitherto  existed,  the 
Cluniacs  made  Hxed  regulations  concern* 
ing  the  hours  of  worship,  the  obedience, 
discipline  and  common  government  of  idl 
the  monasteries  belonginff  to  their  order, 
which  were  soon  imitated  in  all  Europe. 
In  the  12th  century,  their  order  contamed 
2000  monasteries,  whose  luxury  fiequent- 
Iv  called  (or  reforms,  and  finally  became 
tne  chief  cause  of  their  decline.  The  rer 
mains  of  the  Cluniacs  united  themselves, 
in  the  17th  century,  under  the  patronage 
of  Richelieu,  vrith  the  Benedictine  |rater<i 
nities  of  St  Vannea  and  St  Maurus,  the 
latter  of  which,  founded  in  1618,  had,  in 
the  beginning  of  the  18th  century,  180 
abbeys  and  priories  .in  France,  and  ac- 
quired, by  means  of  its  learned  members. 

Digitized  by 




such  as  Mabillon,  Mont&ucon,  Mait^ne, 
merited  distinction.  To  this  family  be- 
long thosie  new  orders,  established  on  the 
foundation,  and  observing  the  rule  of  St. 
'  Benedict,  which  have  originated  since  the 
11th  century,  and  are  distinguished  fiiom 
the  proper  Benedictines  by  then-  dress, 
names  and  particular  regulations ;  e.g.,  the 
Camaldulians,  the  monks  of  VallombrQsa, 
the  Syivestriansythe  GrandimontenseSjthe 
Carthusians,  the  Ccelcstines,  the  Cister- 
cians and  I^mardines,  the  Tiappists,  and 
the  monks  of  Fontevraud.  (q.  v.)  The 
Benedictine  monasteries  never  constituted 
one  society,  constitutionally  re^^lated  and 
governed  under  an  aristocratical  or  mo- 
narchical form :  on  the  contrary,  a  great 
many  monasteries,  which  descended  from 
the  old  Beipedictines,  were  Compelled,  by 
the  council  of  Trent,  to  unite  them- 
selves gradually  into  particular  fratenii- 
ties.  Among  these,  the  Benedictines  of 
Monte  Cassino,  of  Afonte  Ver^ine,  and 
Monte  01iveto{who  call  themselves  Oil- 
vetcmians)^  in  Itely  and  Sicily,  where  tliey 
have  flourished  unintemmtedly  even  to 
the  present  time ;  those  of^Valladolid  and 
Montserrat,  in  Spain,  where  they  are 
among  the  wealthiest  orders^  those  of 
Hirscbau  and  Fulda,  together  lyith  Burs- 
feld,  which  have  now  ceased  to  exist,  and 
that  of  Mbelk,  in  Grermany,  deserve  par- 
ticular notice,  on  aecount  of^the  extent  of 
their- possessions,  the 'magnificence  of 
their  churches,  and  the  mildness  of  their 
rules.  To  the  fraternity  of  Moelk,  which 
still  exists,  but  accommodated  to  the  spirit 
of  the  times  (the  govermnent  haying  or- 
dered its  revenues  to  be  applied  to.  the 
public  service),  the  rest  of  the  Benedictine 
convents  in  Austria  are  joined.  Many 
of  the  nunneries  of  this  order  are  reserved 
for  the  nobility,  because  the  places  in 
them  are  equal  to  the  most  lucrative  bene- 
fices. The  Benedictines  in  Sicily,  who 
are,  for  the  greater  part,  the  younger  sons 
of  distingui^ed  fiimilies,  live  under  very 
lax  rules.  In  Modena,  they  have  settled 
again,  and  received  a  convent^  with  rev- 
enues for  their  support. 

Benediction  signifies  the  act  of  con- 
ferring a  blesdng  (q.  v.). — Benedktio  be- 
oHca ;  the  blessing  bestowed  on  the  pen- 
itent sick.  It  is  also  called  viaticum. — 
BenedicUo  ^acerdotalis  is  the  nuptial  ben- 
ediction pronounced  by  tlie  m'iest  on  the 
occasion  of  a  wedding.— 2b  give  the 
bemdidiony  is  an  expression  used  with 
regard  to  tlie  pope,  the  cardinals,  bishops 
or  papal  nuncios,  when  thev  l^stow  a 
blessing,  either  in  the  church,  or  in  the 
street,  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  on  the 

people,  ix  some  private  person.  The 
pope  g^es  a  solemn  benediction  three 
times  every  year ;  viz.  on  Maundy-Thurs- 
day, on  Easter,  and  on  Ascension-day. 

Benefit  of  Clerot  was  a  privilege  of 
clergymen,  which  originated  in  a  pious 
regard  for  the  church,  whereby  the  clergy 
of  Koman  Catholic  countries  were  either 
partially  or  wholly  exempted  firom  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  lay  tribunals.  It  ex- 
tended, in  England,  only  to  the  case  of 
felony ;  and,  though  it  was  intended  to  ap- 
ply only  to  clerical  felons  or  clerks,  yet, 
as  every  one  who  could  read  was,  by  the 
laws  of  England,  considered  to  be  a  clerk, 
when  the  rudiments  of  learning  came  to 
be  diffused,  almost  every  man  in  the 
community  became  entitled  to  thjs  privi- 
lege. Peers  were  entitled  to  it,  whether 
they  could  read  or  not;  and  by  the 
statutes  of  3  and  4  William  and  Mary, 
c.  9,  and  4  and  5  William  and  Mary,  c. 
24,  it  was  extended  to  women.  In  the 
earlier  ases  of  the  English  Roman  Catho- 
lic church,  the  cleric,  on  being  convicted 
of  j^lony,  and  claiming  the  benefit  of 
clergy,  wa^  handed  over  to  the  ecclesias- 
tical tribimal  for  a  new  trial  or  puliation, 
the  pretty  unifi)rm  result  of  which  was 
his  acquittal.  This  pretended  trial  or 
purgation  g^ve  rise  to  a  great  deal  of 
abuse  and  perjury,  so  that,  at  length,  the 
secular  judges,  instead  of  handing  over 
the  culprit  to  the  ecclesiastics  for  purga- 
tion, ordered  hiix^  to  be  detained  in  prison, 
until  he  should  be  pardoned  by  the  king. 
By  the  statute  of  18  Elizabeth,  c  7,  per- 
tons  convicted  of  felony,  and  entitled  to 
the  benefit  of  clergy,  were  to  be  disdiarged 
fix>m  prison,  being  first  branded  in  the 
tliumb,  if  lavmen,  it  being  left  to  the  dis- 
cretion of  the  judge  to  detain  them  in 
prison  not  exceeding  one. year;  and,  bv 
the  statute  of  5  Anne,  c.  6,  it  vi^as  enacted, 
that  it  should  no  longer  be  requisite  that 
a  person  should  be  able  td  read,  in  order 
to  be  entitied  to  the  benefit  of  clei^,  so 
that,  firom  the  passing  of  this  act,  a  felon 
was  no  more  hable  to  be  hanaed  on  Re- 
count of  defect  of  learning.  The  English 
statutes  fbrmeriy  made  specific  provisions, 
that,  in  particular  cases,  the  culprit  should 
not  be  entitied  to  benefit  of  deny,  but 
the  statute  of  7  and  8  George  IV,  c.  28, 
provides,  that  "benefit  of  clenjy,  with  re- 
spect to  peisohs  convicted  of  felony,  shall 
be  abolished.^' — ^This  privilege  has  been 
fonnaUy  abolished  in  some  of  the  United 
States,  and 'allowed  only  in  one  or  two 
cases  in  others,  while,  in  others  again,  it 
does  not  appear  to  have  been^  known  at 
all    By  the  act  of  congresB  of  April  9(^ 

Digitized  by 




1790^  It  10  enadedt  <^  that  benefit  of  deiigy 
flhall  not  be  used  or  allowedi  upon  con- 
viction of  any  crime,  for  which,  by  any 
statute  of  the  United  States,  the  i^unish- 
raent  is,  or  shall  be,  declared  to  be 

Bkitetxnto  ;  a  dukedom  in  the  Nea- 
politan province  Principato  Oltia  (86 
square  miles,  with  20,348  inhabitants), 
mich,  includmg  a  ci^  and  eight  villages, 
belongs  to  the  pspal  see.  In  1806,  Napo- 
leon made  a  jHesent  of  it  to  his  minister 
TallejTand,  who  received  thence  the  dtle 
of  frvnct  ^  jBeneoetUo.  In  1815,  it  was 
restored  to  the  pope.  Cattle,  grun,  wine, 
oranges  and  dead  game  are  exported. 
The  public  revenue  amounts  to  6000  dol- 
lars. In  1820,  the  inhabitants  revolted. 
In  the  most  remote  times,  the  state  of 
Benevento  belonged  to  the  countnr  of  the 
Bamnites.  The  Lombards,  in  571,  made 
it  a  dukedom,  w^iicb,  long  after  the  ex- 
tinction of  the  Lombard  kingdom,  re- 
mained independent.  At  a  later  period, 
it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Saracens  and 
Normans.  The  city,  however,  was  not 
conquered  by  the  latter,  because  Heniy 
III  had  given  it  to  the  pope,  Leo  IX.  The 
dty  of  B.  (km.  14°  »  E.,  lat  40°  6^  N.), 
on  a  hill  between  the  rivers  Sabato  and 
Galore,  has  13,900  inhabitants,  8  churches 
and  19  convents.  Since  969,  it  has  been 
the  se^  of  an  archbishop.  It  has  several 
manufactories.  Few  cities  in  Italy  doi- 
serve  so  much  attention,  on  account  of 
the  antiquities  which  -they  contain,  as  B. 
Almost  every  wall  consists  of  fing^ents 
of  altars,  sepukhres,  columns  and  entab- 
latures. Among  other  things,  the  well- 
preserved,  magnificent  triumphal  arch 
of  Trajan,  built  in  114,  deserves  particu- 
lar mention.  It  is  now  called  ipmiA  ceur 
rea  (the  golden  gate),  and  is  a  gate  of  the 
city.  The  cathedral  is  a  gloomy  buUd- 
'me^  in  tho  old  Gothic  style. 

Beitezxt,  Anthony;  a  distinguished 
philanthropist,  bom  at  St  QUentin,  in 
France,  January  1713.  His  parents  were 
opulent,  and  of  noble  descent  On  the  rev- 
ocation of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  the  family 
associated  themselves  with  tiie  Hugue- 
nots; and,  on  this  account,  his  father's 
^tate  was  confiscated,  in  1715,  who  there- 
upon sought  temponuy  refuge  in  Holknd, 
and  afterwardB  m  Enfflan^  where  An- 
thony received  his  education.  Of  An- 
thony's juvenile  halnts  and  dispositions, 
but  au  imperfect  account  is  preserved :  it 
is  only  known  that  he  became  a  memb^ 
of  the  society  of  Friends,  about  the  14th 
year,  of  his  age.  In  1731,  four  yean 
subsequent,  he  arrived,  along  with  his 

parentB,  in  Phibdelphia.  His  fiist  em- 
ployment was  that  of  an  instructor  of 
youth  at  Germantown — a  calling  which 
led  him  to  prepare  and  pubtish,  several 
elementary  books  for  the  use  of  schools. 
The  leading  traits  of  his  charaeter-<en-. 
thusiastic  benevolence  and  jMrofound  pie* 
tv — ^were  developed  at  this  i>eriod.  About 
the  year  1750,  he  was  particulariy  struck 
with  the  iniqui^  of  the  slave  trade,  and 
the  cruelty  which  was  exercised  bv  too 
many  of  those  who  purchased  and  em- 
ployed the  negroes.  His  voice  and  his 
pen  were  now  employed  in  behalf  of  this 
oppressed  portion  of  his'  fellows-beings. 
Finding  the  blacks  in  Philadelphia  nu*^ 
merous,  and  mi$eral]fly  ignorant,  he  estab- 
lished an  evening  School  fbr  them,  and 
taught  them  himself  gratuitously.  IM 
this  office  he  was  fengnall^  successJ%L 
and  accomplished  the  additional  g;ood  of 
removing  prejudices  a^^ainst  the  mtellect 
of  the  Ne^  by  exhibitmg  the  p^rotfciency 
of  his  pupils.  His  first  attempts  to  rouse 
the  public  feeling,  on  the  subject  of  Negro 
slavery,  consisted  in  short  essays  in  al- 
manacs and  newspapers,  which  hd  was 
indefiitigable  in  -circulating.  He  soon 
published  a  variety  of  more  elaborate  ^and 
extensive  tracts,  among  which  are  tiie 
following  :--An  Account  of.  that  Part  of 
Afiica  inhabited  by  the  Negroes,  1762: 
a  Caution  and  .Warning  to  Great  Britain 
and  her  Colonies,  on  the  calamitous 
State  of  the  enslaved  Negroes,'  1767.: 
an  Historical  Account  of  Guinea,  its 
Situation,  Produce,  and  the  general  Dis< 
position  of  its  Inhabitants;  with  an  En^ 
auiry  into  the  Rise  and  Progress  of  the 
slave-Trade,  its  Nature  and  calamitous 
Effects.  These  works  were  printed  at 
his  own'expende,and  distributed,  without 
charge,  wherever  be  thought  they  would 
makeanimpresaon. ,  He  addressed  them 
directly,  with  suitable  letters,  to  most  of 
the  crowned  heads  of  Europe ;  and  to 
many  of  the  most  illustrious  divines  and 
philosophers.  The  fervor  of  his  style, 
and  the  force  of  his  fiicts,  obtained  fbr 
his  philanthropic  efiK>rts  the  notice  which 
he  sought  for  the  benefit  of  his  cause. 
Great  personages,  on  both  sides  of  the  At« 
lantic,  corresponded  with  him,  and  it  is 
certain  that  he  giave  the  briginal  impulse 
to  dispositions  and  messures  which  in- 
duced the  abolition  of  the  slave-trade  by 
England  and  the  United  States.  Clark- 
son,  the  British  philanthropist,  whose  la- 
bon  contributed  so  largely  to  the  accom- 
plishment of  that  object)  acknowledges, 
that  his  Understanding  was  enlightened, 
and  bi»  zeal  kindled,  by  one  of  B.%  books, 

Digitized  by 




when  he  was  about  to  treat  the  question 
submitted  to  the  senior  bachelon  of  arts 
in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  Anne 
liceat  woUoa  in  aerviiukm  dan%-B.  re- 
ffarded  all  mankind  as  his  brethren. 
About  the  year  1763>  the  wroDfls  inflicted 
on  the  aboriginal  race  of  North  America 
excited  his  susceptible  mind,  and  prompt- 
ed him  to  publish  a  nract,  entitled,  Some 
Observations  on  the  Situation,  Disposition 
and  Character  of  the  Indian  Natives  of 
this  Continent.  He  addressed  the  British 
govemois  and  militfury  commanders,  on 
Sie  effect  of  hostilities  against  the  natives, 
with  chancteristic  boldness  and  pathos. 
His  various  philanthropical  efforts,  and 
liis  excellent  qualities,  obtained  for  him 
peculiar  consideration  in  the  society  of 
Friends, — In  1780,  he  wrote  and  pub- 
hshed  a  Short  Account  of  the  religious 
Society  of  Friends,  commonly  called 
Quakers ;  and,  in  1782,  a  Pissertation  on 
the  Plainness  and  innocent  Simplicity 
of  the  Christian  Religion.  About  the 
same  time,  he  issued  several  tracts  against 
tlie  use  of  ai'dent  spirits. — "the  person  of 
B.  was  small,  and  his  face  far  from  hand- 
iBome,  though  benignity  might  be  traced 
in  his  animated  aspect,  even  by  those 
who  knew  not  how  his  whole  being  and 
small  estate  had  been  devoted.  His  un- 
derstanding was  .  originally  strong,  and 
much  improved  by  i^ing  and  observa-  . 
iion.  His  private  habits,  morals  and  pur- 
suits were  adapted  to  endear  and  digni^ 
his  public  career.  He  died  at  Philadel- 
phia, May  5, 1784,  aged  71  years.  When 
it  was.  announced  (hat  he  was  seriously 
ill,  a  multitude  of  his  fellow-citizens  pre- 
sented tliemselves  at  his  dwelling  with 
anxious  inquiries ;  and  he  conveised  lu- 
cidly with  hundreds  after  his  case  was 
pronounced  to  be  hopeless.  There  is  ex- 
tant a  full  and  interesting  memoir  of  his 
hfe,  by  Roberts  Vaux.    . 

Bemoal;  an  extensive  and  valuable 
provuice  of  Hindostan,  situafted  between 
the  21st  and  27th  degrees  of  N.  lat,  and 
between  the  86th  and  92d  decrees  of  E. 
Ion.,  being  in  length  about  400  miles,  and 
in  breadth,  300.  On  the  north  and  east, 
it  is  defended  by  the  mountains  of  Ne- 
paid,  Assam  and  Ava;  on  the  south,  by 
a  Une  of  inhospitable  and  dangerous  sea- 
coast,  containing  but  one  haitior  capable 
of  admitting  ships  of  any  considerable 
size,  and  even  that  one  guarded  by  iiinu- 
merable  shoals :  on  ^e  west,  it  joins  Behr 
and  Oude ;  and,  althou^  rather  exposed 
to  invasion  on  this  frontier,  it  is,  neverthe- 
less, better  defended  by  nature  than  an^ 
province  of  similar  extent  on  the  conti- 

nent <^  Asia:  and  should  the  Engh'sh  be 
ever  driven  firom  all  the  other  parts  of  In- 
dia, as  long  as  they  shall  retain  their  mari- 
tiiAe  pre-eminence;  they  vrill  find  in 
B.  a  secure  asylum  against  theur  ene- 
mies. Thus  guarded  firom  a  foreign  foe, 
they  are  equally  safe  firom  any  insur- 
rection of  the  natives,  whose  mildness 
of  disposition  and  aversion  to  war  are 
such,  that  nothing  short  of  the  most  atro- 
cious cruelty,  or  relinous  persecution, 
(^uld  induce  tliem  to  draw  tneir  swords 
against  their  present  rulers. — The  fertile 
soil  of  B.  produces  evei^  thing  requi- 
site for  the  sustenance  of  hfe,  and  in  such 
abundance,  that  the  crops  of  one  year 
are  sufiScient  for  the  epnmmiption  of  its 
inhabitants  for  two.  It  abounds  in  fruits 
and  animals  of  many  varieties,  and  yields  < 
every  article  essential  to  the  comfort,  or 
even  luxury,  of  man.  Its  ingenious  in- 
habitants are  well  vened  in  all  the  arts 
of  useful  industry ;  and,  whilst  their  deli- 
cate and  valuable  manufactures  are  ex- 
ported tx>  every  part  of  the  world,  they  re- 
quire no  assistance  firom  other  countries. 
In  short,  it  has  been  truly  said  of  this 
province,  that  it  is  the  most  valuable  jewel 
m  the  British  crown.  The  revenues 
of  B.  consist  chiefly  of  rents  paid  to 
the  government  for  land.  In  the  veor 
.1811 — Hi,  they  amounted,  including  those 
of  Behar  and  Orissa,  to  £2,590,0%  ster- 
ling, to  which  may  be  added  neariy 
£200,000  for  the  monopolies  of  salt  and 
opium.  The  exports  of  B.  are  prin- 
cipally rice,  cotton  and  silk,  both  raw  and 
manufactured;  indigo,  sugar,  saltpetre, 
ivory,  tobacco,  and  drugs  of  various 
kinds :  hemp  and  fiax  are  also  to  be  pro- 
cured in  great  abundance.  Its  imports 
by  sea  are  gold  and  silver,  copper  and 
bar-iron,  woollen  cloths  of  every  descrip- 
tion, tea,  salt,  glass  and  china  ware,  wines, 
and  other  commodities,  for  the  use  of  its 
European  inhabitants,  and  a  few  Arabian 
and  English  horses.  The  native  breed 
of  these  ^mimals  being  diminutive,  B.  is 
chiefly  suppHed  with  them  from  the 
north-west  provinces,  although  the  gov- 
ernment have  a  stud  of  their'  own  in 
Behar,  and  hold  out  great  encouragement 
to  the  zemindars,  or  landholders,  to  breed 
them.  '  The  south-east  districts  produce 
fine  elephants^  which  are  not  only  in  con- 
'  siderable  demand,  among  the  optdent 
natives,  for  state  or  ridmg,  but  also  used 
for  carrymg  the  camp  equipage  of  the 
army.  They  vary  in  price  from  £50  to 
£1000:  a  good  one  should  be  fi^m  8 
to  10  feet  high,  and  not  less  than  30 
years  of  age.— B.  is  intersected  by  the 

Digitized  by 




Gflfig^  the  Brahmapootra,  Diunmooda, 
and  several  other  rivers,  so  connected  by 
various  streams,  and  the  annual  inunda- 
tions, that  there  is  scarcely  a  town  which 
does  not  enjoy  the  benems  of  an  inland 
navigation,  the  boats  employed  in  which 
are  of  various  sizes  and  shapes,  many  of 
them  very  handsome,  and  fitted  both  for 
convenience  and  state.    The  Delta  of  the 
Ganges,  the  water  of  which  is  either  salt 
or  brackish,  exhibits  a  labyrinth  of  unin- 
habited inland  navigation;  and  in  other 
parts  of  the  countiy,  during  the  rainy 
season,  some  hundred  miles  of  rice  fields 
may  be  sailed  over.    These  inundations 
are,  howeVer,  firequently  the   cause  of 
much  injury,  by  ovnying  away  the  cattle, 
stores  of  grain,  and  habitations  of  the  poor 
peasants. — ^The  greater  proportion  or  the 
mhabitants  of  B.  are  Hindoos :  they  are 
olive-colored,  with  black  hair  and  eyes. 
They  are  small  and  delicate  in  their  per- 
sons, and,  although  very  timid,  are  litigious ; 
humble  to  their  superiois,  and  insolent  to 
their  inferiors.    In  vouth,  they  ure  quick 
and  inquisitive,  and  would  probably  be 
much  improved  by  their  intercourse  with 
Europeans,  but  »>r    the  supreme  con- 
tempt in  which  they  hold  other  nations, 
from  the  notion  of  their  being  degraded 
Hindoos.     The  indigent  wear  scarcely 
any  clothing  other  than  a  raff  round  their 
wedst:  tlie  rich,  when  out  of  doors,  dress 
much  like  Mohammedans;  within  the 
house,  they  usually  resunie  their  old  na- 
tional costume,  which  consists  merely  of 
different  pieces  of  cloth  twisted  round  the 
body,  and  having  one  end  tucked  into 
tlie  folds.   No  small  part  of  the  population 
are  Mohammedans ;  they  are  the  descend- 
ants pf  the  Afghan  and  Mogul  conquer- 
ors, and  Arabian  merchants,  softened,  in 
the  course  of  time,  by  an  intermixmre 
with  Hindoo  women,  converts,  and  chil- 
dren, whom  they  purchased   during  a 
scarcity,  and  educated  in  their  own  re- 
ligion.   There  are  also  a  number  of  tlie 
descend^ts  of  the  Portugese,  and  of 
various  other  nations;  and,  m  spite  of  the 
checks  held  out  by  the  English  against 
colonization,  it  Is  probable,  that,  in  the 
course  of  another  century,  their  descend- 
ants will  becoijfie  so  numerous,  that  it 
will  be  necessary  to  pern^t  them  to  be- 
come culfiv^tois  of  the  soil.— The  ther- 
mometer, part  of  the  yeak",  in  B.,  is  as 
hij^h  as  100  degrees,  and  the  climate  is 
injurious  to  European  constitutions.    The 
year  is  there  divided  into  three  seasons, 
viz.  the  hot,  the  rainv  and  the  cold :  the 
Ibrmer  begins  in  March,  and  ends  in  June ; 
the  rains  then  commence,  and  continue 

tiU  October ;  after  which  h  becomes  cool, 
and  the  weather  continues  pleasant  for 
four  months.— Of  the  ancient  history  of 
B.  we  have  no  authentic  infbnnation.  It 
is  said  to  have  been  sometimes  an  inde- 
pendent kingdooii,  and  at  other  times 
tributary  to  Magadha  (Behar).  In  the  in- 
stitutes of  Akbar,  a  list  of  61  Hindoo 
kings  is  given ;  but  the  number  of  years 
assigned  to  many  pf  the  reigns  do^ 
away  its  credibitiQr.  B.  was  fii«t  invaded 
and  conquered  by  the  Afghan  Mohamme- 
dans in  Av  D.  1203,  and  continued  tribu- 
tary to  the  emperor  of  Delhi  till  the  year 
1340,  when  Fakher  Addeen,«  confiden- 
tial servant  of  the  governor,  murdered  his 
master,  and,  having  seized  the  reins  of 
government,  threw  off  his  fdlegiance,  and 
took  the  title  of  sultan  Sekunaer.  From 
this  period  till  1538,  B.  remained  an  in- 
dependent kingdom,  when  it  was  con- 
quered by  Shore  Shah,  who  shordy  after 
annexed  it  to  Delhi.  From  the  descend- 
ants of  Sliere  Shah  it  was  conquered  by 
th^  emperor  Akbar,  and  continued  sul^ 
ject  to  Delhi,  or  noxninallv  so,  till  the 
year  1757,  when  it  feU  into  tne  hands  of 
the  English,  wha  have  gradually  changed 
^ts  form  of  government,  and  introduced  a 
code  of  regulations,  founded  on  the  Hin- 
doo; Mohammedan  and  English  laws,  by 
which  impaitifd  justice  is  administered  to 
all  the  inhabitants,  and  toleration  granted 
to  all  religions,  owing  to  which  the  coun- 
try improves,  and  the  population  in- 
creases. The  cities  of  Gour,  Tonda,  Ra- 
jemahil,  Dacca  and  Mooiahedabad  have 
each,  at  various  times,  been  the  capital ; 
but,  since  the  conquest  of  it  by  the  Eng- 
lish, Calcutta  is  become  the  seat  of  gov- 
emment.-^The  government  of  thiid  presi- 
dency is  vestted  m.  the  supreme  council, 
consisting  of  the  governor-general  and 
three  counsellors.     The  former  is   ap- 

Eointed  by  the  kinjf ;  the  latter  are  chosen 
y  the  court  of  directors  firom  the  civil 
servants  of  at  least  12  years'  standing. 
For  the  administration  of'^justice,  there  is 
1  supreme  court  at  Calcutta,  6  courts 
of  appeal  and  circuit,  and  46  inferior  ma- 
gistrates, stationed  in  as  many  different 
towns  or  districts.  The  circuit  courts  are 
formed  by  3  judges,  with  an,  assistant  iand 
native  officers.  Criminal  cases  are  tried 
by  the  Mohammedan  law,  in  form  and 
name,  but  so  modified  as  to  approach 
pearly,  in  feet,  to  the  English ;  ana  capi- 
tal sentences  are  confirm^  by  the  mzam- 
at  addat,  or  sujireme  court  at  Calcutta. 
The  district  ma^strates  or  judgUj  as  thev 
are  often  cdled,  have  each  a  registrar  and 
one  or  more  of  the  junior  civQ  servants, 

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,  with  Dative  lawyers.  Muanil- 
appeal  ties  irom 


man  and  Hindoo.    An  appeal 
their  sentence,  in  almost  all  cases,  to  the 
provincial  cogrt    The  average  size  of  a 
district  m  this  mesidency  is  about  6000 
square  miles.    In  civil  causes,  the  le- 
spectire  codes  of  the  Mohammedans  and' 
Hindoos  aie  generally  followed.   In  1793, 
regular  advocates^  educated  at  Ae  Mo- 
hammedan and  Hindoo  colleges  at  Cal- 
cutta and  Benares,  were'  appointed   to 
plead  in  these  courts.    Thev  fees  aze 
regulated  by  law.    Written  pleadings  are 
allowed,  and  written  evidence  must  some- 
times be  admitted,  on  account  of  the  dis- 
inclination of  the  Asiatics  to  have  women 
appear  in  public— Domestic  slavery  is 
prmhted  by  law,  but  the  slaves  are  kmd- 
ly  treated.    The  number  of  these  slaves 
it  has  been  thought  unsafe  to  ascertain. 
Their  marriage  is  never  impeded;  but 
fevr  children  are  sold,  as  it  is  reputed  dis- 
creditable to  sell  them,  and  their  manu- 
mission is  considered  an  act  of  piety. 
Parents  themselves,  who  are  reduced  by 
fiunine,  &c.,  are  usually  the  persons  who 
supply  the   slave-market*     Inability  to 
provide  for  their  children,  not  the  desire 
of  gam,  seems  to  be  the  real  motive  of 
this  horrid  custom.    Slaves,  like  freemen, 
are  under  the  protection  of  law.— The 
Mohammedans  may  be  estimated  at  one 
seventh  of  the  whole  population.    Vari- 
ous est,imates  of  the  population  have  been 
made  at  different  times,  but  rather  from 
conjecture  than  from  well-authenticated 
documents.    The  sum  total  for  Ben^ 
appears  to  be  25,306,000,  and  there  are 
strong'  reasons  for  believing  this  number 
to  be  short  of  the  real  amount    The 
number  of  native  troops,  called  Btapovs 
Uipahia)  or aoldiersy waiiii  1811, 207,5^, 
besides  5875  invalids.    The  non-commis- 
sioned officers  are  natives,   those  who 
have  commiasions  are  Europeans,  and 
the  number  of  the  latter  in  this  presiden- 
cy, at  the  time  above  mentioned,  was 
2024.    About  22,000  of  the  king's  troops 
are  also  stationed  in  India,  and  occasion 
an  expense  to  the   company  of  about 
£160,000  per  annum^ — Before  concluding 
this  article,  it  may  be  proper  to  observe, 
that  the  Dutch  possess  the  town  of  Chin- 
sura,  the  French,  Chindunagore,  and  the 
Danes,  Serampore,  with  a  small  territoiy 
adjoining  eacii.    These  towns  are  situ- 
ated on  the  Hoogly  river,  firom  15  to  25 
miles  above  Calcutta. 

Benoel,  John  AJbanus,  a  fiunous  Ger- 
man theologian,  bom  in  1667,  at  Winne- 
den,  in  WCirtemburff,  studied  at  Stuttgart 
and  Tfibingen,  an{  in  1713,  became  a 

preacher  and  professor  at  Denkeodorf! 
His  chief  studies  were  the  fhthen  of  the 
church  and  the  New  Testamait  Ha 
died,  after  having  been  appointed  to  sev« 
end  offices,  in  1^2.  B»  was  the  first  Lii* 
theran  theologiao  who  applied  to  the 
criticism  of  the'  New  Testament  a  com* 
ivehensive  spirit,  which  endiraced  the 
subject  in  its  whole  extent,  and  manifest- 
ed the  power  of  patient  investigation 
which  the  smdy  required.  HSa  sugges- 
tions for  the  cofrection  of  the  text  are 
particulariy  valuable.  In  some  of  his 
observations,  his  judgment  has  been  led 
astray  by  bis  inclination  \o  mysticism. 
His  explanatJon  of  the  Apocal3rpse  has 
given  him,  with  some  persons,  the  feme 
of  an  inspired  prophet ;  with  most  people, 
that  of  an  enthusiast.  He  was  esteemed 
for  his  private  virtues. 

Benoer,  Miss  Elizabeth  Ogilvy,  vras 
bom  in  t778,  at  Portsmouth,  in  England. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  a  purser  m  the 
navy,  who  died  in  1796,  and  left  his  wife 
and  daughter  with  a  slender  provision. 
In  1802,  she  removed  with  her  mother 
to  London.    She  soon  attracted  attention 
by  her  verses,  and  Miss  Sarah  Wesley 
early  becjame  her  patron.    She  composecl 
some  theatrical  pieces,  which  did   not 
meet  with  success.    Mr.  Bowyer,  the  en- 
graver, employed  her  to  Write  a  poem  on 
the  Slave-Trade,  which,  with  two  others, 
was  published  in  quarto,  with  engravings, 
in    1812.    'fSbe   successively  published 
memoirs   of  Mrs.  Elizabeth   Hamilton, 
memoirs  of  John  Tobin,  the  dramatist,  and 
notices  of  Klopstock  and  his  friends,  pre- 
fixed to  a  translation  of  their  letters  fiiom 
the  German.    These- writings  were  fol- 
lowed by  the  history  of  Anne  Boleyn, 
which  was  translated  into  French,  and 
the   memoirs   of  Elizabeth,    queen   of 
Bohemia.     She    undertook  to    compile 
memoirs  of  Henry  IV  of  France,  but  the 
progress  of  this  work  was  prevented  by 
her  death,  January  9, 1827.    By  all  who 
knew  her,  among  whom  the  editor  has 
the  pleasure  of  counting  himself^  she  was 
esteemed  as  a  kind,  faithftU  and  candid 
friend,  a  most  affectionate  daughter,  be* 
loved  by  all  ages  and  both  sexes  on  ac« 
count  of  her  fine  talents,  benevolent  dis* 
position,  and  pure  heart 

Penouela  ;  a  country  in  Afiica,  bound- 
ed  N.  by  An^la,  E.  by  the  countiy  of 
Jaga  Cassangi,  S.  by  Mafaman,  and  w.  bv 
the  sea.  Cape  Negro  forms  its  S.  W, 
extremity,  whence  mountains  run  noith- 
wai-d,  in  which  are  contained  the  iqprings 
of  many  rivers.  The  productions  are 
similar  to  those  of  Angola  and  Cong»s 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



one  of  the  prioeifMi  «  manioc ;  divers 
sorts  of  palni»  are  found ;  dates  grow  in 
sreat  abundance  $  the  vines  naturally 
fom  alleyB  and  arix>re ;  Cassia  and  tama- 
rinds Ao  flovariehf  and,  from,  the  hu- 
jnidit|r  of  the  soil,  there  are  two  fruit 
aeaaons  in  the  year.  The  air  of  the 
coimtrr  is  exceedingly  unwholesome. 
The  cliief  towns  are  Old  Benguela,  St. 
Philip  or  New  Benffueto,  Man-kikondo, 
and  Kaachil.   Lon.  9DP  to  dS""  E. ;  lat.  13? 


BcviN ;  a  kingdom  in  the  west  of  Afn- 
ca,  the  limits  of  which  are  not  well  ascer- 
twnetl ;  but  the  name  may  be  applied  to 
that  piot  of  the  coast  extending  ^m  the 
river  Liigos^  the  eastern  limit  of  the  Slave 
coast,  to  the  Formosa,  about  180  miles. 
The  interior  limit  is  unknown.  The 
whole  coast  presents  a  sncceaoon  of  estu- 
aries, some  of  them  very  broad,  and  their 
origin  never  explored.  Between  the  La- 
gofi  and  Cross  rivers,  the  number  of  rivers 
flowing  into  Hie  gulf  of  Gruinea  is  said  to 
exceed  20,  some  of  them  very  broad  and 
deejx  This  tract,  called  the  Ddia  of  Be- 
nin, is -about  ^a&a  miles  in  extent.  -  The 
9spect  of  the  coast,  and  the  great  body  of 
water  flowing  into  the  gul^  have  led  to 
the  supposition  that  the  waters  of  the  Ni- 
ser  here  find  an  entrance  into  the  ocean. 
This  region  haa  been  but  little  explored, 
and  is  litde  known.  The  countiy  is  low 
and  flat,  the  soil  on  the  banks  of  the  riv- 
en very  fertile,  but  the  climate  unhealthy. 
The  inhalntaots  are  of  a  mild  disposition ; 
polygamy  is  practised ;  almost  all  labor  is 
performed  by  females;  the  govenunent  is 
despotic.  Chief  towns,  Benin,  Agatton, 
Boaoda,  Ozebo  and  Meibera,  which  are 
situated  on  the  FV>rmosa,  the  principal 

Benin;  capital  of  the  above  kingdom, 
on  the  Formosa;  km.  5^  6^  £ ;  lat  6°  Id' 
N.  This  town,  according  to  some,  is  18 
miles  in  circuit,  the  largest  street  3  miles 
long,  and  others  nearly  equal ;  according 
to  other  statements,  it  is  only  4  miles  in 
circuit  The  streets  are  filled  with  vari- 
ous articles  of  merchandise,  and  present 
the  appearance  of  a  crowded  market, 
though  always  clean.  The  houses  are 
laige,  and,  thouf^  their  walls  are  of  clay, 
the  reeds  and  leaves,  with  which  they  are 
covered,  give  them  a  pleasing  appearance. 
The  king's  palace  conaists  or  a  great 
number  of  square  enclosures. 

BurjowsKT,  Maurice  Augustus,  count 
oft  a  man  oi  indefetigable  activ^  and 
extraordinary  adventures,,  bom  in  1741, 
at  Werbowa,  in  Hungary,  where  his  fa- 
ther was  a  geneml  in  the  Austrian  anny, 

entered  the  same  senrice  himself  and 
acted  as  lieutenant  in  the  seven  yean* 
war  till  1758.  '  He  afterwards  studied 
navigation  in  Hambuig,  Amsterdam  and 
Pl^outh.  He  then  went  to  Poland, 
joined  the  confederacy  against  the  Rus- 
sians, and  became  colonel,  command- 
er of  cavalry  and  quarter-master  general. 
B.  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Russians  in . 
1769,  a^d  sent,  the  next  year,  to  Kamt- 
schatka.  On  the  vova^thi&er,  he  saved 
the  diip  that  carriecl  him,  when  *in  peril 
from  a  storm.  This  circumstance  pro- 
cured him  a  favorable  reception  uom 
governor  Nilofl*,  whose  chilaren  he  in- 
structed in  the  German  and  French  lan- 
guages. Aphanasia,  NHofTs  younger 
daughter,  fell  in  love  with  him.  B.  pre- 
vailed on  her  fether  to  set  him  at  liberty, 
and  to  lietroth  her  to  him.  He  had,  how- 
ever, already  conceived  the  project  of 
escaping  fiom  Kamtschatka,  together 
with  several  other  conspirators.  Apha- 
nasia discovered  his  design,  but  did 
not  fersake  him.  <^  the  contrary,  she 
warned  him  when  it  ivas  resolved  to  se- 
cure his  person.  Accompanied  by  Apha- 
nasia, who  remained  invariably  faithful 
to  him,  though  she  had  now  learned  that 
he  was  married.  B.,  together  with  96 
other  persons,  left  Kamtschatka  in  May, 
1771,  and  sailed  to  Formosa ;  firom  thence 
to  Macao,  where  many  of  his  compan- 
ions died,  and  among  them  the  feithflil 
Aphanasia.  At  length  he  arrived  in 
France,  where  he  was  commissioned  to 
found  a  colony  in  Madagascar;  an  un- 
dertaking of  which  he  foresaw  the  difll- 
culties,  especially  as  the  sucpess^  depended 
on  the  assisumce  of  the  officera  in  the 
Isle  of  France,  to  whom  he  was  refeired 
for  the  greater  part  of  his  equipment  In 
June,  1774,  B.  arrived  in  Madagascar, 
established  a  settlement  at  Foul  point, 
and  gained  tlie  good  will  of  several  tribes, 
who,  in  1776,  appointed  him  their  am- 
panioeabe,  or  kmg;  on  which  occasion 
the  women  also  swore  allegiance  to  his 
wife.  Afterwards,  he  went  to  Europe, 
with  the  desiffn  of  obtaining  for  the  na- 
tion a  powenul  ally  and  some  commer- 
cial advantages.  But,  on  his  arrival  in 
France,  he  was  compelled,  by  the  perse- 
cutions of  the  French  ministiy,  to  enter 
into  the  Austrian  service,  in  which  he 
commanded  against  the  PrussianB  in  the 
battle  of  Habelschwerdt,  177a  In  1783, 
he  made  an  attempt  in  Eng&nd  to  fit  out 
an  expedition  to  Mada^^ascar.  He  re- 
ceive assistance  fiom  private  persons  in 
London,  and  particulariy  from  a  commer- 
cial faKOUse  at  Baltimore,  in  America.    In 

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October,  1784|  he  set  out,  leai 
wife  in  Ameiicay  aad  londed  in  1 
eaif  '1785w  Haying,  there  commenced 
ho^ties  againii^  ti^  French,  the  auth<Nr- 
ities  in  the  Isle  of  Fiance  sent  tioope 
^jAninat  him.  In  an  action  which  took 
phico  May  23,  1786^  he  waa  mortal^ 
wounded  in  the  hreieust  by  a  ball.  B. 
wrote  an  account  of  the  events  of  his  life 
in  French.  William  Nicholson  has  pub- 
lished an  English  translation  of  it,  made 
fit>m  the  manuscript  His  widow  died  at 
her  estate  Vieska,  near  Betzko,  Dec.  4, 
1825.  benjowsky's  only  son  is  said  to  have 
been  devouoBd  by  rats  in  Madagascar. 

Ben-La  WEiis ;  a  mountain  of  Scotland, 
in  the  county  of  Perth,  4015  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea ;  11  miles  S.  Geoige- 

Ben-Lodi  ;  a  mountain  of  Scotland,  in 
Perthshire,  3009  feet  above  the  sea;  4 
miles  S.  W.  Callander. 

Ben-Lomonb  ja  mountain  of  Scotland, 
in  Stirlingshire,  3340  feet  above  the  sea ; 
96  miles  W.Stirling. 

Bsii-Macsuis  ;  a  mountain  of  Scot- 
land, on  the  western  confines  of  Aber- 
deenshire, 4300  feet  hifph.  It  is  the  sec- 
ond hiahest  mountain  m  Great  Britain. 

Bsn^ore;  a  mountain  of  Scotland, 
in  the  icdand  of  Mull,  3097  feet  above  the 
level  of  theses. 

Beh-Morx  ;  a  mountain  of  Scotland, 
in  Perthshire,  3908  feet  above  the  level  of 
the  sea ;  90  miles  W.  Crief. 

Bsii-Nfivis^a  mountain  of,  Scotland, 
in  the  county  of  Dambaiton,  the  highest 
in  the  island  of  Great  Britain.  It 'rises 
4370  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  A 
great  portion  of  this  mountain  consists  of 
porphyry  of  difibrent  shades,  and  beauti- 
ful red  granite.  It  also  contams  a  vein 
of  lead  ore,  richly  impregnated  with  sil- 
ver. The  summit  is  generally  covered 
with  snow. 

Bennikosbn,  Levin  Augustus,  baron 
o(  Russian  commander-in-chief,  born  at 
Bantehi,  in  Hanover,  1745,  early  entered 
into  the  Russian  service,  and  distinguish- 
ed himself  by  great  gallantry  in  the  war 
a^jgainst  Pokiia,  under  the  empress  Cath- 
arine IL  He  acted  a  chief  part  in  the 
conspiracy  of  the  palace  against  the  em- 
peror Paul  L  In  1806^  he  was  appointed 
to  conmand  the  Russian  aimv  which 
hastened  to  the  assistance  of  the  Prus- 
sians;  but,  before  his  arrival,  die  Priiasiana 
were  defeated  at  Jena.  He  jsfterwards 
feugfat  the  murderous  battle  of  Eylau 
(next  to  that  of  Mojaisk,  perhaps,  the 
most  Uoodv  in  militaiy  history),  and  the 
battle  of  FViedhmd.    After  the  peace  of 

Tilsit,  he  retired  to  his  estates.  In  1813^ 
he  led  a  Russian  army,  called  the  arm^6f 
PoUsndf  into  Saxony,  took  part  in  the 
battle  of  Leipsic,  and  blockaded  Ham* 
burgl  After  commanding  the  army  in 
the  south  of  Russia,  he  finalhr  settled 
in  his  native  country,  and  died  Oct.  3^ 
l89a  He  is  the  author  of  Thouriits  on 
certain  Points  requisite  for  an  Officer  of 
Light  Cavalry  to  be  aeqtiainted  with  (Ri- 
ga, 1794 ;  WUna,  1805). 

Benn iiTOTon ;  a  post-town  in  a  cocmty 
of  the  same  name,  in  Vermont,  watered 
by  a  branch  of  the  Hoosack;  37  miles 
N.  E.  Albany,  68  S.  W.  Windsor,  115  S. 
by  W.  Montpelier,  132  W.  N.  W.Boston. 
Lon,7*W.;tat.49°4yN.  Population 
in  1810, 2524;  in  1^20, 2485.  It  borders 
on  New  York,  is  situated  in  a  good  farm- 
ing country,  and  is  a  place  of  considera- 
ble trade  and  manufectures.  The  courts 
for  the  county  are  held  alternately  at  Ben- 
nington and  Manchester.  On  moimt  An- 
thony, in  this  town,  there  is  a  cave  con- 
taining many  beautiful  petrifection&— 
Two  ramous  battles  were  rou^t  here,  on 
the  16th  of  Auffust,  1777,  in  which  ^- 
eral  Stark,  at  the  head  of  1600  American 
militia,  gained  a  distinguished  victory 
over  the  British. 

Benno,  St,  of  the  femily  of  the  counts  of 
Woldenberg,  bom  at  Hildesheim,  in  1010; 
became  (l(m)  a  Benedictine  monk^in  the 
convent  of  St  Michael  there.  Henry  IV 
(1066)  made  him  bishop  of  Misnia,  and 
fevored  him  by  repeated  donations  of 
estates  for  Ws  church.  Nevertheless,  B. 
took  a  secret  part  in  the  conspiracy  of  the 
Saxon  nobles  against  the  emperor,  for 
which  reason  Heniy  led  him  away  pris- 
oner, when  he  passed  Misnia,  in  1075, 
after  the  battle  on  the  Unstnit  He  was 
afterwards  set  at  liberty,but  several  times 
proved  fidthless  to  the  emperor.  He  died 
1107.  His  bones  began  by  degrees  to 
work  miracles ;  and  pope  Adrian  Yl,  alter 
many  entreaties  from  the  Saxons,  as  well 
as  from  the  emperor  Charles  V,  and  hav- . 
ing  received  large  sums  of  money,  placed 
him  among  the  sainis,  1523.  It  was 
thought  that  this  canonization  would  tend 
to  the  promotion  of  the  Catholic  faith  in 
Saxony.  At  present,  the  bones  of  St 
Benno  are  in  the  city  of  Munich,  which 
has  chosen  him  for  its  patron. 

Bbivssrads,  Isaac  de,  a  poet  at  the 
court  of  Louis  XIV,  bom,  1612,  at  Lyons- 
k-For^t,  a  small  town  in  Normandy, 
wrote  for  the  stage,  and  composed  a  mat 
number  of  mgenious  verses  for  the  long 
and  many  distinguished  persorks  at  court 
Inthefirsthaif  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIY. 

Digitized  by 




tlie  couiti  ttod  the  AHHomen  of  the  coort, 
pttroaised  songB  of  ffeUantiy,  rondeaus, 
tiiolels,  medrigato  and  sonnets,  containing 
aaUies  <^  wit,  conceits  and  effusions  of 
gaUantiy,  in  the  affected  style  then  preT- 
alent.  No  one  suoeeeded  so  weU  in  this 
art  as  B^  who  was  therefoie  called,  by 
way  of  eminence,  lepoHe  de  la  cow.  He 
received  many  pensions  for  his  perform- 
ances, and  lived  at  great  expense.  Wea- 
ried, at  last,  wish  the  life  which  he  led  at 
court,  he  retired  to  his  country-«eat.  Gen- 
tiUy,  and  died  169h 

Bbnslst,  Thomas;  a  printer  in  Fleet 
street,  London.  He  and  Buhner  are 
among  the  ffnt  typographical  sitists  in 
England.  He  distinguished  himself  first 
by  the  edition  wliich  be  printed  of  the 
English  tcanslation  of  Lavater's  f^hymog- 
nomy,  London,  1789,  5  vols.,  4to.  The 
most  beautiful  productions  of  his  press 
are  MadLlm's  splendid  edition  of  the  Eng- 
lish translation  of  the  Bible  (1800--15, 7 
vols.,  folio),  and  that  of  Hume's  History  of 
England  (1806, 10  vols.,  folio),  both  adorn- 
ed With  excellent  copper-plates.  Amonj^ 
his  impressions  of  a  smaller  size,  the  edi- 
tions of  Shakspeare  (1803,  7  vols.},  and 
Hume  (1803, 10  vols.),  with  n^asterly  en- 
sravlnfl^  on  wood,  are  distinguished.  He 
nas  also  fiiniished  several  well-executed 
impreanops  on  parchment,  and  first  used 
the  printing-press  mvented  by  Koenig 
and  Bauer,  for  Elliotson's  English  trans- 
lation of  Blumenbach'a  Physidc^  (Lon- 
don, 1818).     . 

Bbntham,  Jeremy,  an  English  lawyer, 
born  in  17^^,  never  appeared  at  the  bar, 
nor  has  he  published  his  chief  worics  him- 
selfl  They  have  been  arranjjped  and  trans- 
lated into  French  by  his  mend  M.  Du- 
mont,  and  printed  partly  in  Paris  and 
partly  in  London.  Amamg  them  are 
Jh»SU$  de  Ligidation,  ewue  et  phude, 
^Lc  (Paris.  180g,  3  vols.),  and  Th^arie  des 
Pemes  d  des  Bicompenses  (London,  1801, 
2  vote.).  B.  is  a  filaad  of  refetm  in  par- 
liament, and  of  a  thorau^  correction  of 
civil  and  crimimd  legiabion.  His  Frag- 
ments on  Government,  in  opposition  to 
Blackstone,  appened  anonymously  in 
.  1776,  and  whh  bis  name,  London,  1833. 
In  France,  his  titeraiy  IdboA  fbund  a 
better  reception  than  m  England  or  Ger- 
many. A  small  pamphlet  on  the  liberty 
of  the  press  (London,  1831)  was  addressed 
by  him  to  the  Spanish  coites,  during  their 
discussion  of  this  subject ;  and,  m  another 

Srfaree  TVactsTdative  to  the  Spenidi  and 
ortuguese  Affiurs,  London,  1831),  he 
refiited  the  idea  of  the  necessity  of  a 
bouae  of  peers  Id  Spain,  as  well  as  Moo- 

tesquaeu's  proposition,  that  ju^dal  ibrme 
are  the  delence  of  innocence.  His  latest 
work  is  the  Alt  of  Packing  (London, 
1831);  thatisyofarraiigingjuriessoasto 
obtain  any  verdict  desired.  His  previous 
work,  Essai  sur  U  TaunHque  des  Assem- 
liies  Ugidatme^  edited,  from  the  author's 
papers,  by  Etienne  Dumont  (Geneva, 
1815),  and  translated  into  German,  con- 
tains many  usefiil  obser?atione.  His  In- 
troduction to  the  Principi»  of  Morals  and 
Legislation  (London,  1^33, 3  vols.)  treats 
of  the  principal  objects  of  (^vemment  in  a 
profound  and  comfH^dienaive  manner.  Za- 
nobelir  has  translated  Bentham's  Theory 
of  Le^  Evidence  into  Italian  (Bergamo, 
1834, 3  vols.).  Among  the  earlier  woite 
of  B.  was'his.Defenoe  of  Usury,  showing 
the  Impolicy  of  the  present  legal  Re- 
straints on  the  Terms  of  pecunialy  Bar- 
gains (1787). 

Bezvtivoolio,  Comelio;  cardinal  and 
poet,  bom  at  Ferrara,  1668,  of  a  family 
that  held  the  highest  <^ces  in  the  former 
republic  of  BoToffna.  He  early  distin- 
ffuished  himself  by  his  progress  in  the 
fine  arte,  literature,  phUoeophy,  theoloay 
and  jurisprudence.    WhHe  at  Ferrera,  he 

Cnised  the  literaiy  institutions  there. 
Clement  XI  made  him  his  domes- 
tie*prelate  and  secretary  to  the  apostolic 
chamber,  and  sent  hirttj  in  1713,  as  nuncio 
to  Paris,  where,  during  the  last  years  of 
the  reign  of  Louis  XI V,  he  acted  an  im- 
portant part  in  the  afiUr  of  the  bull  Uni- 
genitus.  '^he  duke  of  Orleans,  regent 
after  the  <feath  of  Louis,  was  not  &vorar 
bly  disposed  towards  him;  the  pope^ 
therefore,  tranafened  him  to  Ferrara,  and, 
in  1719,  bestowed  on  him  die  hat  of  a 
cardinal,  and  employed  him  at  first  hi 
Rome,  near  his  own  person,  ihen  as  locate 
a  laUart  in  Romagna,  &c  B.  died  in 
Rome,  1733.  Poetry  had  occupied  the 
leisure  hours  of  the  learned  cardinal. 
Some  sonnets  composed  by  hun  are  to  be 
found  in  Gobbi's  collection,  vol  3,  and  in 
other  collections  of  his  time.  Under  die 
name  of  Sdvamo  Pprpera^  he  translated 
the  TMntU  or  Statius  into  Italian.  He 
d^vered  several  addresses  before  socie- 
ties for  the  jHTomotion  of  the  fine  sqrts. 
Ifis  discourse  in  defence  of  the  utility 
and  moral  influence  of  paiiiting,  sculpture 
and  ari^itecture,  delivered  in  the  academy 
of  desigii,  at  Rome,  1707,  was  reprinted 
by  ,the  acadeinv  of  the  Arcadians,  in  the 
3d  voL  of  the  Proee  degli  ArcadL 

Bemtivoolio,  Guv  or  Guide,  celebrated 
as  a  cardinal  and  a  historian,  was  boni  at 
Ferrara,  in  1679.  He  studied  at  Padua 
with  great  reputation,  and  afterwards,  fix- 

Digitized  by 




log  his  residence  at  Rome,  acquired  gen- 
eml  esteem  b^  his  prudence  and  Intenity. 
He  was  nuncio  in  Flanders  from  1607  to 
1616,  and  afterwards  in  France  till  1621. 
His  character  stood  so  high,  that,  on  the 
death  of  Uihan  VIII,  in  1644,  he  was 
generally  thought  to  be  the  most  likely 
person  to  succeed  him;  biit^  on  entering 
the  conclave,  in  the  hottest  and  most  i|n- 
healthy  season  of  the  year,  he  was  seized 
with  a  fever,  of  which  he  died,  a^  65 
years.  He  had  lived  in  a  magnificent 
style,  and  was  .much  embarrassed  at  the 
time  of  his  death — a  circumstance  attrib- 
uted to  his  canvass  for  the  papacy.  '  Car- 
dinal B.  was  an  eible  poliucian,  and  his 
historical  memoirs  are  such  as  we  should 
exoect  from  emh  a  man.  The  most  valu- 
able of  these  are  his  History  of  the  Civil 
Wars  in  Flanders,  written  in  Italian,  and 
first  published  at  Cologne,  1630,  a  trans- 
lation of  whidi,  by  Heniy  earl  of  Mon- 
mouth, appeared  in  1654  (London,  folio) ; 
an  Account  of  Flanders,  during  his  lega- 
tion, also  translated  by  the  earl  of  Mon^ 
mouth  (folio,  1652|;  his  own  Memoirs; 
and  a  collection  of  letters,  which  are  reck- 
oned among  the  beet  specimens  of  epis- 
tolary writing  in  the  Italian  kuiguage  (an 
edition  of  which  was  pubhshed  at  Cam- 
bridge, in  1727).  All  these,  except  the 
Memoirs,  have  been  published  together  at 
Paris,  1645—1648,  tolio,  and  at  Veniee, 

Beittlet,  Richard,  a  celebrated  Eng- 
lish divine  and  classical  scholar,  distin- 
guished as  a  polemical  writer,  in  the  lat- 
tor  part  of  the  17th  century,  was  bom  in 
16^  His  fiuher  is  said  to  have  been  a 
blacksmith.  To  his  mot];ier,  who  was  a 
woman  of  strong  natural  abilities,  he-  was 
indebted  for  the  first  rudiments  of  his 
education.  At  the  age  of  14,  he  entered 
St  John's  college,  Cambridge.  In ,  1682, 
he  left  the  university,  and  became  usher 
of  a  school  at  Spalding ;  and  this  situation 
he  relinquished,  in  the  following  year,  for 
that  of  tutor  to  the  son  of  doctor  StiUing- 
fleet,  dean  of  St.  Paul's.  He  accompaui^ 
his  pupil  to  Oxford,  where  he  availed 
himself  of  the  literary  treasures  of  the 
Bodleian  library,  in  the  prosecution  of  his 
studies.  In  1^4,  he  took  the  degree  of 
A.  M.  at  Cambridge,  and,  in  1689,  obtained 
the  same  honor  at  the  sister  university. 
His  first  published  Work  was  a  Latin 
epistle  to  aoctor  John  lilil],  in  an  edition 
of  the  Chronicle  of  John  Malela,  which 
appeared  in  IQdt.^  It  contained  observa- 
tions on  the  writings  of  that  Greek  histo- 
rian, and  display^ed  so  much  profound 
learning  and  critical  acumen,  as  excited 

die /sanguine  antidpations  of  daasicd 
schdars  fit>m  the  future  labors  of  the 
author.  Doctor  Stillingfleet,  having  been 
raised  to  the  bishopric  of  Worcester;  made 
B.  his  chaplain,  and,  in  169S2,  collated  him 
to  a  prebend  m  his  cathedral  The  i«c- 
ommendation  of  his  patron  and  of  bisliop 
Uoyd  procured  him  the  honor  of  being 
chosen  the  first  preacher  of  the  leeture 
instituted  by  the  celebrated  Robert  Boyle 
for  the  defence  of  Christianity.  The  dis- 
courses against  atheism,  which  he  deliv- 
ered on  this  occasion,  were  published  in 
1694:  they  yhave  since  been  often  reprint- 
ed, and  trandated  into  several  foreign 
languages.  In  1693,  he  was  appomted 
keeper  of  the  royal  library  at  St.  James's 
— a  circumstance  which  ihcidentally  led 
ta  Jiis  fiunous  controversy  vrith  the  hon. 
Charles  Boyle,  afterwards  earl  of  Orrery, 
relative  to  the  eenuineness  of  the  Gredc 
Epistles  of  Phakris,  an  edition  of  which 
was  published  by  the  latter,  then  a  stu- 
dent at  Christ-church,  Oxifbrd.  In  this 
dispute,  Bentley  was  completely  victo- 
rious, though  opposed  by  the  greatest 
wits  and  critics  of  the  age,  including  Pope, 
Swift,  Garth,  Atteibury,  Aldrioh,  DodweU, 
and  Conyers  Middleton,  who  advocated 
the  opinion  of  Boyle  with  a  degree  of 
warmth  and  iUiberality  which  appears 
very  extraordinary.  But  the  motives  of 
B.'s  assailants  were  various.  Swift,  in  his 
Batde  of  the  Books,  took  up  Uie  cudgels 
against  him  in  defence  of  liis  fiiend  sir 
William  Temple ;  doctor  Garth  attacked 
him  probably  fi^om  mere  wantoimess,  in 
the  well-known  couplet  in  his  Dispen- 

So  cUamflnds  owe  a  lustre  to  their  toil, 
And  to  a  Bentky  'Us  we  owe  a  Boyle. 
Some  were  actuated  by  personal  consid- 
erations, among  whom  was  Conyers  Mid- 
dleton, whose  persevering  hostility  to  B., 
during  a  long  series  of  year^  seems  to 
have  originated  ftom  the  latter  having 
applied  to  tha  fomwi^  when  si  young  stu- 
dent in  the  univevsirv,  the  contemptuous 
epithet  oi  fiddSa^t  GoityerB,  because  he 
played  on  the  vionn.  It  dees  not  appear 
who  was  the  author  of  a  {MUining  carica- 
ture, wfaieh  was  produced  on  this  occasion, 
representmg  B.  about  to  be  thrust  into  the 
&razm  M2  of  Phalaris,  and  exclaiming, 
'*I  had  father  be  roa$Ud  than  BoyUd?^ 
In  1699,  B.,  who  had  three  years  before 
been  created  D.  D.,  published  his  Disserw 
tation  on  the  Epistles  of  Phalaris,  in 
which  he  sadsftctorily  proved  that  they 
were  not  the  compoanons  of  the  tyrant  of 
Agrigentum,  who  lived  more  than  ^y^ 
centuries  before  the  Christian  era,  but 

Digitized  by 


b£ntl£y--.m:nzoio  acid. 


ymn  written  l^  some  soj^hist,  under  the 
borrowed  name  oiPhaUtng^  in  the  declln- 
JD^  age  of  Greek  literature.  Soon  after 
this  publication,  doctor  B.  .nvas  presented 
by  tlie  crown  to  the  mastership  of  Trinity 
college,  Cambridge,  worth  nearly  £1000 
a  year.  He  now  resigned  the  prebend  of 
Worcester,  and,  in  1701,  was  collated  to 
die  archdeaconry  of  Ely.  His  conduct  as 
head  of  the  college  gave  rise  to  accu- 
sations against  him  from  the  vice-master 
and  some  of  the  fellows,  who,  among 
various  offences,  charged^  him  with  em- 
bezzling the  college  money.  The  con- 
test wos  much  protracted,  and  occasioned 
a  lawsuit,  which  was  decided  in  the  doc- 
tor's favor,  about  twenty  years  afler.  In 
1711,  he  published  an  edition  of  {iorace, 
at  Cambridge,  in  4to.,  whicb  was  reprint-^ 
ed  at  Amsterdam ;  and,  in  1713,  appeared 
his  remarks  on  Collins's  Discourse  on 
Free-thinking,  under  the  form  of  a  Letter 
to  F.  H.  [Francis  Hare]  D.  D.,  by  Phile- 
kutberus  Lipsiensis.  He  was  appointed 
regius  professor  of  divinity  in  1716,  and, 
in  the  same  year,  issued  proposals  for  a 
new  edition  of  the  Greek  Testament — an 
undertaking  for  which  he  was  admirably 
qualified,  but  which  be  was  prevented  from 
executing,  in  consequence  of  the  animad- 
versions of  his  deteimihed  adversary,  Mid- 
dletdn.  In  1717,  George  I,  visiting  the  uni- 
versity, nominated  by  mandate,  as  is  usual 
on  such  occasions,  several  persons  for  the 
doctor's  degree  in  divinity.  It  was  the 
duty  of  B.,  as  professor,  to  perform  the 
ceremony  called  cr'taJiion;  previous  to 
which  he  made  a  demand  of  lour  guineas 
fit)m  each  candidate  beyond  the  usual 
fees,  absolutely  refusing  to  create  any  doc- 
tor withQUt  payment  Some  submitted ; 
but  others,  among  whom  was  Middleton, 
withstood  the  demand,  and  conunenced  a 
prosecution  against  the  professor  before 
the  vice-chancellor,  who,  deciding  in  &vor 
of  ^e  complainants,  firet  suspended  B., 
and  subsequently  degraded  him  from  his 
honors,  rights  and  offices  in  the  univer- 
sity. These  proceedings  were,  afler  con- 
siderable litigation,  annulled  by  the  court 
of  king's  bench ;  and  the  doctor,  in  1728, 
was  festered  to  all  his  former  honors  and 
emoluments.  In  1726,  he  published  an 
edition  of  Terence  and  Pnsedrus;  and 
his  notes  on  the  comedies  of  the  former 
involved  him  in  a  dispute  with  bishop 
Hare,  onrthe  metres  of  Terence,  which 
provoked  the  sarcastic  observation  of  sir 
Isaac  Newton,  that  *'two  digzufied  clergyr 
men,  instead  of  mindins  their  duty,  had 
Men  out  about  a  play-book."  The  last 
work  of  doctor  B.  was  an  edition  of  Mil- 

VOL.  II.  6 

ton's  Paradise  Lost,  yniAx  conjecdiml 
emendations,  which  appeared  in  1732* 
This  added  nothinff  to  his  reputation,  and 
may,  in  one  word,be  characterized  a  fail- 
ure. He  died  at  the  master's  lodge  at 
Trinity,  July  14, 1742,  and  was  interred 
in  the  college  chapel.  As  a  scholar  and 
a  critic,  B.  was  veiy  distinguished.  The 
best  informed  of  his  opponents  respected 
his  talents,  while  they  were  loading  him 
with  classical  abuse,  which  he  did  not  fail 
to  return  with  interest.  Now  that  the  prej- 
udices, excited  apparently  by  his  personal 
cbnduct,  have  subsided,  his  preeminence 
in  that  species  of  literature  which  he  cul- 
tivated, is  universally  acknowledged.  The 
celebrated  German  philologist  J.  A.  Wolf 
wrote  an  excellent  biography  of  B.  in  the 
AnaUdOj  (vol.  1,  Berlin.) 

Benzel-Sternau,  Charles  Christian, 
count,  bom  at  Mentz,  1750,  was,  in  1812, 
president  of  the  ministry  for  the  depart 
ment  of  the  interior  in  the  former  grand- 
duchy  of  Frankfort,  and  now  lives  in  tlie 
neighborhood  of  Hanau.  He  is  one  of 
the  most  humorous  writers  of  our  time, 
and,  in  the  character  of  his  writings, 
resembles  J.  Paul.Richter.  His  &me  was 
established  by  the  Golden  Calf  (a  biogra- 
phy, 1805^1804,  4  vols,  in  the  fnst  edi- 
tion). B,  has  written  much,  and  all  his 
proauctions  display  wit,  richness  of  im- 
agery, and  nice  observation  of  character. 

Beivzenbero,  John  Frederic,  bom. 
May  5, 1777,  at  Scholler,  a  village  between 
^Iberfeld  and  DCisseldorf^  studied  theolo- 
gy in  Marbui^,  and,  in  G6ttingen,  mathe- 
matics and  natural  philosophy.  He  ren- 
dered much  service  to  the  fatter  science, 
by  his  observations  on  the  fell  of  bodies, 
and  the  motion  of  the  earth,  whieh  he 
began  by  experiments  in  the  steeple  of 
the  church  of  St.  Michael,  in  Hambui]^, 
and  continued  in  tlie  shaft  of  a  mine,  in 
the  county  of  Mark,  having  a  depth  of 
266^  feet    He  was  appointed,  in  1805, 

C feasor  of  astronomy  and  natural  phi- 
mhy,  by  the  then  elector  of  Bavania, 
in  Diisseldorf  At  a  later  period,  he  has 
written  much  in  fevor  of  the  Pmssian 
government;  but  the  influence  of  his 
politicd  pieces  has  not  been  so  great  as 
that  of  his  scientific  o))6ervations  above- 
mendoned.  B.  lives  now  retired,  near 
Crefold,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 

Benj&oic  Acid  is  obtained  by  the  appli- 
cation of  a  moderate,  heat  to  the  balsam 
of  Pem^  it  rises  in  vapor,  and  condenses 
in  slender  prisms,  which  are  white  and 
briJUiant  It  has  a  peculiar  aromatic  odor. 
When  heated  on  burmng  fuel,  it  inflames 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



ft&d  bums  with  a  clear  yellew  K^ht.  It 
unites  with  alkalies  and  earths,  tormiDg 
salts  called  benzoates,  which  are  usimpor- 
tant,  except  the  benzoate  of  iron,  which, 
from  its  insolubiiity,  affords  a  conven- 
ient means  of  sep^oating  iron  from  its  solu- 
tions, so  as  to  ascertain  its  quantity,  and 
also  of  obtaining  it  free  from  manganese, 
which  forms  with  tlie  acid  a  soluble  salt 
(See  Benzoin.) 

Benzoin  is  a  solid,  fragile,  vegetable 
substance,  of  a  reddish-brown  color.  In 
commerce,  two  varieties  are  distinguish- 
ed, viz.  the  common  and  the  am^g- 
daioidal ;  the  latter  containing  whitish 
tears,  of  an  almond  Bha[)e,  diffused 
through  hs  substance..  It  is  imported 
from  Sumatra,  Siam  and  Java,  and  is 
found,  also,  in  South  America.  Benzoin 
is  obtained  from  the  tree  called  shfrax 
henztnn,  and  perhaps  from  some  others. 
On  making  mcisions  into  the  bark,  it 
flows  out  in  the  form  of  a  balsamic  juice, 
having apungent  taste,  and  an  agreeable 
odor.  The  pure  balsam  consists  of  two 
principal  iBubstances,  viz.  a  resin,  and  a 
pecuhar  acid  termed  6enzoic,(q.  v.),.which 
IS  procured  from  the  mass  by  subhmation. 
It  IS  soluble  in  water.  This  acid  is  found, 
also,  as  a  constituent  principle  in  storax 
and  the  balsams  of  Tom  and  Peru :  it  exists 
in  the  urine  of  coWs,  camels,  and  even  of 
young  children.  It  is  sometimes  found 
'  m  a  crystalline  form  on  the  pods  of  the 
vanilla.  Benzoin  i^  not  soluble  in  water, 
but  is  readily  dissolved  in  alcohol,  by  the 
aid  of  a  gentle  heat  The  tincture  thus 
made  is  used  in  pharmacy.  A  small 
quantity  of  this  tincture,  dropped  into 
water,  forms  a  white,  milky  fluid,  which 
is  used  in  France  as  a  cosmetic,  under 
the  name  of  kdt  virginaL  The  gum  is  a 
principal  ingredient  of  the  common  court 
plaster.  The  acid,  as  well  as  the  gum,  is 
employed  in  medicine:  they  are  stimu- 
lating, and  act  more  particularly  upon 
the  pulmonary  system ;  whence  they  are 
used  in  asthma  and  chronic  catarrh. 

B^RANOER,  Pierre,  Jean  de ;  a  lyric 
poet,  of  that  ckas  which,  in  modem  hte- 
nture,  is  almost  peculiar  to  the  French, 
called  chansonmer;  ^hom  Aug.  19, 1780; 
educated  by  his  grand&therj  a  poor  tailor; 
was  destined  for  the  printing  business, 
When  his  taints  for  poetiy  excited  atten- 
tion. Lucien  Bonaparte  became  die  pa- 
tron of  the  amiable  poet,  who  gave  zest 
to  his  social  songs  by  allusions  to  the 
politics  of  the  day.  Tne  imperial  censors 
spared  him ;  the  royal  suppressed  his 
songs,  which,  for  this  reason,  were  read 
and  sung  with  the  greater  eagerness.    In 

16SS2,  he' was  condemned  to  imprisonment 
for  13  months^  and  deprived  of  a  small 
office  in  the  royal  university.  This  pro- 
cess increased  his  reputation.  The  last 
edition  of  the  ChanwM  de  P.  J.  dt  Bi- 
ranger,  (1  voL,  Paris,  1829,  24mo.^  con- 
tains the  happiest  specimens  of  wit, 
humor,  gayety,  satire,  and  flashes  of 
sublime  poetry,  which  place  him  by  the 
side  of  tiie  most  distinguished  chanson- 
niers  of  France— Blot,  CoU^  and  Panard. 
B*.  ascends  with  singular  ease  from  the 
lower  sphere  of  poetry  to  a  high  and 
noble  enthusiasm,  and  the  rapidity  of  the 
transition  produces  a  striking  effect  We 
would  refer  the  reader  to  his  beautiful 
verses  entitled  Mon  Ame,  He  was  never 
a  flatterer  of  Napoleon  when  money  or 
titles  were  to  be  gained  by  flattery,  and 
has  never  reviled  him  since  reviling  has 
been  a  means  of  rising.  He  is  a  truly 
national  poet,  and  B^jamin  Constant 
has  said  of  him,  Birangerfaii  dea  odts 
svblimeSy  quand  U  ne  'cnU  /aire  que  de 
simples  chansons  (B^ranger  makes  sub- 
lime odes,  when  he  thinks  be  is  making 
sunple  songs).  Dec.  11,  1823,  B.  was 
sentenced,  by  tlie  court  of  con^ectional 

Solice,  to  pay  10,000  fi:an*c8  (about  1800 
ollars),  and  to  undergo  nine  months'  im- 
prisonment, for  havinff  attacked  the  dig- 
nity erf  the  chureh.  ana  of  the  king  in  his 
poems  the  Guardian  Anffel,  Coronation 
of  Charles  the  Simple,  and  Gerontocracy. 
His  songs  are  at  once  a  storehouse  of 

fayety  and  satire,  and  a  record  of  the 
istory  of  his  time ;  and  happy  is  that 
nation  vvhich  can  boast  of  so  excellent 
and  national  a  poet  He  often  sings  of 
wine,  and  we  recollect  no  other  great 
modem,  poet  who  has  written  a  series  of 
songs  on  this  subject,  except  G6the,  in 
his  Buck  des  Scfienken,  one  of  the  12 
books  of  the  WestdsUicher  Dtvcofu  The 
difference  between  them  is  striking. 
Gothe  mixes  philosophical  reflections 
and  praises  of  tne  liquor  with  a  boldness 
which  borders  on  temerity,  while  B.  is 
gay  almost  to  extravagance.  We  doubt 
whether  B.1s  poems  in  traiislation  would 
ever  give  a  nir  idea  of  the  original,  be* 
cause  their  beauty  consists,  in  a  great 
measure,  in  the  deUcacy  and  pungency 
of  the  expression,  which  could  narmy  be 
transferred  to  another  language, 

Berbers  ;  the  name  of  a  people  spread- 
over  neariy  flie  whole  of  Northern  Africa. 
From  their  name  the  appellation  of  Bar^ 
hary  is  derived.  (See  dBarfMxry  ^ates,) 
Thev  are  conside^d  the  most  ancient 
inhabitants  of  that  country.  Their  dii^ 
ferent  tribes  are  scattered  over  the  whole 

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nace  inteireDing  between  the  shores  of 
the  Atlantic  and  the  confines  of  Egypt ; 
but  the  diffezent  branches  of  mount  Atlas 
are  their  principal  abode:  while  to  the 
aoath  &ey  are  Dounded  by  the  Negro 
states  on  the  edge  of  the  great  Sahara,  or 
Desert.  For  most  of  what  we  Jmow  of 
them,  we  are  indebted  to  Leo  Afncanus 
and  the  Aiabian  wiitets,  who^  state- 
ments are  corroborated  by  Homemann 
(q.  Y.)  and  captain  Lyon,  who  have  visited 
them  in  our  own  daya.  Much  informa- 
tion oonceniing  them  is  yet  wanted. 
Where  they  live  by  themselves,  and  are 
not  spread  among  the  Arabians  and  other 
|)eopJe  of  the  Barimry  slates,  they  man- 
ifest veiy  little  cultivation,— -warlike  nom- 
ades,  without  written  laws, — and  ex- 
hibit the  chief  traits  which  characterize 
all  the  African  nations.  They  are  ex- 
tremely abstinent  Their  language  is  a 
matter  of  much  curiosity  for  me  philolo- 
gist It  has  many  points  of  resemblance 
with  the  Teutonic  languages.  (See  Ade- 
lung*8  MUhridaU^j  voL  %  5th  part,  pa^ 
43  et  se^.,  and  the  article,  in  volume  3, 
new  senes,  p.  438  et  seq.  of  the  TVettu- 
adions  of  the  Amtrican  Philo9ophical  So- 
ciehf.)  We  know,  from  trustworthy  ac- 
counts, that  Mr.  Hodgson,  attached  to  the 
American  consulate-general  at  Alfiera, 
has  sent  to  an  eminent  scholar  of  the  tJ. 
States  conununications  concerning  the 
Bert)er  languoffe,  which  will  add  much 
to  the  knowledge  ahneady  possessed  of 
that  dialect  (For  further  mformation  re- 
specting the  Berbers,  see  Lvon's  SVovelf 
in  Northern  MieUj  Lance's  translation 
of  HomemamvM  IraveU  m  ^fricOf  and 
almost  all  the  woifcs  which  treat  of  the 
north  of  Africa.)  It  appears  fit>m  the 
hetber  language,  that  the  fir^  inhabitants 
of  the  Caiuuy  islands  were  of  the  Berber 

BsRBiox ;  a  disuict  of  Guiaiui,  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Dutch,  bat  ceded  to 
Great  Britun  in  1814;  watered  by  the 
river  Berbice,  the  Canje,  and  others.  It 
extends  fit>m  Abarry  creek,- on  the  west, 
to  Courtot2ne  river  on  the  east,  along  the 
coast,  about  150  miles.  The  towns  are 
New  Amsterdam,  the  capital,  and  Fort 
Nassau.  The  produ^ns  are  sugar,  rum, 
cotton,  coflfee,  cocoa  and  tobacco.  The 
coast  ia  marshy  and  the  air  damp.  Popu- 
lation, in  1815,  29,959;  of  whom  550 
were  whites^  240  people  of  color,  and 
^169  8lavea 

BxacHTEsaABKN ;  a  maiket-tpwn  in 
the  Salzburg  Alps,  in  the  kingdom  of  Ba- 
varia, with  3000  inhabitants ;  famous  for 
A^aah,  Bonea  in  its  neigfaborhood|  the  salt- 

work  Fnuienreith,  and  the  aqueducts 
which  conduct  the  salt  water  to  the  works 
called  ReichenhalL  The  rock-salt  does 
not  appear  here  in  large,  sphd  masses,' 
but  in  small  pieces  mixed  with  clay. 
Fresh  water  is  let  into  the  mines,  and, 
having  been  saturated  with  salt,  is  carried 
into  luge  reservoirs,  from  which,  at  the 
works  of  Fjauenreith,  ldO,000  cwt  of  salt 
are  annually  obtained.  A  large  part  of 
the  water  is  conducted  to  Reichenhall. 
At  this  plape  a  large  salt-i^ring  was  dis- 
covered m  1619,  and,  on  account  of  a 
deficiency  in  wood  requued  in  the  prepa- 
ration of  the  salt,  the  water  was  conveyed, 
by  Qieans  of  an  aqueduct,  to  Traunstein, 
2& 'miles  distant  Another  aqueduct,  95 
miles  long,  from  Reichenhall  to  Rosen- 
heim, was  complete  in  1809,  and,  in 
1817,  these  were,  asain-  brought  into 
communication  with  B.  in  a  most  admi- 
rable way.  Tlie  first  machine,  which 
raises  the  brine  coming  from  -B.  50  feet 
high,  is  near  this  place.  From  hence,  it 
runs  in  pipes  9500  feet,  with  a  fall  of  17 
feet  only,  into  the  second  reservoir.  A 
hydraulic  nuichine,  invented  by  von 
Reichenbach,  here  lifts  the  salt  water 
311  feet  higli,  in  iron  pipes  934  feet  long. 
The  water  then  runs  in  pipes  7480  feet, 
with  37  feet  fidl,  to  a  vallev,  over  which 
it  is  led  in  iron  pipes,  1225  feet  long,  and, 
after  runninff  12,073  feet  farther,  it  fells 
into  the  third  reservoir.  Here  is  a  second 
itydraulic  machine,  which  hfls  the  water 
to  a  perpendicular  height  of  1218  feet,  in 
pipes  3506  feet  long ;  and  hence  it  flows, 
m  pipes  73,000  feet  long,  to  Reichenhall* 
The  pipes  running  from  B.  to  Reichen- 
hall amount  to  104,140  feet  From 
Reichenhall  to  Siegsdorf  there  is  but  one 
aqueduct  fer  the  salt  water  intended  for 
Traunstein  and  Rosenheim,  94,800  feet 
long.  From  Siegsdorf  to  Traunstein  ^e 
brine  fiovfa  without  an  aqueduct  In 
Traunstein,  140,000  cwt  are  annually 
produced.  The  other  part  of  the  brine 
flows  in  pipes,  78/X)0  feet  long,  to  Rosen- 
heim, wnich  produces  annuSly  180,000 
cwt  of  salt  The  water  required  to  work 
the  numerous  machines  is  brought  fit>m 
places  many  of  which  are  1&-19,000 
feet  distant 

Bsac'taTOLn^  Leopold,  count,  bom  in 
1758,  devoted  his  tife  to  the  relief  of  die 
wretched-  He  spent  13  years  in  travel- 
ling through  Europe,'  and  4  in  travelling 
through  Asia  and  Africa,  to  assuage  hn-* 
man  misery.  The  reaults  of  his  experi- 
ence are  contained  in  his  Eseav  to  direct 
and  extend  the  Inquiries  of  patriotic 
TraveUeiB  (London,  I78p,  2  vols.)    He 

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wrote  several  pam^leta  on  the  tneans  of 
reforming  the  police,  which  he  caused  to 
be  printed  in  different  European  coun- 
tries, at  his  own  expense,  and  to  be  dis- 
tributed gratis.  His  prize-questions  gave 
rise  to  many  pamphlets  and  treatises  on 
the  means  of  saving  the  drowned  and  the 
seemingly  dead.  He  ofiered  a  prize  of 
1000  fforins  for  the  best  treatise  on  be- 
ne^cent  institutions,  and  was  himself  the 
founder  of  many.  From  1795  to  97,  he 
traveUed  through  Asiatic  and  European 
Turkey,  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  coun- 
teracting the  ravages  or  the  plague.  At 
a  later  period,  he  was  engaged  in  making 
vaccination  more  extensively  known. 
During  the  famine  that  ra^d  in  the  Rie- 
sengebirge  (Giant  mountaiiis),  from  1605 
to  1806,  he  procured  com  and  other  pro- 
visions Irom  distant  re^ons.  He  fitted 
up  the  palace  Buchlowitz  on  his  estate 
Buchlau  in  Moravia,  as  an  hospital  for 
the  sick  and  wounded  Austrian  soldiers. 
Here  this  patriot  and  philanthropist  was 
carried  off  by  a  contagious  nervous  fever, 
July  26,  1809. 

Bebct  ;  a  village  on  the  Seine,  at  its  con- 
fluence with  the  Mame,  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Paris.  The  Parisian  vnne-mer- 
chants  have  here  th^ir  stores  of  wine, 
vrine-vinegar,  distilled  liquors,  &c. ;  so 
that  the  intercourse  between  B.  and  the 
capital  is  extremely  acuve.  It  is  increased 
also  by  several  important  tanneries,  sugar- 
refineries  and  paper-mills.  A  large  pal- 
ace, Le  graiid  Bercy,  was  built  by  Levau 
at  the  close  of  the  i7th  century-.  The 
park  which  belongs  to  it,  containing  900 
acres,  was  planted  by  Lendtre.  M.  de 
Calonne  was  for  some  time  in  possession 
of  it  The  present  possessor  is  M.  de. 

BsREiTOARius,  or  Bereito^r,  of  Tours, 
a  teacher  in  the  philosophical  school  in 
that  ciQr,  and,  in  1040,  archdeacon  of  An- 
gers^  is  renowned  for  his  philosophical 
acuteness  as  one  of  die  scholastic  writers, 
and  also  for  the  boldness  with  which,  in 
1050,  he  declared  himself  against  the 
doctrine  of  transubstantiation,  and  for  his 
consequent  persecutions.  He  was  several 
times  compelled  to  recant,  but  always 
returned  to  the  same  opinion,  that  the 
bread  in  the  Lord's  supper  is  merely  a 
symbol  of  the  body  of  Christ,  in  which 
he  agreed  with  the  Scotchman  John 
Erigena  (called  Scotus\  •  The  Catholics 
ranked  him  among  the  most  dangerous 
heretics.  He  was  treated  with  forbear- 
ance by  Gregory  VII,  biit  the  scholastics 
belongmg  to  the  party.of  the  great  Lan- 
finmc,  archbisfkop  of  Canterbury,  were 

Irritated  against  him  to  such  a  degree, 
that  he  reured  to  the  isle  of  St  Cosmas, 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Toui^s,  in  the  year 
1080,  where  he  closed  his  life  at  a  great 
a^,  in  pious  exercises  (1088).  On  the 
history  of  this  controversy,  which  has 
lieen  very  much  misrepresented  by  the 
Benedictines,  new  hght  has  been  shed  by 
Lessin^,  in  his  Berengar  (1770),  and  by 
Staudhn,  who  has  likewise  published  the 
work  of  B.  against  Laufi^c.  This  B. 
Vkust  not  be  confounded  with  Peter  Be- 
renger  of  Poitiers,  who  wrote  a  defence 
of  his  instructer  Abelard. 

Berenhorst,  Francis  Leopold  von  ; 
one  of  the  first  of  the  writers  by  whom 
the  luiiitary  art  has  been  founded  on  clear 
and  certain  principles.  He  was  a  natural 
son  of  prince  Leopold  of  Dessau,  and 
was  bom  in  1733.  In  1760,  he  became 
the  adjutant  of  Frederic  11.  After  the 
seven  years'  war,  he  lived  at  Dessau.  He 
died  in  1814. 

Berenice  (Greek,  a  bring^r  of  victory). 
1.  This  was  the,  name  of  the  wife  of 
Mitliridates  the  Great,  king  of  Pontu& 
Her  husband,  when  vanquished  by  Lu- 
cullus,  caused  her  to  be  put  to  death 
(about  the  year  71  B.  C),  lest  she  sliould 
j&ll  into  the  hands  of  his  enemies.  Mo- 
nima,  his  other  wife,  and  his  two  sisters, 
Roxana  and  Statira,  experienced  the  same 
fete. — 2,  The  wife  of  Herod,  brother  to 
the  great  Agrippa,  her  &ther,  at  whose 
request  Herod  was  made  king  of  Chalcia, 
by  the  emperbr  Claudius,  but  soon  died. 
In  spite  of  her  dissolute  hfe,  she  insinu- 
ated herself  into  the  favor  of  the  emperor 
Vespasian  and  his  son  Titus.  The  latter 
was,  at  one  time,  on  the  point  of  marrying- 
her.— 3.  The  wife  of  Ptolemy  Euergetes, 
who  loved  her  husband  with  rare  tender- 
ness, and,  when  he  went  to  war  in  Syria, 
made  a  vow  to  devote  her  beautifiil  hair 
to  the  gods,  if  he  returned  safe.  Upon 
his  return,  B.  performed  her  vow  in  the 
temple  of  Venus.  Soon  after,  the  hair 
was  missed,  and  the  astronomer  Conon 
of  Samoa  declared  that  the  gods  had 
transferred  it  to  the  skies  as  a  constella- 
tion. From  this  circumstance,  the  seven 
stars  n6ar  the  tail  of  the  Lion  are  called 
coma  BereiUceB  (the  hair  of  Berenice). 

Beresford,  WiUiam,  baron,  duke  of 
Elvas  and  marquis  of  Campo  Mayor,  for 
the  abihty  and  coura^  which  he  dis- 
played in  the  war  of  PorttTgal  against 
France,  is  ranked  among  the  distinffuish- 
ed  generals  of  Great  Britain.  He  or- 
ganized tlie  Portuguese  army,  and  also 
the  militia  of  the  country,  in  so  excellent 
a  manner,  that  they  could  vie  with  th6 

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iMt  loldien  of  the  combined  armies  in 
^e  wars  of  the  peninsula.  In  1810,  B. 
sained  a  victory  over  Soult,  at  Albufeia. 
In  1812^  he  conounanded  under  Welling- 
ton, and  took  an  important  part  in  the 
victories  at  Vittoria,  JBayonne  and  Tou- 
louse. He  made  his  entrance'' into  Bor- 
deaux, March  13, 1814,  with  the  duke  of 
Angoultoe.  May  6,  he  was  raised  to 
the  rank  of  baron  by  the  king  of  En^^ 
land,  and,  soon  afl^,  sent  to  Binzil, 
whence  he  returned  to  England  in  1815. 
The  prince  regent  of  Portugal  made  him 
ffeneralisaimo  of  the  Portuimese  armies. 
He  had  scarcely  arrived  atXisbon,  when 
he  was  sent,  by  the  English  govenuhent, 
on  an  important  mission  to  Kio  Janeiro. 
The  rigor  with  which  he  punished  a  con- 
spiracy of  general  Freyre  against  the 
British  army  and  the  re^ncy,  in  Lisbon 
(1817),  rendered  him  odious  to  the  Por- 
tugese military.  He  was,  therefor^,  dis* 
xnjssed  by  the  cortes  in  1^20.  He  then 
went  again  to  Brazil,  afterwards  to  Eng- 
land, and,  in  Dec,  1826,  appeared  anew 
in  Lisbon,  at  the  head  or  the  English 
forces  sent  to  aid  in  quelling  the  rebeSion. 
BERJBziiirA ; .  a  river  in  the  Russian 
province  of  Minsk,  rendered  famous  by 
the  passage  of  the  French  army  under 
Napoleon,  Nov.  26  and  27, 1812.  Admi- 
ral TschitschakofiT,  with  the  Moldavian 
army,  forced  his  way  from  the  south,  to 
joiu  the  main  army,  which,  after  Borizoff 
had  been  retaken,  was  to  assist  the  armv 
led  by  Witgenstein  from  the  Dwina,  and, 
in  this  manner,  cut  ofif  Napoleon  from 
the  Vistula.  Napoleon  was,  therefore, 
obliged  to  make  the  greatest  efforts,  not- 
withstanding immense  difficulties  occa^ 
sioned  by  the  nature  of  the  country,  the 
climate,  and  the  critical  situation  of  his 
troops,  to  reach  Minsk,  or,  at  least,  the 
B.,  and  to  pass  it  earlier  than  the  Rus- 
sians. To  effect  this,  it  was  necessary  to 
sacrifice  a  sreat  part  of  the  baggage  and 
artillery,  Nov.  25.  After  the  advanced 
guard  of  the  Moldavian  army  had  been 
repelled  to  Bprizoff,  by  Oudinot,  and  the 
bndge  there  burnt  by  them,  eariy  in  the 
morning  of  Nov.  26,  two  bridges  were 
built  near  Sembin,  about  two  miles  above 
BorizOff,  an  undertaking  the  more  diffi- 
cult, because  both  ba^  of  the  river 
were  bordered  by  extensive  morasses, 
covered,  like  the  river  itself,  with  ice  not 
sufficiently  strong  to  afEbrd  passage  to  the 
army,  while  other  passes  were  already 
threatened  by  the  Russians.  Scarcely 
had  a  few  corps  e^cted  their  passage, 
when  the  greater  pan  of  the  armyj  un- 
armed' and  m  confusion,  n|shed  in  crowds 

Upon  the  bridges.  Discipline  bad  long 
before  disappeared.  The  confusion  Jn-> 
creased  with  every  minute.  Those  who 
could  not  hope  to  escape  over  the  bridges 
sought  their  safety  on  the  floating  ice  of 
the  Berezina,  where  most  of  tliem  per^ 
ished,  while' many  others  were  crowded 
into  the  river  by  their  comrades.  In  this 
fatal  retreat,  the  duke  of  Reegio  (Oudi- 
not) led  the  advanced  guar^  with  the 
Poles  under  Dombrowsky  in  fit>nt;  the 
rear  guard  was  formed  by  the  corps  of 
theduke  of  Belluno.  Nov.  27,  at  noon^ 
the  dear-bought  end  wiais  gained,  and  the 
army,  leaving  the  road  to  Minsk,  took 
tbat  of  Wilna  to  Warsaw,  with  the  hope 
of  providing  for  their  necessities  in  Wil-r 
na.-— Besides  the  multitudes  who  were 
obliged  to  remain  beyond  the  B.,  the  di- 
vision of  Partouneaux,  which  fi)rmed  the 
rear  f^ard,  was  also  lost  It  was  intrusts 
ed  with  the  charge  of  burning  the  bridges 
iu  its  rear,  but  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
enemy.  According  to  the  French  bulle- 
tins, only  a  detachment  of  2000  men,  who 
niissed  their  way,  was>  taken;  according 
to  the  Russian  accounts,  the  whole  corps, 
7500  men  and  5  generals, 

B£ae ;  a  duchy  of  Qennanv ;  bounded 
on  the  north  by  the  duchy  of  Cleves,  on 
the  east  by  the  county  of  Mark  and  West^ 
phalia,  on  the  south  by  the  Westerwald, 
and  on  the  west  by  the  Rhine.  It  be- 
longed, formerly,  to  the  elector  of  Bavar 
ria,  but  has  been  included,  since  181^  in 
the  srand-duchy  of  the  Lower  Rhine, 
wiiicn  belongs  to  Prussia.  .It  contains 
1188  square  miles,  with  98^000  mhabit^ 
apts.  There  are  mines  of  iron,  copper, 
lead  and  quicksilver;  but  the  priucipal 
objects  of  attention  are  the  maniuactures, 
which  render  it  one  of  the  mojrt  populous 
and  flourishing  countries  in  Grermany; 
of  these,  the  principal  are  hx)n.  steel, 
linen,  woollen,  cotton  and  silk.  TJbe^  ex-r 
tent  of  the  manu&ctures  of  B.  is,  in  ^ 
great  measure,  owing  to  the  multitude  of 
skilful  workmen  whom  the  fury  of  the 
Spaniards,  in  the  war  agauist  the  Netherr 
lands,  forced  to  leave  their  country.  The 
richest  fled  to  London  imd  Hamburg,  the 
poorer  sort,  which  included  a  great  pnn 
portion  of  the  manufacturers,  to  the 
neighboring  Berg.  At  a  later  period, 
when  Louis  XI V  revoked  the  edict  or 
Nantes,  many  of  the  most  industriouis  of 
the  French  Protestants  fled  ^Iso  to  this 
duchy,  which  thus  became  the  most  manir 
ufactiuing  part  of  Germany,  Elberfeld 
is  the  most  important  of  the  manu&ctur-r 
ing  places  of  B.  Another  reason  of  the 
great  pnMperity  of  this  oounfiy  is,  that  it 

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tice  of  du8  great  mtn.  In  1758,  be  be- 
came doctor  of  philoflophy  and  profesBor 
of  physics  at  UpsaL  Upon  tbe  resigiia- 
tion  of  the  celebrated  WaUenus,  B.  was  a 
candidate  for  the  professorship  of  chemis- 
tiy  and  miheralo^.  His  competitors 
charged  him  with  ignorance  of  the  sub- 
ject, oecause  be  had  never  writtmi  on  it. 
To  refute  them,  he  shut  himself  up  for 
some  time  in  a  laboratoij,  and  prepared 
a  treatise  on  the  manu&cture  of  alum, 
which  is  still  considered  as  a  standard 
work.  In  1767,  be  became  professor  of 
chemistry,  and  devoted  himself  with  ar- 
dor to  this  science.  He  invented  the 
preparation  of  artificial  mineral-waters, 
and  discovered  the  sulphuretted  hydro- 
gen gas  of  mineral  siHings.  We  are  in- 
debted to  him  for  a  knowledge  of  the 
characters  which  distinguish  nickel  £t)m 
other  metals.  On  a  number  of  minerals 
be  made  chemical  experiments,  with*  an 
accuracy  before  uncommon.  He  pub- 
lished a  classification  '  of  minerals,  in 
which  tbe  chief  divisions  are  based  on 
their  chemical  character,  and  the  subdi- 
visions on  their  external  forhi.  In  pre- 
paring this  work,  he  waa  much  aided  by 
his  former  discovery  of  the  geometrical 
relations,  between  different  crystals  of  the 
same  substance,  which  may  be  deduced 
firom  one  primitive  fonn,  and  are  pro^ 
duced  by  the  aggrejgation  of  similar  par- 
ticles, according  to  fixed  and  obvious 
laws.  His  theory  of  the  chemical  rela- 
tions is  still  esteemed,  and,  if  it  has  re- 
ceived some  newdevelopements  fiom  the 
fiirther  researches  of  BerthoUet,  it  has  not 
been  overthrown.  The  order  of  Gusta- 
vus  Vasa  was  bestowed  on  B.  He  de- 
clined the  invitation  of  Frederic  the  Great 
to  remove  to  Beritn.  He  died,  exhausted 
by  his  exertions,  in  1784,  in  thd  49th  year 
of  his  age.    Among  his  works,  the  first 

E\  is  due  to  Omucula  Pkya,  d  Chem. 
ikholm,  1779,3  vols.),  and  Physical 
ription  of  the*  Globe. 
Bergsthasse  (Germ,y  mountain  road) ; 
a  fertile  tract  of  land  on  the  right  of  the 
Rliine,  lying  west  of  the  Odenwald  and 
MeliboBus,  and  formling  a  beautiful  road 
about  30  miles  in  length,  planted  with 
walnut  and  chesmut-trees  and  vines.  It 
extends  from  Darmstadt  to  the  convent  of 
Neuburg,  about  a  mile  distant  fiiom  Hei- 
delberg. All  traveUers  on  the  Rhine  are 
delighted  with  this  road. 

Bbrixlet,  doctor  George;  bishop  of 
Cloyne,  in  Ireland;  celebrated  for  his 
ideal  theory.  He  maintains  that  the  be- 
lief in  tbe  existence  of  an  exterior  mate- 
rial Worid  is  fidse  and  jnaonsistent  with 

itself;  that  thoM  dungs  wliieh  are  caBad 
aennUe  maUriai  dijteU  are  not  external^ 
but  exist  m  the  mind,  and  are  merely  im- 
pressions made  on  our  minds  by  the  im- 
mediate act  of  God,  accordiiw  to  certain 
rules  termed  law$  f^  nahme,  nom  which 
he  never  deviates ;  and  that  the  steady  ad-i 
herence  of  the  Supreme  Spirit  to  these 
rules  is  what  constitutes  the  reality  of 
tiling  to  his  creatures ;  and  so  efifectually 
distinguishes  the  ideas  perceived  by  sense 
fix>m  such  as  are  the  work  of  the  mind 
itself  or  of  dreams,  that  there  is  no  more 
danger  of  confounding  them  toffether  on 
this  nypothens  than  on  that  of  the  ex- 
istence of  matter.  He  was  bom  at  Kil- 
crin,  Ireland,  in  1684 ;  became  feUow  of 
Trinitv  college,  Dublin,  in  1707 ;  travelled 
in  Italy  as  &r  as  Leghorn,  in  1713  and 
1714,  and,  at  a  later  period,  accompanied 
Mr.  Ashe,  son  of  the  bishop  of  Clogher, 
on  atot^r  through  Italy,  Sicily  and  France. 
In  1721,  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the 
lord  lieutenabt  or  Ireland,  the  duke  of 
Gra^on.  He  appeared  with  much  ap- 
plause as  an  author  before  be  was  20 
years  old.  His  works  on  philosophy  and 
mathematics  (among  which  his  Theory 
of  Vision,  published  in  1709,  is  the  most 
brilliant  proof  of  the  author's  acuteneas) 

Erocured  him  a  wide-spread  fiime.  By  a 
)ffacy  of  Mrs.  Vanhomrigli,  the  celebrat- 
ed Vanessa,  who  has  become  so  generally 
known  tlirough  her  love  to  Swift,  his 
fortune  was  considerably  increased.  In 
1724,  he  was  promoted  to  the  deanery  of 
Deny,  and  resigned  his  fellowship  He 
now  published  his  Proposals  for  the  Con- 
version of  the  American  Savages  to  Chris- 
tianity by  the  Establishment  or  a  College 
in  the  Bermuda  Islands.  The  project 
was  ^^rs  fiivorably  received,  and  penons 
of  the  first  rank  raised  considerable  sums 
by  subscription  to  aid  it;  and  B.,  having 
resignedhis  preferment,  set  sail  for  Rhode 
Island,  with  several  other  persons  of  sim- 
ilar views,  to  make  arrangements  for  car- 
rying on  hiscollege.  The  assistance  of  par- 
liament, which  liad  been  promised,  not  be- 
ing afforded,  his  undertaking  miscarried, 
after  he  had  spent  seven  years  and  a  con- 
siderable part  of  his  fortune  in  his  efforts 
to  accomplish  it  He  afterward  ¥m>te 
numerous  philosophical,  relieious  and  po- 
litico-economical worics.  Towards  his 
60th  year,  he  was  attacked  by  a  nervous 
colic,  which  he  att^npted  to  cure  by  the 
use  of  tar-water,  whereby  he  was  induced 
to  publish  two  treatises  on  the  utility  of 
this  water.  He  died  suddenly  at  Oxford, 
in  1753.  B.  is  said  to  have  been  acquamt- 
ed  with  almost  all  branchea  of  humaD 

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knowledge.  His  character  commanded 
the  respect  and  love  of  all  who  knew  him. 
Pope,  his  constant  fiiend,  describes  him  as 
possessed  of  ^  eveiy  virtue  under  heaven." 
His  most  celebrated  philosophical  woika 
are,  a  Treadee  on  die  rrinciples  of  Human 
Knowledge  (Londcm,  1710) ;  Three  Dia- 
logues between  Hyktsand  PMlonous  (Lon- 
don, 1713) ;  Alciphron,  or  the  Minute  Phi- 
losopher ( London,  1732].  ,  His  Works  ap- 
peared in  London,  1784,  2  vols.  4to.^  pre- 
ceded by  abiography  written  by  Arbuthnot 

BsKLicHnfOEN,  Gdtz,  or  Godfiey,  von, 
with  the  iron  hand;  bom  at  Jazthausen, 
in  Suabia ;  a  bold,  restless,  warlike  and 
honorable  German  knight,  of  the  middle 
ages.  He  placed  himself  at  the  head  of 
the  rebellious  peasants,  in  the  war  which 
they  waged  against  their  oppressors  (see 
Ptaaamt  fFar,  in  Germany),  but  wa&  soon 
made  prisoner.  Before  that  time,  he  had 
lost  his  right  hand,  and  thereforjB  wore 
one  made  of  iron.  He  died  July  23j 
1562.  His  biography,  written  by  himself, 
was  printed  at  Nuremberg,  in  1731  and 
1775,  and,  for  the  third  time,  at  Breslau, 
in  1813.  This  book  contains  an,  excellent 
picture  of  the  social  life  and  customs  of 
the  middle  ages,  and  fans  furnished 
G6the  with'  the  subject  for  his  beautiful 
diama,  G.  von  BerliMngen. 

Berliit;  the  capital  of  the  Prussian 
dominions;  principal  residence  of  the 
kins,  and  seat  of  the  highest  councils  of 
the  kingdom ;  situa^d  in  the  province  of 
Brandenburg,  on  the  Spree,  lfc7  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea;  Ion.  13°  22"  £.;  lat 
52°  Sy  N. ;  one  of  the  largest  and  hand- 
somest cities  of  Europe.  It  is  about  12 
miles  in  circumference,  and  consists  of  5 
towns — Berlin  Proper,  Koln,  or  Cologne, 
on  the  Spree,  Friedrichswerder,  Neu-  or 
Dorotheenstadt  and  Friedrichsstadt ;  and 
5  suburbs— Louisenstadt,  tbe  King's  sub- 
urb, those  of  Spandau  and  Stralau,  and, 
outside  of  the  walls,  Oranienburg  suburb. 
B.  has  22  squares  and  market-places,  15 
gates,  27  parish  churches,  3/  bridges, 
&c.  In  the  year  1817,  there  were  7133 
houses,  including  the  churches,  the 
other  public  buildings  (174^,  the  manu- 
factories (61),  the  stables  and  bams  (483). 
At  the  close  of  the  year  1825,  B.  contain- 
ed (the  military  included)  220,000  mhab- 
itants,  among  whom  wei^  about  3700 
Jews,  4000  Catholics,  and .  more  than 
10,000  Calvini8ts.—1.  Beriin  Proper,  oon- 
mdng  of  39  streets,  was  built^  in  1163,  by 
margrave  Albert  the  Bear.  It  received 
its  name  from  the  wildness  of  the  country, 
and  was  settled  by  emigrants  from  Hol- 
luuL     It  contains  tbe  royal. poet-office, 

the  town-house,  the  general  military  acad- 
emy, the  academy  for  cadets,  the  royal 
school  of  the  sray  convent,  that  of  Joa- 
chimsthal,  the  Lutheran  parish  church  of 
St  Nicholas  (tbe  oldest  church  in  B.),  the 
Frederic  orphan  asylum  (established  in 
1818,  fi>r  100>9  orphans),  with  a  church,  and 
a  royal  institution  for  vaccination  (where, 
smce  1802,  25,332  children,  beside  adults, 
have  been  vaccinated  gratuitously),  tbe 
synagogue  of  the  Jews,  the  new  market, 
and  many  other  public  buildings.  The 
suburbs  of  B.,  taking  the  name  in  its  most 
limited  sense,  are,  the, King's  suburb  (K5- 
nigsvorstadt),  containing  the  new  theatre, 
where  the  famous  Mile.  Sontag  perform- 
ed before  she  went  to  Paris ;  the  suburb  of 
Spandau,  where  are  the  roval  palace  Mon- 
bijou,  the  veterinary  college,  the  great 
hospital  La  Chariti,  with  which  a  clinical 
institution  is  connected  (numbering,  in. 
1816,  5144  padents,  among  whom  were 
419  with  mental  disorders),  the  new  ro^al 
inint,  &c.  and,  finally,  Stralau.  Outside 
of  the  walls,  the  Kosenthal-suburb,  or 
Neuvolgtland,  is  situated.  Before  the 
Oranienbui^  gate  are  the  iron  foundery, 
where  cast-Son  ware,  of  everv  description, 
is  made;  the  royal  hospital  of  invalids, 
which  receives  upwards  of  1000  imnates, 
officers,  soldiers,  women  and  children. — 

2.  KUln,  or  Ckdogne,  on  the  Spree,  which 
received  this  name  when  it  was  built 
from  the  KbUnm  (piles),  on  which  the 
Vandals  (Wenden),  driven  out  by  Albeit 
the  Bear,  had  built  their  huts  in  the  midst 
of  bogs  and  morasses,' contains  25  streets, 
enclosed  by  two  branches  of  the  Spree ; 
a  bridge  100  feet  long,  of  stone,  resting 
upon  5  arches,  and  adorned  with  a  colos- 
sal equestrian  statue  of  the  great  elector 
Frederic  William,  in  bronze,  planned  by 
Schlliter,  and  cast  by  Jacobi;  the  royal 
palace,  460  feet  in  length,  276  in  breadth, 
and  101^  in  height,  containmg  the  gallery 
of  paintings,  the  cabinet  of  artificial  and 
natural  curiosities,  the  collection  of  med- 
als, &c. ;  the  museum  of  art,  a  most  mag- 
nificent building,  newly  erected  by  Schin- 
kel;  the.  royal,  riding  academy.  Apart 
of  Koln  is  called  Mu-KUn,  and  con- 
sists of  4  streets,  built  alon^  the  Spree. — 

3.  Driedrichswerder,  includm^  19  streets, 
was  founded  by  the  elector  Frederic 
William  the  Great'  Here  are  situated 
the  pdace,  inhabited  by  the  present 
king,  oriffmally  intended  for  the  crown- 
prince  ;  Uie  splendid  arsenal,  in  the  yard 
of  which  the  365  famous  heads  of  dying 
warriors,  in  reUef,  bv  Schl^iter,  serve  as 
key-stones  in  the  arches  of  the  windows ; 
the  royal  foundery ;  the  netw  guard-houae» 

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bulk  by  Schinke),  near  which  aie  the 
8tatue»  of  SchanihorBt  and  BfUow,  by 
Rauch,  end  three  pieces  of  ordnance  of 
the  largest  caliber,  two  of  which  were 
, taken  from  the  French;  opposite  to  it 
stands  the  colossal  statue  or  Blficher,  in 
bronze,  a  work  of  Rauch.— ^.  ^eu-  or 
Dorotheenstadty  likewise  built  by  the  elect- 
or Frederic  WiDiam  the  Great,  and  named 
after  his  second  wife,  has  but  5  rpgular 
streets,  among  which  is  the  stately  street 
<"  beneath  the  limes.''  2068  ieet  m  length, 
and  170  in  breadtn,  aflK>rdinff  the  .most 
beautiful  walk  in  the  city,  ahd  a  part  of 
Frederic-street,  which  is  4S250  paces  in 
length.  The  princi|^  building  in  this 
quarter  are,  tlie  umverritv  edifice;  the 
Catholic  church,  built  on  the  plan  of  the 
Pantheon  in  Rome ;  the  fine  opera-house ; 
the  royal  library,  the  style  of  wnicli  is  bad ; 
the  academy  building,  destined  for  a  mu- 
seum, with  an  observatory  whose  platfonn 
rises  84  feet  fit)m  the  pavement  of  the 
street ;  the  great  singing-academy,  erected 
by  Schinkel,  and  devoted  only  to  church 
music ;  die  Paris-place,  &c  The  Bran- 
denburg gate,  which  is  195  feet  in  width, 
was  built,  in  1789,  by  Iianghana,  in  imi- 
tation of  the  Propylffium  at  Athens,  but 
on  a  much  larger  scale.  Above  it  is  the 
fttiious  Victoria  in  a  mMM^r^ga,  which  was 
carried  away  bv  the  French,  in  1807,  and, 
in  1814,  brought  back  fiom  Paris  by  the 
Prussians:  before  it  lies  the  paric,  880 
acres  in  eictent,  containinff,  besides  vari- 
ous walks,  the  royal  pcJaoe  Bellevue, 
and  several  country-seats,  belonging  to 
wealthy  individuals. — 5.  FnedriaisSadt^ 
founded,  in  1688,  by  the  elector  Frederic 
ni  (king  Frederic  I),  surpasses  the  four 
other  divisLoaos  of  the  city  in  extent,  and 
consistB  of  33  wide  streets,  among  which 
the  above-mentioned  Frederic-street  is 
distinguished.  Worthy  of  notice  are,  the 
Gendarmes  maricet ;  also  William-place, 
a  quadrangle  190  paces  in  length  and  90  in 
breadth,  containing  the  marble  statues  of 
the  senerals  Schwerin,  Winterfeld,  Seyd- 
litz,  Keith  and  Ziethen,  who,  in  the  gro- 
tesque taste  of  the  last  centuiy,  are  repre- 
sented in  Roman  costume  and  periwiss ; 
the  LeipsicHplace ;  the  place  of  Belle- Al- 
liance ;  the  Bohemian  chureh ;  the  Trinity 
churoh;  the  French  and  the  new  church, 
with  two fiunous steeples ;  the royalporce- 
lain  manufiictory ;  the  academy  of  Freder- 
ic WilUam,  with  the  Realschvk  (which  be- 
longs to  the  class  of  hirii  schools,  and  con- 
tained, in  the  year  1816, 650  scholais) ;  the 
CoUegien  or  council-house,  where  the  le^- 
Istive  committee,' the  chief  court  of  jus- 
tk^ako  the  JSamiB^mc&t,andcouncu  for 

minorSybdld  their  seanoDS,  and  the  arehive* 
of  the  Brandenburg  fieft  are  kept;  th» 
bank;  the  house  of  the  society  for  foreign 
conunerce ;  the  theatre,  which,  in  1817, 
was  consumed  by  fire,  and  was  afterwards 
rebuilt  under  the  direction  of  Schinkel ; 
several  handsome  buildings  belonging 
to  (private  persons,  &c«^HLiOuiBensSult| 
for  the  greater  pait.  eonsists  of  fields  and 
gardens.  Before  tne  Cottbus  gate,  upon 
a  risinff  ^und  covered  with  wood,  called 
Hattnhmdty  was  the  first  i^>ot  devoted  to 
the  new  eyomasdc  exercises  in  Germany, 
invented  oy  doctor  Jahn.  On  the  top  of 
the  mountain  of  the  cross,  formeriy  Ttmr- 
ptUiof  mountain,  before  thie  Halle  gate,  is 
a  monument  of  iron,  erected,  in  1820,  in 
commemoiiation  of  the  wars  against 
France. — ^B.  contains  upwards  of  100 
public  and  50  private  elementary  schools: 
of  burgher  or  intermediate  schools,  10 
public,  60.  private,  and  13  specif  schools 
(schools  in  wliich  youth  are  educated 
for  particular  employments) :  5  gymnasia 
or  classical  schools,  7  higher  special 
schools  or  oolleffes,  and  the  universitj^: 
also  several  academies  and  literary  soci- 
eties, as  the  royal  academy  of  science  (see 
Academe) ;  the  academy  of  fine  arts,  me- 
chanical sciences  and  architecture,  with 
the  schools  of  art  appertaininir  to  this 
academy ;  the  society  vos  naturm  histoi^ 
and  natural  philosophy ;  the  medico-chi- 

ic,  the  pl^dco-'medical  societies ;  the  seel- 
ed for  cultivatixiff  the  German  language ; 
the  association  of  artists.  There  are  also,  in 
this  city,  a  museum  of  antiquities,  estab- 
lished in  1820 ;  the  royal  medico-chiiur- 
gical  academy,  for  the  militaiy ;  two  roval 
medico-chirurgical  seminaries,  intended 
to  educate  surgeons  for  the  anny ;  the 
royal  veterinaiy  school;  two  seminaries 
for  the  education  of  town  and  countiy 
school-masters ;  the  seminary  for  misaon- 
aries,  destined  to  convert  the  heathens  in 
the  western  parts  of  Africa ;  several  insd- 
tutions  for  the  deaf  and  dumb  and  the 
blind ;  a  firee'  school  for  Jewish  children ; 
an  academy  for  foresters  (an  institution  in 
which  the  knowledge  relating  to  the  cul- 
tivation of  woods  and  forests  is  acquired) ; 
a  singing  academy ;  a  military  swimming- 
school  ;  a  Bible  society ;  a  society  for  the 
advancement  of  Chrisdanity  among  the 
Jews ;  an  association  for  the  cultivation  of 
ffardens ;  an  institution  for  preparing  arti- 
ficial mineral  waters,  &0k  There  are 
many  charitable  institutions  in  B,  the 
poor,  who  cannot  subsist  ^thout  help^ 
beinr  about  12,000.  Among  them,  the 
fomcQe  charital^  association,  under  SHI 

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directieBBOi^  provided,  Deoembor,  1816^ 
ftr  1900  poor  penona,  dispened  in  180 
fianilies.  Thd  most  bepeyoleiit  institation 
»  that  established,  in  1794,  by  Knmz, 
counsellor  of  war,  for  relieving  impover- 
lahed  citizens,  and  which  has  since  num- 
bered some  of  its  former  beneficiaries 
among  its  members.    B.  has  a  consider* 
able  commerce  and  some  important  man'- 
ii&ctories ;  a  royal  bank ;  a  royal  society 
for  foreign  commerce;  a  wool-market; 
upwards  of  900  machines  for  spinning 
wool  and  ^cotUm,  with  29,000- q>indle8, 
4^4  looms  for  weaving,  cloths,  silk,  wool- 
len, cotton  and  hnen,  carpets^  ^&c;  nu- 
merous manu&ctories  of  silk,  woollen  or 
cotton  ribands,  dS6  lace-makers,  44  man- 
ufikctories  for  coloring  and  printinff  stu^ 
06  dye-houses,  5  sugar  refineries,.  4  manu- 
Ifiictories  of  ornamental  tin-ware,  porcelain 
and  stone- ware  factories,  the  royal  bronze 
manufoctories,  important  manufoctories 
of  gold  and  solver  ware,  of  fine  cabinet 
work,  of  petinet,  straw  hats,  artificial  flow-^ 
era  and  feathers ;  about  35  printing  houses, 
8  powder  mill^  &c;  also  Mr.  Jacobi'e 
valuable  collection  of  works  of  art '  The 
pavement  of  B.  is  extremely  bad ;  the  illu- 
mination of  the  streets  imperfect  Though 
some  paiis  of  this  city  are  beautiful,  yet, 
on  the  other  hand,  its  flat  and  sandy  envi- 
rons are  extremely  unpleasant    The  uni- 
versity of  B.  was  founded  in  1809,  wh^ 
Prussia  was  groaning  beneath  the  heavy 
yoke  of  the  French.    It  proceeded  fix>m 
the  noble  efibrts  of  those  men  who,  at 
that  time,  conducted  tlie  public  concerns 
of  the  kingdom  (Stein  was  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  among  them),   and 
were  convinced  that  the  only  enectual 
preparation  for  a  fiiture  deUv^rance  fit>m 
ihe  French  was  a  mond  regeneration  of 
the  people ;  at  the  same  time  thinking  all 
that  dinuses  knowledge  and  intellectual 
light  an  exceUmt  means  of  ]iroducing  this 
moral  change— an  idea  which  was  real- 
ized bv  the  result    Although  the  univer- 
sty  of  B.  is  so  young  an  estahlighment, 
yet  it  ranks  among  the  first  in  the  world, 
and  is,  in  one  branch  of  science— in  |)hHol- 
ogy— the  veryfirst    By  means  of  this  and 
many  other  scientific  in8titutions,a  literary 
spirit  has  been  airakened  among  the  citi- 
zens, by  wiiich  they  are  very  advanta- 
geously distinguii^ed  from  the  inhabitants 
of  other  dties;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  socie^  of  B.  has  neither  the  refined 
m^nneiB  of  a  royal  residence,  nor  the  easy 
manners  of  many  other  cities.    To  the 
university  beloDg  the  botanical   garden 
widbout  the  city,  near  Schdnberg,  the 
watonucal  thenbe,  the  apatomicM  and 

zoological  museum,  the  dieologieal  and 
philological  seminary,  the  cid>inet  of  min- 
erals, the  clinical  institution,  the  lying-in 
hospital,  &c.  In  the  year  1896,  there 
were  1640  students  in  the  university  of 
B.,  among  whom  were  400  foreigners. 
More  than  90  professors  are  employed  in 
the  university.  In  the  year  18Sd,  the  an- 
nual meeting  of  German  naturalistB,  for 
the  promotion  of  natural  science,  veas  held 
at  B.,>  under  the  direction  of  Alexander 
von  Humboldt  It  fymiahed  a  splendid 
array  6f  talent,  and  many  discourses  of 
great  interest  were  delivered. 

BziunjnAS^  Islands,  or  Somers' 
Isi^Aims ;  a  cluster  of  small  islands  in 
the  Atlantic  ocean.  They  are  in  number 
about  400,  but  for  the  most  part  so  small 
and  so  barren,  that  they  have  neither  in- 
habitants nor  name.  They  were  first  dis- 
covered by  Juan  Bemiudas,  a  Spaniard, 
in  1522;  m  1609,  sir  George  Somers,  an 
Englishman,  was  wrecked  here,  and, 
after  hie  shipwreck,  formed  the  first  set- 
tlement The  most  considerable  of  these 
islands  are  St  George,  St  David,  Cooper, 
Ireland,  Somerset,  Long  island.  Bird 
island,  and  Nonesuch.  The  first  contains 
a  town  (St  Geoige's  Town);  the  two 
following,  some  viUaxes ;  the  others,  only 
forms  dispersed^— The  air  is  so  healthy^ 
ihat  sick  people,  firom  the  continent  of 
America,  nequently  go  ttuther  for  the  re- 
covery of  their  health.  The  winter  is 
liardly  perceptible ;  it  may  be  said  to  be 
perpetually  sparing:  the  trees  never  lose 
their  verdure^  and  the  leaves  only  foil 
when  new  ones  begin  to  appear.  Birds 
sing  and  breed  vrimiout  intermismon.— 
But  these  advantages  are  counterbalanced 
by  fiightfiil  storms,  accompanied  by  for- 
midable thunder,  which  are  announced 
by  a  circle  round  the  moon.  Some  fertile 
plains  are  seen,  but,  in  general,  the  coun- 
try is  mountainous.  The  soil  is  of  divers 
colors,  brown,  white  and  red,' of  which 
the  first  is  the  best ;  although  light  and 
stony,  it  is,  in  general,  rich  and  fertile. 
The  water  is,  in  general,  salt ;  there  is  biit 
litde  fif^BSh,  except  ridn  water,  preserved 
in  cisterns.  The  mhabitanta  gather  two 
harvests^  of  Indian  com  in  a  y eor,  one  in 
July,  and  the  other  in  December:  tbm 
forms  their  princ^  food.  They  like- 
wise  cultivate  tobacco,  legumes,  and  firuit 
siiffieieiit  for  ibmr  wants.  Their  trees  are 
[>rincipally  the  cedar  and  palmetto.  Bed- 
sides these,  they  have  orange-trees^  olive, 
laurel,  pear-trees,  &c»  The  red-wood, 
is  peculiar  to  these  iitf lands:  its  colored 
finit  feeds  worms,  which  become  flies,  a 
little  larger  than  the  cochineal  bug,  instead 

Digitized  by 




of  which  they  are  uiwd.  There  are  no 
▼enomoua  reptiles.  Building  of  resBels  is 
the  principal  trade  of  the  inbabitanta 
These  islands  extend  fiom  N.  £.  to  S.  W^ 
about  45  oiiles.  The  whole  shore  is  sur- 
rounded With  rocks,  most  of  which  are 
diy  at  low  water,  but  coyened  at  flood. 
They  are  230  leagues 'S.  £.  cape  Fear,  in 
North  Carolina.  The  north  point  of  these 
islands  lies  in  Ion,  64°38'  W. ;  laL  SSP^ 
N.  Pop.  a  few  years  since,  10,381 ;  whites^ 
5,462;  slaves,  4,919. 

B£&5;  the  largest  canton  of  Switzer* 
land  (3667  square  miles,  338,000  inhabit- 
ants, among  whom  are  40,000  Catholics, 
and  250,300  CalVinists),  with  a  capital  of 
the  same  name.  Cuno  von  Bubenberf, 
in  the  12th  century,  enclosed  the  smdl 
place  Bern,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  fortress 
of  Nydeck,  with  a  moat  and  walls,  and 
the  duke  of  Zahringen,to  whom  Nydeck 
belonged,  gave  the  new  city  laws.  Its 
population  was  much  increased  in  the 
13th  century.  The  lower  nobility  of  the 
adjacent  country  fled  to  it  for  protection 
against  the  oppressions  of  the  higher, 
and  wer^  joined  by  the  country  people, 
and  particularly  by  the  citizens  of  Fri- 
burg  and  Zurich.  The  emperor  Fred- 
eric II  declared  it  a  flree  city  of  the  em- 
pire, in  1218,  and  oonflnned  its  privileges 
by  a  charter,  which  is  still  preserved  in 
the  archives.  In  1288,  B.  was  besieged 
by  Rodolph  of  Hapsburg,  but  not  taken ; 
and,  in  1291,  the  citizens  of  B.,  under 
Ulrich  von  Bubenberg,  made  war  against 
their  own  nobility,  commanded  by  Ulridi 
von  Erlach.  B.  now  became  an  asylum 
for  all  those  who  sufl'6red  under  the  op- 
pression of  the  nobles  of  Austria,  and 
rose  to  a  height  of  power  that  excited 
the  envy  of  other  cities,. as  weD  as  of  its 
own  nobility.  The  latter,  therefore,  en- 
tered into  an  alliance  with  the  hostile 
cities,  for  the  purpose  of  destroying  iL 
Their  army,  consisting  of  18,000  men, 
beaded  by  700  of  the  higher  nobility,  with 
1200  knights,  was  totally  vaiiquished  at 
Laupen,  June  21,  1339,  by  the  citizens 
of  B.,  led  by  Rodolph  von  £rlach,  though 
these  were  only  one  third  of  their  number. 
After  this  victory,  the  city  continued  to 
increase,  and,  in  1353,  entered  into  the 
perpetual  league  of  the  Helvetic  confed- 
eracy, in  which  it  held  a  rank  inferior 
only  to  Zurich.  Until  the  close  of  that 
century,  B.  enlarged  its  dominions,  partly 
by  purchase,  and  partly  by  conquest.  In 
1405,  the  greater  part  of  the  city  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  but  W9S  afterwards  regu- 
larly rebuilt  The  long  wars  with  Austria, 
MilaDf  Burgundy  and- Savoy  soon  aftm* 

broke  out,  from  all  iriiicfa  the  conMeraoy 
came  off  victorious,  and  in  which  B.  con- 

Suered  Aairgau.  In  1528^  the  (citizens  of 
L  embrac^  the  cause  of  the  Reforma- 
tion. In  the  subsequent  war  with  the  duke 
of  Savoy,  they  conquered  the  Pays  de 
Vaud,  The  countries  gained  by  conquest 
wete  governed  by  bailiffs,  who  raided  in 
mountain  castles.  From  that  time  to 
March  5, 1796,  the  proq[)erity  and  wealth 
of  B.  was  constantly  increasing,  as  may 
be  clearly  perceived  from  the  large  sums 
spent  for  the  public  administration.  At 
that  time,  the  canton  contained  over  5000 
square  miles,  and  about  380^000  inhabit- 
ants. Upon  the  day  above-mentioned, 
30,000  French  troops  marched  against  B. 
It  was  again  an  Erlach  who  led  18,000 
citizens  of  B^  together  with  8000  auxilia- 
ry troops  of  the  confederate  cantons,  into 
the  field ;  but  the  memory  of  Morgarten, 
of  Ldupen  and  Murten,  no  longer  inspired 
them  to  victory :  the  troops  of  the  con- 
federates, on  theur  retreat,  slew  their  own 
commander.  B.,  for  the  first  time,  opened 
its  gates  to  eh  enemy,  and  lost  about  half 
of  its  possessions.  The  northern  part  was 
united  with  the  present  canton  of  Aar- 

r,  and  out  of  the  south- western  (Pays 
i^aud)  the  present  canton  of  Vmud  was 
formed.  By  the  decrees  of  the  congress 
at  Vienna,  however,  the  greater  part  of 
the  bishopric  of  BAle  was  joined  to  the 
canton  of  B.  According  to  the  new  ari»- 
tocratic  constitution  of  the  canton,  the 
sovereign  power  is  exercised  by  a  bailifi^ 
and  the  great  and  lesser  councils  of  the 
city  and  republic  of  B.,  consisting  of  200 
members  chosen  fi^m  the  city  of  B.,  and 
99  fivm  the  towns  and  the  country. 
The  former  are  chosen  from  the  citizens, 
over  29  years  old,  by  an  elective  assembly 
composed  of  the  members  of  the  lesser 
council,  and  a  committee  of  the  great 
The  99  members  firom  .the  towns  and 
country  are  chosen  partly  fix)m  the  towns, 
by  the  municipal  authorities ;  partly  finom 
each  of  the  22  districts,  into  which  the 
country  is  divided,  by  elective  assemblies ; 
and  partly  by  the  great  council.  Two 
bailiffis  preside  in  turn,  each  for  the  spaoe 
of  a  year,  in  the  great  and  lesser  councils. 
The  former  has  tlie  legislative,  the  latter 
the  executive  power.  The  latter  consists 
of  the  two  bfidliffii,  23  members,  and  2 
secretaries^  and  is  chosen  by  the  former 
fit>m  among  its  own  members. — ^The 
northern  part  t>f  the  canton  is  hilly,  with 
beautifiil  plains  and  valleys,  and  had  a 
fertile  and  highly  cultivated  soil,  produc- 
ing com,  wine  and  fruits.  -  Here  is  situated 
Emmenthal,  one  of  the  richest  and  most 

Digitized  by 




IMla  ▼allejni  in  Switeerliud,  where  the 
fintBt  cattie  are  nuaed,  and  the  weU-4motm 
EmineDthal  cheeaamade.  Neathouaea, 
eQiiifi>rtabie  dr^Koa,  and  cheerftihieBS,  in- 
ifieate  the  proepeiity  of  the  inhabitanta  of 
this  vattev.  The  southern  part  of  the 
canton,  the  Oberiaod  (Upperiand),  (to 
which  the  valleys  of  Hasli^  Grindervald, 
LanterbniB,  Caiider,  Frutuiaeu,  Adelho* 
den,  Shnmen  and  Saanen,  with  numerous 
sniaUer  vaUeys,  belong),  begins  at  the 
foot  of  the  bidi  mountain  chain  towards 
theValaiSyandeaEtendstoitssammlt  The 
lower  vafieya  produce  good  frmts,  and 
are  fertile  and  agreeable :  higher  up  are 
ezoettent  Alpine  pastures;  then  succeed 
bars,  rocks,  eztenatve  glaciers  (the  source 
of  magnificent  water-fiulsj,  and  the  bigbeat 
mountaina  of  Switzerland,  aa  the  Finster- 
aarhomi  the  6cbreck-hom  and  Wetter- 
horn^  the  Eiger,  the  Junafiau.  The  in* 
haMtants  of  the  Oberland  live,  principal- 
ly, by  rabing  cattle^— The  chiet  trade  is 
in  linen  and  wootten  manu&etnres,  ea* 
pecially  in  EmmentbaL  The  revenuee 
of  the  state  amount  to  about  600,000  d<4- 
ian.  The  canton  flimishea  5824  men  to 
the  army  of  the  confederacy,  and  con* 
tributea  104,080  Swiss  fiancs  to  its  eup- 
port--B.  (1062  houses,  with  17,620  in- 
iMbitants),  one  of  the  best  bulk  cities  in 
Bwitaerland,  is  situated  upen  the  declivity 
of  a  hill,  on  a  peninsula,  waabed  on  three 
aides  by  the  Aar.  The  streets  are,  for 
die  greater  part,  straight,  wide  and  well 
paved,  and  the  houses  ^rdy  provided  with 
piaazaa.  Among  the  pubhc  buildinM 
are  the  mat  Gothic  cathedral,  the  church 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  the  univerra^  build- 
ings, the  handsomely  built  hospital,  &c 
B.  has  aa  academy,  and  severu  literary 
aodeties.  Hut  economioal  society,  in 
particular,  has  done  much  for  the  im- 
preivement  of  aprieukure,  aa  well  as  for 
the  better  knowndge  of  the  natural  hia- 
tory  of  Switzerland.  The  historical  so- 
eie^  of  Switzeriand,  of  which  the  mayor 
of  B^  von  Mfilinen,  is  nreaident,  baa  pub> 
iiihed  several  chroniclea  relating  to  the 
former  times  of  &,  as  that  of  ^stinger 
(till  1421),  1819^  that  of  Schachthm,  im, 
and  that  of  Anahehn  (till  1526),  1825. 
The  gallery  for  nadve  roeeimeaa  of  natn* 
lal  iustety,  founded  in  1£02;  containa  vi- 
vqianNu  animala,  birds,  butterflieB,  insects 
and  pUmts.  The  public  library  possesses 
great  treasnMa,both  of  primed  hooka  and 
Bwnuacriptt.  Sevaral  private  persons 
have  muaeuma,  wbkh  are  generally  open 
ID  sonnmrn  Trade>a>id  eommeroe  are 
Kfely :  the  mamtftctories'lhmiflb  waeHen 
cfed^pfkllad*lineD,iilkJtafl^  McklngB, 

VOL.  IL  7 

&C.  There  are  ibw  chies  vrith  finer 
pomenades,  or  where  thev  are  kept  in 
better  repair.  One  of  the  mvorite  walks, 
for  instance,  is  near  tiie  cathedral,  raised 
at  great  expense,  and  planted  with  four 
revra  of  trees.  The  side  towards  the  Aar 
is  106  ibet  above  the  river,  which  here 
forms  a  beautifbl  cascade,  equalling  that 
of  the  Rhine  at  Lauffon,  if  not  in  Iwigfat, 
at  least  in  breadth. 
BfeRNADOTTK.  (Sco  C^utrUs  XJV.) 
B^aiVARD,  Pierre  Joseph ;  son  of  a  stat- 
nary,  hem  at  Grenoble,  1710;  died  at 
Choisy,  near  Paris,  1775;  studied  with 
the  Jesuits  in  Lyons,  and  entered  as  a 
cleric  into  the  service  of  a  notary  in  Paris. 
He  was  afterwards  admitted  into  the  ser- 
vice of  the  marshal  de  Coi^y  as  secreta- 
ry, and,  by  Louis  XV,  appomted  treasurer 
m  the  dragoons,  and,  afterwards,  librarian 
of  Choisy.  In  1771,  he  lost  his  memoi^ 
by  the  apoplexy,  and  remained  in  this 
condition  till  hts  death.  Amons  the  poeta 
who  have  sung  in  praise  of  pleasure,  of 
irtiom  the  French  nationpossesses  so^ 
many,  B.  is  esteemed..  In  1737,  he  brought 
the  opera  Castor  and  Pollux  on  the  stii^e, 
which  is  a  mastequece  of  lyric-di'amatic 
poetry.'  Rameau's  music  contributed  to 
neighten  the  general  applause  with  which 
it  was  received.  UAri^Mner  was  not 
published  until  after  his  dea&,  but  bad 
been  before  communicated  to  ms  friends: 
it  is,  in  part,  an  imitation  of  Ovid.  Voltaire 
called  B.  le  gtrUU,  The  whole  of  Mb 
works  appeared  at  Paris,  1796. 

Bernard,  duke  of  Weimar,  general  in 
the  thirty  years'  war,  bom  Aug.  6, 1604, 
the  fourth  son  of  duke  John  of  Saxe* 
Weimar,  entered  into  the  sertice  of  Hol- 
land, at  that  time  the  best  school  for  a 
soldier,  where  prince  Maurice  of  Nassau 

Ithe  creator  of  a  better  system  of  tactics), 
lis  brother  Frederic  Heniy,  the  marquis 
Spinola,  and  other  great  generals,  were  ' 
exposed  to  one  another.  B.  afterwards 
entered  the  Danish  army  employed  in 
Holskein  against  the  troops  of  the  empe- 
ror, and  conunanded  by  the  margrave  of 
Baden-Durla^,  and  waspresent  at  the 
conference  of  Lubeek,  ISX^,  for  negotia- 
ting peace.  When  Gustavus  AdoTphus 
entered  Germany,  B.  joined  him,  and  waa 
present  at  the  atuick  upon  Wallensteih^ 
camp,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Nuremberg; 
Aug.  24, 1632.  In  the  batde  of  Lutzen, 
Oct  6y  1682,  he  commanded  die  left  vring 
of  the  Swedirii  army,  avenged  the  deam 
of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  and,  aldiouffh  him- 
self severely  wounded,  put  the  right  vring 
ef  the  imperial  ttoops  to  flight  Chan- 
edhnr  Qxoistieni,  the  Swe&k  " 

Digitized  by 




of  the  war  in  Gennany,  after  the  death  of 
the  king,  committed  the  commaad  of 
half  the  army  to  him.  B^  in  1633»  took 
Bamberg,  Cronach,  Hochstadt  and  Aich- 
stadt;  but  his  attempt  upon  Ingolstadt 
miscarried.  He  also  brought  the  cities  of 
Ratisbon  and  Straubing  mto  his  power, 
and  frustrated  Wallenstein's  intentions. 
The  kin^  of  Sweden  made  hun  duke  of 
Franconia.  His  impetuoaitv  caused  the 
defeat  at  NordUngen  (q.  v.),  Aug.  24, 1634.' 
He  himself  narrowly  escaped  being  made 
prisoner.  The  prudence  of  Oxeostiem 
and  the  valor  of  B.  soon  made  amends 
for  this  fault  France,  now  entering  into 
a  closer  alliance  with  Sweden,  concluded 
a  separate  treaty  with  B.,  who  went  to 
Paris,  Oct.  16,  1634.  B.  promised,  for 
4,000,000  livres,  to  raise  an  army  of  18,000 
men  on  the  Rhine,  to  act  a^^ainst  Austria. 
He  now  carried  on  the  war  m  tlie  country 
adjoining  to  the  Rhine,  took  the  fortress 
of  Zabem,  in  Alsace,  spread  his  army  over 
Lorraine  and  Burgundy,  and  vanquished 
the  forces  of  the  emperor  in  several  bat- 
tles. At  the  commencement  of  the  year 
16^  he  laid  siege  to  Riieinfelden,  not  far 
from  BMe*  Here  he  was  unexpectedly 
attacked  in  his  camp,  Feb.  18,  by  an  Aus- 
trian army  that  haa  advanced  to  raise  the 
aieffe.  B.  was  obliged  to  retreat  before  su- 
perior numbers ;  but,  having  soon  collected 
nis  forces,  he  attacked  the  Austrians  by 
surprise,  Feb.  21,  and  obtained  a  complete 
victoiy.  Several  Austrian  generals  were 
made  prisoners,  and  the  fortress  of  Rhein- 
felden  was  obUged  to  surrender,  May  13. 
He  then  undertook  the  siege  of  Brisach, 
the  possession  of  which  was  necessary 
for  maintaining  himself  in  Alsace.  An 
imperial  army,  under  the  command  of 
{(eneral  Ooetze,  that  approached  with  the 
utention  of  raising  the  siege,  was  defeated 
With  a  great  loss  by  B.,  July  30.  B.  captur- 
ed several  places  of  inferior  importance, 
during  the  siege  of  Brisach,  which,  how- 
ever, aid  not  surrender  until  he  had  repeat- 
ed^ defeated  the  Austrians,  and  then  upon 
Teiy  moderate  conditions,  which  B.  sign- 
ed in  his  own  name,  without  mention- 
ing France.  The  possession  of  Alsace, 
which  he  had  before  ceded  to  France 
under  certain  conditions,  was  now  secur- 
ed ;  but  he  also  demanded  Brisach  as  an 
appurtenance  to  Alsace.  He  garrisoned 
all  the  conquered  places  with  German 
troops,  and  ordered  money  to  be  coined 
with  the  Saxon  coat  of  arms  and  that  of 
Brisach.  In  vain  were  the  efforts  of 
France  to  deprive  the  duke  of  the  posses- 
sion of  Brisach,  by  proposing  to  phice  a 
French  garrison  in  Uie  fortreM:  the  duke 

declined  not  only  this  propoBal,  bat  abo 
an  invitation  to  Paris,  and  the  offer  of  a 
marriage  with  the  duchess  d'Aiguillon, 
niece  of  cardinal  Richelieu.  Instead  of 
that  match,  he  proposed  one  with  the 
princess  of  Rohan,  to  which,  however, 
the  French  court  would  not  accede,  lest 
the  party  of  the  Huguenots  should  be 
strengthened.  It  is  probable  that  Riche- 
heu  had  recourse  to  secret  means,  in  onler 
to  rid  France  of  the  duke,  who  was  be- 
come formidable  by  his  growing  power. 
He  was  suddenly  seized  with  a  disordeiv 
which  terminated  his  life,  July  8, 163^ 
Most  of  the  contemporary  writers  conjec- 
tured that  Richelieu  caused  him  to  be 
poisoned :  the  duke  himself  had  no  doubt 
that  he  had  swallowed  poison.  Immedi- 
ately after  his  death,  several  French  com- 
missionere  appeared,  who  enlisted  his 
troops  into  the  French  army:  the  com- 
mand of  them  was  committed  to  marshal 
GuebrianL  With  B.  fell  one  of  the  chief 
supports  of  the  Protestants.  His  succes- 
sora,  Baner  and  Torstensohn  (q.  v.),  pur- 
sued his  victorious  course,  and  France 
seriously  exerted  herself  in  the  war  which 
continued,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Protest- 
ants. In  B.  a  graceful  person,  intelligence 
and  valor  were  united  with  a  magnanim- 
ity which  could  not  be  shaken  by  adverse 
events :  his  only  &ult  was  too  great  im- 

Bernaiu)  of  Clalrvaux ;  one  of  the  most 
influential  ecclesiastics  of  the  middle  ages, 
bom  atFoiitaines,  in  Burgundy,  1091,  of 
a  noble  family.  In  1113,  he  became  a 
monk  at  Citeaux ;  in  1115^  first  abbot  of 
Clalrvaux,  near  Langres.  An  austere 
manner  of  Uving,  solitary  studies,  an  in- 
hiring  eloquence,  boldness  of  language, 
and  the  reputation  of  a  prophet,  rendered 
him  an  oracle  to  all  Christian  Europe. 
He  was  named  the  honeyed  teacher,  and 
his  writings  were  staled  a  stream  from 
paratUae.  The  doctnne  of  the  immacu- 
late conception  of  Mary  was  rejected  by 
him.  He  principally  promoted  the  cru- 
sade in  1146,  and  quieted  the  fermenta- 
tion, caused  at  that  time  by  a  party  of 
monks,  against  the  Jews  in  Gennany. 
He  deolined  all  promotion,  and,  in  the 
rank  of  abbot  of  his  hdaved  Jerusalem  (as 
he  used  to  call  Claurvaux),  he  continued 
with  all  humility,  but  with  great  boldness, 
his  censures  of  the  clergy  and  his  coun- 
sels to  the  popes.  Innocent  II  owed  to 
hun  the  possession  of  the  right  of  investi- 
ture in  Germany,  and  Eugenius  III  his 
education.  He  was,  at  the  same  time,  the 
umpire  of  princes  and  bidiops,  and  his 
voice  in  me  qrnoda  was  re§^unded  as 

Digitized  by 




Avine.  By  his  rigid  orthodoxy  and  his 
mystical  doctrines,  which,  though  at  times 
enthusiastic,  were  always  du^cted  to 
the  promotion  of  practical  Christianity, 
he  refuted  the  subtleties  and  dialectics  of 
the  scholastic  philosophers,  although  his 
seyerhy  against  Abelard  and  Gilbert  of 
Poree  eanoy  no  means  be  justified.  Lu- 
ther says  of  him,  ^  If  there  has  ever  been 
a  pious  monk  who  feared  God,  it  was  St 
Bernard;  whom  alone  I  hold  in  much 
liij^er  esteem  than  aU  otlier  monks  and 
priests  Uiroughout  the  globe."  B.  died  in 
1153,  and  was  canonized  by  Alexander 
III,  in  1174.  (See  Aug.  Neander's  St. 
Bernard  and  Ms  TimeSyBeTYm,1813.)  His 
works  have  been  translated  from  the 
Latin,  and  published  by  professor  Silbert 
(Vienna,  1820). 

B£&NARD,  Great  St.;  a  mountain  be* 
tween  the  Valais  and  the  valley  of  Aosta, 
11,006  feet  high.  On  its  top  is  the  boun- 
dary between  the  Valais  and  Piedmont 
The  road  from  the  lake  of  Geneva  through 
the  Valais,  into  the  valley  of  Aosta,  passes 
over  it  The  Little  St  B.,  71d4  feet  high, 
separates  Piedmont  fh>m  Savoy.  Over 
this  Hannibal  directed  his  march.  Ber- 
nard de  Menthon,  a  Savoyard  nobleman, 
who  lived  from  933  to  1006,  built  herej 
in  963,  two  hospitiaj  for  the  benefit  of 
those  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  one  upon 
mont  Joux,  where  a  temple  of  Jupiter 
stood,  the  other  on  the  road  that  leads 
over  the  Giison  Alps,  at  a  place  called 
CoUmnu  Jouy  from  a  pillar  which  was  an 
object  of  idolatrous  worship.  Animated 
by  a  pious  zeal,  Bernard  destroyed  the 
pillar  and  temple,  and,  with  their  ruhis^ 
fmilt  the  two  ho^pfiUa  on  the  Great  and 
Little  St  Bemara,  so  called  after  him. 
He  committed  the  care  of  both  these 
establishments  to  monks  of  the  order  of 
St  Aunistine,  who,  with  an  almost  unex- 
ampled selMevotion,  exercised  the  most 
generous  hospitalitv  towards  travellers, 
down  to  the  time  of^Charies  Emmanuel  III 
of  Saidinia.  This  king,  fallmg  into  a 
dispute  with  the  cantons  of  Switzerland 
about  the  nomination  of  a  provost,  seques- 
trated the  possessions  of  the  monk^  and 
gave  the  aaministration  of  the  hoepUia  to 
regular  canons  of  the  Augustine  order, 
who,  with  equal  humanity  and  devotion, 
dischaige  the  duties  of  their  pious  calling. 
Upon  the  barren  height  (7668  feet),  where 
the  hospUimn  of  the  Great  St  Bernard 
stands,  which  is  considered  to"  be  tlie 
highest  inhabited  place  in  Europe,  on 
almost  sveriasting  winter  reigns ;  m  vain 
do  we  look  for  a  tree  or  bush ;  the  glitter- 
ing snow  dazzles  the  eye  of  the  wanderer. 

Assisted  by  the  servants  of  the  convent,, 
the  heroic  ecclesiastics,  provided  with 
wine  and  bread,  devote  themselves  to  the 
ffuidance  of  tmvdlers ;  and)  in  order  to 
defend  the  poor  against  the  cold,  they  lend 
or  give  them  clouies,  which  are  kept  for 
that  purpose.  Upwards  of  9000  persons 
annually  pass  over  the  mountain,  who  are 
refiieshed  in  the  Jwspitium.  In  the  midst 
of  tempests  and  snow-storms,  the  monks, 
accompanied  by  dogs  (called  marovu),  set 
out  for  the  purpose  of  tracking  those  who 
have  lost  tiheir  way.  If  they  find  the 
body  of  a  traveller  who  has  perished,  they 
carry  it  into  the  vault  of  the  dead,  where 
it  is  wrapped  in  linen,  and  remains  lying 
on  a  table  till  another  victim  occupies  the 
place.  It  is  then  set  up  against  the  wall, 
among  the  other  dead  bocues,  which,  on 
account  of  the  cold,  decay  so  slowly,  that 
they  are  eflen  recognised  by  then-  friends 
after  the  lapse  of  years.  Adjoining  this 
vault  is  a  kind  of  burying-ground,  where 
the  bones  are  deposited,  when  they  accu- 
mulate too  much  in  the  vault  It  is  im- 
possible to  bury  them,  because  there  is 
nothing  around  the  hoipiiium  but  naked 
rocks.  In  the  church  is  the  monument 
of  general  Dessaix,  who  fell  in  the  battle 
of  Marengo.  The  first  consul  ordered 
him  to  be  embalmed,  and  assigned^him  a 
resting  place  on  the  summit  of  the  Alps. 
The  monument  of  marble  represents  Des- 
saix in  relief^  wotmded,  and  sinking  from 
his  horse  into  the  arms  of  his  aid  Le 
Brun.  On  the  stairs  of  the  convent  stands 
his  statue  of  marble.  Opposite  to  it  there 
is  a  slab  of  marble,  on  which  the  republio 
of  Valais  commemorated  Napoleon's 
passage  over  the  St  B.,  May  15,  1800, 
with  an  inscription  in  letteis  of  fold.  Bv 
means  of  a  contribution  raisedf  through 
Europe,  a  short  time  ago,  the  habitations 
of  the  9  or  10  ecclesiastics  have  been 
made  more  comfortable. 

BERifARoi,  Augustus  Fredcric,  a  Ger- 
man scholar,  bom  iir  Berlin,  in  1768,  died 
there  in  1830.  In  bis  youth,  his  attention 
was  directed  to  universal  language  (that 
is,  to  language  as  fhr  as  it  is  common 
to  all  rational  beings),  to  the  mystery 
of  its  construction,  the  mathematics,  as  it 
were,  of  language.  B.,  considering  all 
difiSsrent  languages  as  a  whole,  endeavored 
to  discover  a  universal  grammar  common 
to  them  all.  The  result  of  his  researches 
appears  in  his  woiks,  i2etne  SpraehUhrt 
(Abstract  Grammar),  1801,  3  vols.; 
AngtwandU  Spraeklekre  (Grammar  in 
its  Application),  1803;  and  Ai^angs- 
gr&nde  der  SprachunMenschafl  (Elements 
of  the  Science  of  Language),  in  which 

Digitized  by 




maay  phflflaophicalpiinclplefl  of  langoa^ 
are  laid  down.  B.  was  a  man  of  culti- 
-vated  mind  and  ^xtenaive  knowled^ 
He  was  dso  aprofessor  and  director  ot  a 
classical  school  in  Berlin* 

Beakamdis  db  St.  Pieebs.  (See 
Pierre^  St.) 

B£&NAJELDiifE   MoffKs.     (See   CUkr- 

BsHNBDRo,  Anhalt ;  one  of  the  three 
dukedoms  of  Anhalt  (253  sauare  miles, 
7  towns,  51  villages,  with  38,400  inhabit- 
ants. The  income  is  valued  at  450,000 
Siilders.  Its  contingent  to  the  army  of 
e  German  confederation  is  370  mem 
In  1820,  the  Lutheran  and  Calvinistic 
paxta  of  the  population  were  united.  The 
capital  of  this  dukedom  is  Bemburg,  on 
the  Saale,  with  4900  inhabitants.  The 
public  debt  amounts  to  1,034,500  guilders. 
Napoleon  made  the  princes  of  Bembuig 

Beeners,  or  Babzibs,  Juliana;  an 
English  lady  of  the  15th  centuiy,  of 
whom  little  more  is  known  than  that  she 
was  prioress  of  the  nunneiy  of  SopeweU, 
near  St.  Alban's,  and  has  her  name  pre- 
fixed, as  the  writer  or  compiler,  to  one  of 
the  earliest  and  most  curious  productions 
of  the  ^^lish  press.  The  title  of  the 
second  ediuon,  printed  in  the  abbey  of  St 
Alban's,  in  148^  is,  7%e  Bol:e  o/*  Hoti^^T^ 
and  Bwatytigy  vnih  other  PUaawea  d^ 
venty  and  (Sio  Cootarmiuries,  The  first 
edition  (1481)  does  not  treat  of  coat-armor 
or  heraldry.  This  w<Nk,  under  the  title  of 
the  Book  of  St  Alfaan's,  became  a  popu- 
lar manual  of  sportinff  science,  and  was 
several  times  reprinted  m  the  16th  centu- 
ry. As  a  typo^phical  curiosity,  a  small 
impression  of  it  was  published,  in  1811, 
by  Mr.  Haslewood. 

Bebni,  Francesco  (also  BemOf  and 
Benda) ;  a  poet  of  the  16th  oentmy,  bom 
at  Lamporecchio,  in  the  teiritory  of  Tua- 
cany,  towards  the  close  of  the  15th  cen- 
tuiy, of  a  noble  but  poor  Florentine  &mi- 
Sr$  went  to  Florence,  and,  at  the  age  of 
9,  to  Rome,  where  he  lived  under  the 
care  of  his  relation,  cardinal  Bibiena, 
who,  as  he  hunself  says,  did  him  neither 
good  nor  barm,  and  he  was  at  length 
obliged  to  enter  the  service  of  the  bishop 
of  Yenma,  Ghiberti,  datary  of  the  papal 
chancery,  as  secretary.  In  the  hope  of 
promotion,  he  took  orders ;  but,  disgusted 
with  the  duties  of  his  office,  he  sought 
recreation  in  amusen^entE^  which  me- 
pleased  the  prelate.  A  society  had  been 
established  at  Rome,  con«sting  of  yoimg 
ecclesiastics  of  a  jovial  temper,  like  B., 
and  a  poetical  fwn^  who,  in  order  to  de- 

note then:  kvt  for  wine,  and  their  ean- 
less  gayety,  called  tbemselv^tvwviqfMoJi 
(vine-dressers).    Mauro,  Gasa,  Furenzuo* 
la,  Capilupi,  &c.  were  of  the  number. 
They  laughed  at  every  thing,  and  made 
sport,  in  verse,  of  the  most  serious,  nay^ 
the  most  tragic  matters.    B.'s  verses  were 
the  most  successful,  and  were  written 
in  so  pecuhar  a  stvle,  that  his  name  has 
been  given  to  i^  [maniara  Bemefca,  or 
Bermaca),    When  Rome  was  sacked  by 
the  troops  of  the  constable  BouriM>n,  1527, 
B.  lost  all  that  he  possessed.    He  after- 
wards made  several  journeys,  with  his 
patron  Ghiberti,  to  Verona,  Venice  and 
Padua.    At  length,  wearied  with  serving, 
and  satisfied  with  a  canonship  in  tl^ 
cathedral  at  Florence,  in  the  possession 
of  which  he  had  been  for  some  years,  he 
retired  to  that  place.    The  iavor  of  the 
great,   however,  which   he   was   weak 
enough  to  court,  brought  him  into  difil* 
cukies.    He  was  reauired  to  commit  a 
crime,  and  his  refiisat  cost  him  his  life. 
Alessandro  de*  Medici,  at  that  .time  duke 
of  Florence,  lived  in  open  enmity  with 
the  young  cardinal  Ippolito  de'  MedicL 
B.  was  so  intimate  wiu  both,  that  it  is 
doubtful  which  first  made  him  the  pro- 
posal to  poison  the  other.    Certain  it  is, 
that  the  cardinal  died  by  poison,  in  1535. 
B.  died  July  26, 1586;  and  if,  as  is  assert- 
ed, his  life  was  terminated  by  poison,  then 
the  crime  must  be  imputed  to  duke  Ales- 
sandro.— ^In  the  burlesque  style  of  poetry, 
B.  is  still  considered  the   best  model. 
His  satire  is  often  very  bitter,  and  fre- 
quently unites  the  good  humor  of  Horace 
with  the  causticity  of  Juvenal.    The  ex-* 
treme  licentiousness  of  his  writings  is  his 
greatest  fiiult  It  should,  however,  be  con- 
sidered that  he  wrote  for  his  firiends  only, 
and  that  his  worics  were  not  printed  until 
after  his  death.    The  admirable  ease,  for 
which  his  writings  are  distinguiahed,  was 
the  result  of  great  efforts,  since  he  repeat- 
edly amended  and  corrected  his  verses. 
The  same  is  asserted  of  Ariosto ;  and  yet 
they  are  the  most  distinguished,  among 
the  Italian  poets,  for  the  esse  and  fluency 
of  their  style.     R   also  wrote    Latin 
verses  very  correctlv,  and  was  well  ao- 
quainted  with  Greek.    His  jRtme  But' 
k»die  (Burlesque  Verses)  have  great  merit 
So  has  also  his  OrUmdo  hwamaratOy  eoMH 
potto  gikdal  Sjg.  Bi^ardo  €tmU  di  Sean- 
diano,  ed  ara  ryatto  tuUo  di  naovo  da  M. 
/v.  Bemtd — ^Another  Bemi  (count  Fran- 
cesco B.,  who  was  bom  in  1610^  and  died 
in  1673)  has  written  11  dramas,  and  also 
several  lyric  poems. 
BsiUfun,  Giovanni  Lorenao,  called  H 

Digitized  by 




andtere  Bermfd,  tK>m  in  Nnplas,  1598, 
is  praised  by  his  oontemppranes  as  the 
Michad  Angelo  of  modern  timee,  on  ac- 
count of  his  success  9s  a  pointer,  a  statua- 
1^,  and  an  arohitect ;  but  he  deserves  his 
mae  principally  in  the  latter  cjiaracter. 
Richly  endowed  by  nature,  and  &vored 
by  circumstances,,  he  rOPe  superior  to  the 
rules  of  art,  creating  for  himself  an  easy 
mann^^  the  &ults  of  which  he  knew  how 
to  disguise  by  its  briHiancy.    From  bis 
early  youthj  he  manifested  lir  great  power 
to  excel  in  the  arts  of  design,  and,  at;  the 
lage  of  eij[ht  yeaie^  execut^the  l^ead  of  a 
child  in  marble,  which  was  considered  a 
remarkable  production.    That  such  rare 
endowments  might  be  suitably  cultivated, 
his  &ther  carried  him  to  Rome.    One  or 
fi.'s  first  works  was  the  marble  bust  of  the 
prelate  Montajo ;  after  which  he  made  ^he 
Dust  of  the  pope,  and  of  several  cardinals ; 
also  sundry  figures  of  the  natural  size. 
He  was  not  yet  18,  when  he  produced 
the  .^ipollo  and  Ddpkne,  in  marble^  a  nias- 
terpiece  of  gn(f  e  and  execution.   Loofijng 
at  this  group  near,  the  close  of  his  life,  he 
deelaied  that  he  had  m^e  very  little  prog- 
reiis  since  the  time  when  that  v^as  pro- 
duced.. His  manner  was  indeed  more 
chaste  and  less  afifected,  in  the  early  part 
of  his  career,  than  at  a  later  period.    After 
the  death  of  Gregory  XV,  cardinal  Maf- 
feo  Barberini,  his  successor,  employed  B. 
to  prepare  plans  for  the  embellishment 
of  the  Basihca  of  St  Peter,  assigning  to 
him  a  monthly  pension  of  300  crowns, 
which  was  afterwards  augmepted.  With-, 
out  forsaking  sculpture,  B.'s  genius  em- 
braced architecture,  abd  he  furnished  die 
design  for  the  canojw  and  the  pulpit  of 
8t  Peter,  as  well  as  for  the  drciilar  place 
before  the  church.    Amons  his  numerous 
works,  were  the  palace  Ban>erini,  the  bel« 
fry  ef  St.  Peter,  the  model  of  the  monu" 
ment  of  the  countess  Matilda^  and  the 
monument  of  Urban  VIII,  his  benefac- 
tor.^— In  the  year  1j644,  cardinal  Mazaiin, 
in  the   name  of  the  king  of  France, 
offered  him  a  salary  of  1^000  crowns ; 
but  he  declined  the  invitation.    Urbfeoi 
had  scarcely  closed  his  eves,  and  Inno^ 
cent  X  ascended  the  papal  throne,  when 
the  envy  engendered  by  the  merits-  of 
the  artist  and  the  fiivor  bestowed  on  him 
broke   forth.    His  enemies   triumphed; 
but  he  regained  the  fiivor  of  the  pope  by 
a  model  for  a  fountain.    About  the  same 
time,  he  erected  the  palace  of  Monte  Ci- 
torio.    Alexander  VII,  the  successor  of 
Innocent  X,  displayed  much  taste  for  the 
arts,  and  fiivor  to  this  artist,  and  required 
of  him  a  pkix  for  the  embeUiibiQem  of 

the  piazza  di  San  Fietro.  The  admirable 
colonnade,  which  is  so  beautifully  pro-* 
portioned  to  the  Basilica,  was  built  under 
the  direction  of  B.  We  may  also  men- 
tion' the  palace  Odescalchi,  the  rotunda 
ddla  Riocia,  the  house  for  novices,  belongs 
ing  to  the  Jesuits,  on  Monte  Cavallo,  &c, 
IiOu|s  XIV  having  invited  him,  in  the 
most  flattering  terms,  to  Paris,  he  )set  out 
from  Rome,  in  1665,  at  the  age  of  68,  ac- 
companied b^  one  of  his  sons,  and  a 
numerous  retmue.  Never  did  an  artist 
travel  witli  so  great  pomp,  and  under  such 
flattering  circumstances.  The  reception 
which  he  met  with  in  Paris  was  highly 
honorable.  He  was  first  occupied  in  pre- 
paring plans  for  the  restoration  of  the 
Louvre,  which,  however,  were  never  exe- 
cuted. But,  notwithstanding  the  esteem 
which  he  enjoyed  in  Paris,  some  disa- 
greeable oircumistanceB  induced  hiip  to 
return  to  Romet  he  left  Paris  loaded  with 
presetits.'  Cardinal  Rospigliosi  haying  be- 
come pope,  B.  was  admitted  to  an  inti- 
mate intercourse  with  him,  and  charged 
with  several  works;  among  others,  with 
the  decoration  of  the  bridge  of  St  Angelo« 
In  his  70th  year,  this  indeftktigable  artis^ 
executed  one  of  his  most  befiutiful  worics, 
the  tombof  Alexander  VII.  He  still  con- 
tinned  to  devote  himself  to  seyeral  yrorka 
of  architecture,  as  well  as  of  statuary, 
with  such  ardor,  that,  exhausted  by  his 
labors,  he  died,  Nov.  28, 1680,  at  the  age 
of  ^  He  was  buried,  vdth  great  mag-r 
nificenoe,  in.  the  ehuveh  of  St,  Maria  Mag- 
giorcr  1^0 '  his  children  he  left  a  fortune 
amounting  to  about  9,300^000  francs.  B.'s 
favorite  maxim  wasj  Chx  nen  esce  talvolta 
ddla  re^oloy  non  fossa  max.  Thus  he  was 
of  opimon,  that,  in  order  to  excel  in  the 
arts,  one  must  rise  abote  all  rules,  and 
create  a  manner  peculiar  to  .one*&  selfl 
This  B.  has  accomplished  with  a  rare 
good  fortune,  but  the  influence  of  his  style 
has  been  tninsient.  His  most  eminent 
disciples  are  Bistro'  Berbini,  his  brother, 
a  statuaiy,  architect  and  mathematician ; 
Matthia  Rossi,  Francis  Duquesnoi,  sur- 
nanpied  ih$  Flemin^t  and  Borromlnir 

Behivis  (Franpois  Joiichim  de  Pierres, 
comte  de  Lyon)  cardiijal  de,  bom  at 
St.  Marcel  de  TArdeche,  in  1715,  was  de- 
jacended  of  an  ancient  family,  but  little  fo- 
ybred  by  fortune,  for  whidi  reason,  his 
parents  destined  him  for  the  clerical  pro^ 
fossion.  Me.  de  pompadoiir,  whom  he 
had  known  as  Me.  d'£tioles,  presented 
him  to  Louis  XV,  who,  being  pleased  with 
himr,  assigned  to  him  an  apartment  in  the 
Tuileries,  with*  a  pennon  of  1500  livres, 
){is  wishe$  were  directed  towards  rusin^ 

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his  income  to  6000  livres.  Not  Bucceeding 
however,  iii  attaining  this  rooderate  for- 
tune, he  resolved  to  aim  at  a  lar^r  one. 
He  went  as  ambassador  to  Vemce^  and 
obtained  great  respect  in  this  difficult 
post  After  his  return,  he  enjoyed  the 
tii|^est  &vor  at  court,  and  soon  became 
nunister  of  foreign  affairs.  The, political 
system  of  Eurojje  was  changed  at  that 
tune,  France  and  Austria,  hitherto  ene- 
niies,  united  in  an  offensive  and  defensive 
alliance,  which  was  succeeded  by  th^  sev- 
en vears'  war,  so  unfortunate  for  France. 
B.  has  been  designated,  by  several  writets, 
as  the  chief  author  of  th]»  alliance.  Du- 
clos,  however,  asserts,  tliat  it  vf^B  the  in- 
tention of  B.  to  maintain  the  old  system, 
which)  since  the  time  of  Henry  IV,  and 
especialiv  since  the  time  of  Kichelieu, 
had  made  France  the  protectress  of  the 
less  powerful  states  of  Geroiany,  and  the 
rival  of  Austria.  Oppressed  hy  the  mis- 
fortunes of  his  country,  which,  in  part,  at 
least,  were  ascribed  to  him,  B.  surren- 
dered his  post,  and  was  soon  after  bafi- 
ished  fioin  court.  His  disravce  lasted  till 
the  year  1764,  when  the  king'  appointed 
him  archbishop  of  Alby,  au<^  ftve  years 
later,  ambassador  to  Rome.  Here  he  re- 
mained tiU  his  death.  In  the  nan^e  of 
his  court,  and  against  his  own  opinion, 
he  labored  to  enect  the  abolition  of  the 
order  of  the  Jesuits.  When  the  aunts  of 
Louis  XVI  left  France,  in  1791,  they  fled 
to  him  for  refhge,  and  lived  in  bis  house. 
The  revolution  deprived  him  of  bis  for- 
tune, and  the  means  of  indulging  his 
generous  disposition.  He  was  reduced 
to  a  state  of  poverty,  from  which  he  was 
relieved  by  a  pension  from  the  Spanish 
court.  ,  B.  died  in  Rome,  Nov.  2,  1794, 
nearly  $0  ytears  old.  The  easy  poetry  of 
his,  youth  had  procured  him  a  place  in 
the  French  academy,  fie  himself  is  its 
severest  critic.  His  verses  have  been  re- 
proached with  afie<^tation,  negligence,  and 
an  excess  of  ornament  and  m^ological 
unagea.  Voltaire,  called  turn  Babet-la- 
Bouquet'Uref  from  a  fat  flower-woman,  who 
sold  her  nosegm  bel5re  the  opera  houses 
Nevertheless,  Voltaire  had  a  |reat  esteem 
for  his  talents,  his  jud^ent,  his  criticisms, 
and  his  charapter,  as  is  evident  fix>m  their 
correspondence  (pubhshed,  in  1799,  by 
Bourgoing),  which,  in  every  respect,  is 
very  honorable  to  B.  Another  corre- 
spondence, between  B.  and  Paris  du  Ver- 
ney,  appeared  in  print  in  1790.  After 
his  death,  Azam  published  his  poem 
La  RdMm  vengSe  (Religion  avenged), 
which^  though  it  contains  many  beiiutiiui 
verBeil  and  sublime  ideas,  is  deficient  in 

fire  and  animation.  A  collection  of 
B.'8  works  was  published  in  1797,  bj 

Bernouixli  ;  a  family  which  has  pro- 
duced eig^t  distinguished  men,  who  have 
all  cultivated  the  mathematical  scfences 
vrith  success.  The  family,  emigrating  from 
Antwerp  on  account  of  religious  persecu- 
tions, tmder  the  administration  of  the  duke 
of  Alva,  fled  first  to  Frankfort,  and  after- 
wards removed  to  B41c,  where  it  was 
elevated  to  the  highest  dignitiee  of  the 
repubiicr— 1.  James  B.,  bom  at  B&le,  1654, 
became  professor  of  mathematics*  there 
1687,  and  died  1705.    The  difterential 
calculus,  discovered  by  Leibnitz  and  New- 
ton, was  applied  by  him  to  tlie  most  dif- 
ficult que^ions  of  geometry  and  mechan- 
ics: he  calculated  the  loxodromic  and 
catenary  curve,  the.  logarithmic  spirals, 
the  evofutes  of  seteral  curved  lines,  and 
discovered  the  numbers  of  BtmomUi,  as 
they  are  called^— 2.  John    B.,  bom   at 
Baie,  1667,  was  one  of  the  greatest  mathe^ 
maticians  of  his  titne,  and  the  worthy 
rival  of  Newton  and  Leibnitz.    He  was 
destined  for  commerce,  but  his  inclina- 
tion led  him  to  the  sciences,  and,  fit)m  the 
yelil- 1683,  he  principally  devoted  himself 
to  medTcine  and  mathematics.    To  him, 
and  bis  brother  James,  we  are  indebted 
for  an  excellent  treatise  on  the  difl^rential 
calculus.    He  also  developed  the  method 
of  proceeding  from  infinitely  small  num-i 
bers  to  the  finite,  of  which  the  former 
are  the  elements  or  difierencies,  and  called 
this  method  the   int^rai   eakvbjLS.    In 
1690H92,  he  made  a  joumey  fo  France,' 
where   he   uistmcted   the   manjuis   de 
THdpital  in  mathematics.    At  this  time, 
he  discovered  the  exponential  calculus, 
before  Leibnitz  had  made  any  communi- 
cations respecting  it,  and  made  it  known 
in  1697.    In  1694,  he  became  doctor  of 
medicine  at  B&le,  and,  in  1695,  went,  as 
professor  of  mathematics,  to  Groningen, 
where  he  discovered  the  mercurial  phos- 
phoros  or  luminous  barometer,  for  which 
h6  received^  from  king  Frederic  I  of 
Prussia,  a  gold  medal,  and  was  made  a 
member  of  the  academy  in  Berlin,  after- 
wards of  that  m  Paris,  &c.  After  the  death 
of  his  brother,  in  1705,  he  received  the 
professorship  of  mathemtlitics  at   B«tle, 
which  he  held  until  his  death,  Januaiy 
1,  1748.--3.  Nicholas  B.^  nephew  of  the 
former,  bom  at  B^le,  in  1687,  studied  law, 
but  more  particularly  devoted  himself  to 
matliematics ;  in  1705,  went  to  Gronin- 
gen, to  John  B. ;  returned,  however,  with 
hiifn  to  Bale  towards  the  close  of  the 
year,  and   became   there  professor,  of 

Digitized  by 




He  Mvelled  tfarouch  8  wie- 
seriand,  France,  HoUand  and  England^ 
and,  in  1713,  became  a  member  of  the 
academies  of  ecienoe  in  London  and  Ber- 
lin.   On  the  recommendation  of  Leibnitz, 
lie  went,  aa  prdfeasckr  of  mathematics,  to 
Padua,  in  1716,  but  retumed  to  his  native 
cit^,  in  1729,  as  professor  of  logic.    In 
X731,  he  became  professor  of  the  Roman 
and  feudal  law  in  that  place,  and  died  in 
17$9.    The  three  following  were  sons  of 
the  above-mentioned  John  B.—;4.  Nicho-^ 
las  B.,  bom  at  Bile,  1695,  became  profes- 
8or  of  law  there  in  1723,  .and  .  died  in 
Peterabuig,  in  1736.r^.  Daniel  B.,  bom 
at  Groningen,  Feb.  9, 1700.    He  studied 
medicine,  in  which  he  tpok  the  doctor's 
degree,  and,  at  the  same  time,  was  en- 
gaged in  mathematical  studies,  in  which 
Eis  fether  had-  been  hid  instructer.    He 
▼iaited  BMe,  Heidelberg,  Strasburg,  Ven- 
ice and  Padua.    At  the  age  of  24,  he  was 
offered  the  ^presidencyof  an  ^icademy 
about  to  be.e8tablishe4  at  Genoa,  but,  in 
the  following  year,  accepted  an  invita- 
tion to  PeterBbmg.    Accompanied  by  hicT 
younger  brother,  John,  he  returned  to 
Bile  m  4733 ;  became  there  professor  of 
anatomy  and  botany  $  in  1750,  professor 
of  natural  pliiloeophy ;  resigned  this  place, 
because  (h  his  advanced  age,  to  fiis  broth- 
er'sson,  theyounger  Daniel  B.,  in  1777^  and 
died  in  17&    He  wa8t>ne  of  the  greatest 
natural  philosophers,  as  well  as  mathema- 
ticians, of  liis  time.    At  10  different  times, 
he  received  a  prize  from  the  academy  of 
Pans.    In,  1734,  he  shared  with  his  fether 
a  double  prize,  given  by  this  academy, 
for  their  joint  essay  on  the  causes  of  the 
difi^nt  inctinations  of  the  planetary  or- 
bits.   Most  of  his  writings  are  contained 
in  the  transactions  of  me    Petersburg, 
Paris,  Berlin,  &c.  academies,  of  which  he 
was  a   member.—^.  John   B.,  bom   a( 
Bile,  in  1710,' went  to  Petersburg  in  17^ 
became  professor  of  rhet<»ic  at  B&le  in 
1743,  and,  UL  1746,  professor  of  mathc-. 
matics.    He  died  in  1790.    The  two  fcl- 
lowing  were  his  sons. — 7.  John  B.,  licen- 
tiate  of  law  and  royal  astronomer  in 
Berlin,  was  bom  at  Bale,  in  1744,  and 
died,  1807,  in  Beriin,  whither  he  ,had 
been  invited  ip  the  19th  year  of  his  age. 
He  had  travelled  through  all  the  oounr 
tries  of  Europe,  and  hved,  after  1779,  in 
Beriin,  whei^  he  had  become  director 
of  the  mathematicid  department  of  the 
ficademy.    He  is  the  autnor  of  numerous 
works. — 8.  James  B.  was  bom  at  )i4le,  in 
1759 ;  went  to  Petersburg,  where  he  be- 
came professor  of  mathematics,  married 
a  giand'^aughter  of  Euler,  buz  died  in 

1789,  in  the  30th  year  of  his  atfe,  of  an 
apoplexy,  while  bathmg  in  the  Neva. 
•  Bernstorff  ;  the  name  of  a  Gennan 
noble  femily,  many  member*  of  which 
have  been  distinguished.  The  most  so 
viras  John  Hartwig  Ernst,  count  of  B.,. 
Danish  secretary  of  foreign  afiairs.  He 
was  bom  in  Hanover,  May  13^  1713.  His 
fether  was  also  secretary  of  state  in  Den* 
mark.  In  1750^  he  was  made  member 
of  the  council  or  state,  afler  liaving  served 
for  a  long  time  as  foreign  minister.  He 
soon  became  the  most  influential  member 
of  the  government,  which  distinguished 
itself!  under  his  direction,  by  a  wise  neu- 
trality during  the  seven  years'  war,  and 
othei:  politicd  disturbances  in  Eun^ ;  by 
liberal  measures  for  improving  the  condi- 
tion of  the  Danish  peasantry,  who  were 
even  then  in  a  state  of  bondage ;  by  pio-^ 
moting  science,  and  sending  an  expedi- 
tionrto  Asio^  which  the  famous  traveller 
Niebuhr  accompanied.  He  himself  set 
the.exampl<$  of  manumitting  the  peasants, 
and  gave  .the  fourth  part  of  his  income  to 
the  poor.  By  his  effort^  Denmark  ac- 
quired Hol^in.  described,  by  all 
historians,  |yE(  a  model  of  wisdom,  benevo- 
lence and  intelligence.  Frederic  V  (q^  viL 
whose  gorerament  he  directed  so  well, 
died  in  1766,  and  he  continued  in  his 
office,  under  Christian  VII,  until  1770, 
when-  Stfuensee  (q.  v.)  contrived  to  dis- 

Elace  him.  .  After  the;  fell  of  Struensee, 
e  was  recalled,  but  died  when  preparing 
fer  his  fetum  to  Denmark  from  Hambui^, 
in  1779,  Feb.  19.  Christian  VII  had  made 
him  count — ^Andrew  Peter,  count  of  B., 
his  cousiq,  was  also  a  very  distinguished 
statesman,  successor  of  the  preceding, 
and  deserves  great  praise,  among  other 
things,  for  his  endeavors  to  emancipate 
the  peasantry.  He' was  bom  Aug.  28, 
1735,  and  died  June  dl,  1797.  His  son 
is  now  Pmssian  minister  of  foreign  af^irs. 
Berri,  or  B£rrt,  Charies  Ferdinand, 
duke  of;  sedond  son  of  the  count  d'Ar- 
tois  (now  Charles  X)  and  Maria  Theresa 
of  Savoy,  bom  at  Versailles,  Jan.  24, 
1778.  Together  with  the  duke  of  An- 
goul^mc,  be  received  an  inailequate  edu- 
cation under  the  duke  of  Sereut :  never- 
theless,, in  his  eariy  youth,  he  dispknred 
some  talents  and' a  good  hearL  In  17£K^ 
he  fled  with  his  father  to  Turin,  served 
under  him  and  Cond6  on  the  Rhine,  and 
earlv  learned  the  art  of  winning  the  love 
of  the  soldiers.  With  his  fiunily,  he  re- 
paired to  Russia,  and,  in  1801,  to  Eng- 
kmd,  where  he  lived  alternately  at  Lon- 
don and  Hartwell,  continually  occupied 
with  plans  for  the  restoratioB  of  the  Bour- 

Digitized  by 




boDfli  Aiiril  ld>  1814,  B.  landed  at  Cher- 
bourg, and  passed  through  tl^e  cities  of 
Bageux.  Cafin,  Rouen,  &c.,  gaining  over 
the  soldiers  and  national  guards  to  the 
cause  of  the  Bourbons,  distiibutingalms, 
and  delivering  prisoners.  He  m»le  his 
entrance  iato  Paris  April  5^1,  where  he 
gained  popularity  by  visiting  the  mer- 
chants, manuftcturers  and  artist^  May 
15,  he  was  appointed  colonel-general, 
receiving  a  civil  list  of  1,500,000  francs. 
Aug.  1,  ne  set  out  on  a  visit  to  the  de- 
partment of  the  North^  and  the  fortified 
places  in  Lorraine,  FVanche-Cpmt^  and 
Alsace.  When  Napoleon  landed  from 
Elba,  the  king  committed  to  B.  the  chief 
command  of  all  the  troops  in  and  round 
Paris.  All  his  efforts  to  secure  their 
fidelity  proving  ineffectual,  h^  was  obliged 
t6  retreat}  on  uie  night  of  March  19,  with 
the  troops  of  ^e  household,  to  Ghent,  and 
Alost,  where  the  Ipng  then  was.  The 
batde  of  Waterloo  enabled  him  to  return 
to  Paris,  where  he  arrived  July  8,  and 
surrendered  his  command  over  the  troops 
of  the  household  into  the  hands  of  the 
king.  In  August,  he  was  made  priesident 
of  the  electoral  college  of  the  4^partment 
of  the  North.  At  the  oipeniikg'  of  the 
chambers  in  Paris,  he  took  the  o^th  to 
maintain  the  constitution,  and  was  ap- 

Eointed  president  of  the  fourth  bXiyeau ; 
ut  he  soon  retired  from  public  life. 
Louvel  (q.  v.)  had  been,  for  several  veara, 
meditating  tue  extirpation  of]  the  house 
of  Bourtwn,  hy  the  assassination  of  the 
duke.  Feb.  13,  1820,  he  attacked  him 
just  as  he  had  left  the  opera-house,  and 
was  on  the  point  of  stepping  into  his  caj> 
riage,  and  gave  hun  a  mortal  blow.  The 
duke  showed  the  greatest  firmness  and 
Christian  resignation  even  to  the  moment . 
of  his  death  (Feb.  14,  at  6  o'clock  in  the 
morning).  He  had  been  carried  iiitb  the 
saloon.of  the  opera-house.  Here^he  con- 
soled his  wife,  and  said,  Minagez-vous 
jMmr  Penfant  que  voua  porkz  duns  voire 
sein!  (Take  care  of  yourself,  for  the  sake 
of  the  child  in-  your  bosom !)  H'e  then 
caused  the  children^  whom  he  had  m 
London  before  his  marriage,  to  be  called, 
and,  after  recommending  them  to  his 
wife,  prepared  himself  for  death,  foi^ve 
bSs  murderer,  confessed  him^lf,  and  re- 
ceived the  sacrament  Benevolence,  grat- 
itude and  generosity  were  the  best  fea^ 
tures  in  the  character  of  this  prince^  by 
whose  death  edl  France  was  plunged  into 
consternation,  (See  Chateau briand's  Me* 
moires  touduxnt  laVUet  la  Mori  du  Due 
de  Btrrij  Paris,  1820^  The  duke  lefl  by 
his  wife,  Carolma  FerdinandA  Louissi 

eldest  daughter  of  prinee^  afterwaids  kin^ 
Francis  I,  ruler  of  me  Two  Sicilies,  whom 
he  married  June  17, 1816,  only  a  daughter, 
Louisa  Maria  Theresa-  of  Artois,  made- 
moiselle do  FMnoe,  bom  Feb.  21, 1819. 
Great  was  the  ioy  of  the  foyal  &milyy 
when  the  duke%  wklow  was'  delivered^ 
Sept  39,  of  a  prince,  who  bears  the  name 
of  Henry,  duke  of  Bordeaux  (Henri 
Charles  Ferdinand  Dieudonn^  d'Artois, 
petit-fils  de  France).  (See  €handmd.y^ 
Although  Louvel's  deed  had  no  connez-^ 
ion  wim  a  conspiracy,  not  the  sfightest 
trace, of  an  accomplice  bemg  disco vered, 
yet  the  mutual  denunciations  to  which  it 
gave  rise  produced  niuch  party  excite- 
ment, and  occasioned  some  laws  of  ex- 
ception. (See  JVofice,  and  EzcepHohj 
lokos  of^  The  opera-house,  near  wluch 
the  crim^  was  committed,  and  in  which 
the  duke  died,  was  pulled  down,  and  a 
column  erected  on  the  spot  A'  neiw 
opera-hpuse  was  built  in  another  place. 

Berri,  or  B£RRY ;  before  the  revblu- 
tion  of  France,  a  province  and  dukedom 
of  that  country,  of  which  Bourges  was 
the  capital,  almost  i^  the  centre  of  France, 
(See  JJtfcaimpnt.) 

Berserxer,  a  descendant  of  the  eight- 
handed  Starkader  and  the  beautiful  Alf- 
Iiilde,  was,  according  to  the  Scandinavian 
ii^ythology,  a  famous  warriorr ,  He  dis- 
dained- die  protection  of  armor,  whence 
he  recerved  his  name,  which  signifies, 
according  to  Ihre,  aniMTUss,  He  raged 
like  a  madman  is  battle.'  He  kiUed  king 
Swafurlam,  and  married  his  daughter,  by 
whom  he  had  11^  sons,  as  untameable  as 
himself.  They  were  also  called  B^  and, 
ennce  their  time,  the  name  has  been  com- 
monly given  to  men  of  headstrong  violence. 

Berthier,  Alexander;  prince  of  Neuf* 
chatel  and  Wagram,  maiihal,  vice-consta- 
ble of  France,  &c. ;  bom  in  Paris,  Dec. 
90, 1753;  son  of  a  distinguished  officer ; 
was,  while  yet  young,  employed  in  the 
goneijal  stanT,  served  in  America,  and 
fought  with  Lafayette  for  the  liberty  of 
the  U.  States.  In  the  fu^  years  of  the 
revolution,  he  was  appointed  maj<Mr-gen-> 
eml  in  the  national  guard  of  Versailles^ 
and  conducted  htrusea  in  tills  post  with 
uniform  moderation.  Dec.  26,  1791,  he 
was  appointed  chief  of  the  general  sta^ 
in  tho  army  of  marshal  Luckner,  marched 
against  La  Vendee  in  179^  and  joined 
the  ar^y  of  Italy  in  1796,  witii  the  rank 
of  general  of  division,  where,  as  chief  of 
the  general  staff,  he  contributed  much  to 
the  success  of  the  campaign.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1797,  general  Bonaparte  sent  him  to 
Baris  to  d^ter  to  the  directQiy  the  treioy 

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ofCicunDo-Foimiou  la  JmuaiY,  1796,  he 
receivea  the  chier  command  qf  the  aimy 
of  Italy,  and  was  ordered  by  the  directory 
to  march  a^ainat  the  dommions  of  the 
pope.  In  the  beginning  of  February,  he 
made  lus  entrance  into  Rome,  abolished 
the  papal  goyeminent,  and  established  a 
consular  one.  Being  o^uch  attached  to 
general  Bonaparte,  he  followed  him  to 
Egypt  as  chief  of  the  general  staff  After 
the  l8th  of  Bnmiaire,  Bonaparte  appoint- 
ed  him  minister  of  war.  Ue  afterwards 
became  general-in-chief  of  the  army  of 
reserve,  accompanied  Bonaparte  to  Italy, 
in  1800,  and  contributed  to  tlie  passage 
of  Sl  Bernard  and  the  victory  at  Maren- 
go. He  signed  the  armistice  of  Alessan- 
oria,  formed  the  provisional  government 
of  Piedmont,  and  went  on  an  extraordi- 
nary mission  to  Spain.  He  then  received 
again  the  department  of  war,  i^hich,  in  the 
mean  time,  had  been  in  the  hands  of 
Camot  He  accompanied  Napoleon  to 
Milan,  June,  1805,  to  be  present  at  his 
coronation,  and,  in  October,  was  a[^int- 
ed  chief  of  the  general  staff  of  the  ^rand 
army  in  Germany.  Oct  19,  he  signed 
the  capitulation  of  Ulm,  with  Mack,  and, 
Dec.  Of  the  armistice  of  Austerlitz.  Hav- 
ing, in  1806,  accompanied  the  emperor  in 
his  campaign  asainst  Prussia,  he  signed 
the  armistice  of  Tilsi^  Jun^  1807.  He 
afterwards  resigned  bis  poet  as  minister 
of  war,,  and,  having  been  a]>pointed  vice- 
constable  of  France,  married,  in  1808, 
Maria  Elizabeth  Amalia,  daughter  of  duke 
William  of  Bavaria-Biricenreld,  and  con- 
tinued to  be  the  companion  of  Napoleon 
in  all  his  expeditions.  In  the  campaign 
a^nst  Austria,  in  1809,  he  distinguished 
himself  at  W^ram,  and  received  the  title 
o€  prince  of  fragraoL  In  1810,  as  proxy 
of  Napoleon,  he  received  the  hand  of 
Maria  Louisa,  daughter  of  the  emperor 
Francis  I,  and  accompanied  her  to  France. 
Somewhat  later.  Napoleon  made  him 
colonel-general  of  the  Swiss  troops.  In 
1812,  he  was  with  the  army  in  Russia,  as 
chief  of  the  general  stafi^  which  post  he 
also  held  in  1818.  After  Napoleon's  ab- 
dication, he  lost  his  principality  of  Neuf- 
chatel,  but  retained  his  other  honors,  and 
possessed  the  favor  and  confidence  of 
Ix>uis  XVIII,  whom,  after  Nwoleon's 
return,  he  accompanied  to  the  Nether- 
lands, whence  he  repaired  to  his  fiunilv 
at  Bamberg,  where  he  arrived  May  30. 
After  his  arrival  at  this  place,  he  was 
observed  to  be  sunk  in  a  profound  mel- 
ancholy ;  and  when,  on  the  afternoon  of 
June  1,  the  music  of  tlie  Ruanan  troops, 
on  their  march  to  th»  French  borders, 

was  beard  at  the  gates  of  the  eity,  he  pat 
an  end  to  his  lire  by  throwing  himself 
fiom  a  window  of  the  third  story  of  hia 
palace.  (See  M6moin»  d^MixanAtt  Bet* 
(hiery  Pr.  de  NtufihOd  d  de  Wagram^ 
Paris,  18a6.j  He  left  a  son,  Alexander 
(bom  in  1810),  and  two  dauffhtera. 

Berthollet,  Claude  Louis,  count; 
member  of  the  scientific  academies  at 
Paris,  London,  Turin,  Haeriem,  &c. ;  one 
of  the  most  eminent  theoretical  chemists 
of  our  times;  bom  at  Talloire,  in  Sayoy^ 
Dec.  9, 1748 ;  studied  mei^ine  at  Turin ; 
went,  in  1772,  to  Paris,  where  he  became 
connected  with  Lavoisier ;  was  admitted* 
in  1780,  a  membra  of  the  academy  of 
sciences  in  that  city ;  was  made,  in  1794, 
professor  in  the  normal  school  there,  and 
was  sent  to  Italy,  in  1796,  in  order  to  se- 
lect the  monuments  that  were  to  be  car- 
ried to  Paris.  He  followed  Bonaparte  to 
Efgrpt,  and  returned  with  him  m  1799. 
After  the  18th  of  Bmmaire,  he  was  made 
a  member  of  the  9mattem»tTv<devr;  after- 
wards, count  and  grand  officer  of  the  le- 
gion of  honor.  In  1804,  Napoleon  ap- 
pointed him  senator  for  the  district  of 
Montpeljier.  In  1813,  he  received  the 
grand  cross  of  .the  ecder  of  the  Reunion^ 
April  1, 1814,  however,  he  voted  ft>r  the 
establishment  of  a  provisional  govem- 
inent  and  the  dethmnemeot  of  Napoleon. 
Louis  XVni  made  him  a  peer ;  but  Na- 
poleon passed  him  l^  in  1815.  After 
the  restoration  of  Louis,  he  took  hia  seat 
again  in  the  chamber  of  peers.  Among 
the  inventions  and  new  processes  with 
which  the  sciences  and  the  arts  were  en- 
riched by  him,  the  most  important  are 
those  for  the  charring  of  vessels  to  pre- 
serve water  in  ships,  ibr  the  stiffening  and 
glazing  of  linen,  &c.,  but  principally  that 
lot  the  bleaching  of  vegetable  substances 
by  means  of  ozymuriatic  acid,  which^ 
since  l786,  has  been  in  geneni  use  In 
France.  Besides  difterent  essays  in  tlie 
collections  of  the  academy  and  the  insti- 
tute, he  has  written  several  larger  works, 
among  which  his  JScAn  dt  Satique  C%»- 
mique  (1803, 2  vols. ;  translated  into  Eng^ 
lish,  German  and  Italian)  must  be  consid-  . 
ered  as  the  most  important,  and  as  one  of 
the  finest^productions  of  our  times.  The 
complicated  phenomena  of  chemistry  are 
reduced,  in  this  work,  to  the  strict  and 
simple  laws  of  mechanics.  He  had  alsa 
a  lar^  share  in  tbe  reftirmation  of  the 
chemical  nomenclature,  as  weB  as  in  the 
publication  of  the  work  that  appeared  on 
this  subject  in  Paris,  1787— JMi£lftoile  db 
JSTtmenclature  Ckmique.  He  died  in 
Paris,  Nov.  7, 185te. 

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Berthoud,  FenllDand,  celebrated  for 
his  mariDe  chronometerB,  bom  at  Plance- 
mont,  in  the  county  of  Neufbhatel,  in 
1727,  was  destined  for  the  church,  but, 
at  the  age  of  16,  conceived  an  irresistible 
inchnation  for  mechanics.  His  fiither 
caused  him  to  be  instructed  in  the  art  of 
watchmaking,  and,  to  afford  him  an  op- 
portunity of  perfectiM  his  knoviiedge, 
sent  him  to  Paris.  He  resided  in  that 
city  from  1745,  and  there  made  his  first 
marine  chronometers,  which  have  been 
nsed,  by  French  navigatore,  oi^  so  many 
occasions,  for  extending  and  correctinff 
geographical  knowledge.  He  left  severed 
woncs  relating  to  his  art  He  died  in 
1807.  His  nephew,  Louis  B.,  his  pupil, 
and  the  heir  of  his  talents,  has  extended 
his  improvements  still  further.  His  chro- 
nometers are  in  the  hands  of  almost  all 
navigatdrs,  and  are  even  more  convenient 
than  those  of  his  uncle.  They  are  fa- 
mous for  accuracy. 

Bertqli,  Giovanni  Domenico,  count 
of;  bom,  in  1676,  at  Moreto,  in  Friuli ;  the 
patriarch  of  Aquileia,  a  place  where 
many  antiquities  existed,  of  which  nobody 
had  taken  notice.  The  inhabitants  had 
•ven  been  in  the  habit^  for  a  long  time, 
of  buildinff  their  houses  with  ruins  and 
remains  of  art.  To  prevent  further  de- 
stmction,  B.,  in  conjunction  with  other 
men  of  learning  and  taste,  bought  all  the 
ancient  marbles  which  were  excavated. 
Muratori  and  Apostolo  Zeno  encouraged 
him  in  his  antiquarian  researches  and 
publications.  B.  died  in  1758.  His  most 
important  work  is  Lt  AnHchith  di  Aquil^a 
profane  e  sacrty  Venice,  1739,  fbl.  Some 
of  his  treatises  are  to  be  found  in  the  col- 
lection of  P.  Calogera^  others  in  the  me- 
moirs of  the  Societh  Columbaria  at  Flor- 

Berton,  Henry  Montan ;  son  of  Peter 
Berton,  who,  when  (firector  of  the  opera 
at  Paris,  induced  Gluck  and  Piccini  to 
come  to  Paris.  B.  vms  bom  Dec.  17, 
1767,  in  Paris,  and  formed  hitnself  under 
the  great  masters  Gluck,  Piccini,  Paesi- 
ello  and  SacchinL  When  19  years  old, 
he  first  appeared  before  the  public,  as  a 
comjKwer,  m  the  Coficert  apirUud,  When 
the  conservatory  was  established,  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  harmony.  In  1807, 
he  was  made  director  of  the  Italian  opera, 
and  afterwards  leader  of  the  choir  (chef 
du  chant)  at  the  great  imperial  opera.  He 
was  afterwards  employed  in  Russia  by  the 
ecnperor,  but  soon  returned  to  France. 
His  most  fiunous  opera  is  Alifie  Reine  dt 
Ch>lconde.  His  Montmto  and  Stephanie^ 
aiaOf  are  distinguished. 

BERTRAjfD,  Henri  GnitieD,  count ;  gen-^ 
eral  of  division,  aid-de-camp  of  Napoleon^ 
grand  marshal  of  the  palace,  &c.;  &mou0 
ror  his  attachment  to  Napoleon,  whom  he 
and  his  &mily  voluntanly  accompanied 
to  St  Helena.  He  was  bom  of  parents 
in  the  middle  ranks  of  life,  entered  the 
military  service,  distinguidied  himself  in 
the  corps  of  engineers,  and  rose  to  the 
post  of  general  of  brigade.  In  the  eaihp 
at  Boulogne,  in  1804,  Napoleon  had  oc- 
casion to  become  acquainted  with  his 
worth.  From  that  time  B.  was  with  him 
in  all  his  campaigns,  signalizing  himself 
every  where,  especially  at  Austerlitz, 
where  he  was  one  of  the  emperor's  aides- 
de-camp.  In  1806,  he  took  Spandau,  a 
fortress  about  6  or  7  miles  from  Berlin, 
after  an  attack  of  a  few  days;  and,  in 
1807,  contributed  to  the  victory  over  the 
Russians  at  Friedland,  and  excited  the 
admiration  of  the  enemy  by  his  masterly 
conduct  in  buil^liiig  two  bridges  over  the 
Danube,  after  the  battle  at  Aspem,  in  the 
war  of  1809  against  Austria.  He  distin-  • 
guished  himself  equally  in  the  campaigns 
of  1812  and  1813,  Particularly  at  Lutzea 
and  Bautzen.  In  October,  1813,  he  de- 
fended several  important  posts  against 
superior  numbers,  and,  after  the  battle  of 
Leipaic,  in  which  he  defended  Lindenau 
agamst  Giulay,  conducted  the  retreat  in 
eood  order.  After  the  battle  of  Hanau, 
he  covered  Mentz  till  the  army  had  passed 
the  Rhine.  He  took  part  in  the  campaign' 
of  1814,  by  the  side  of  Napoleon,  whom 
he  accompanied  to  Elba,  returned  with 
him,  and  finally  shared  his  residence  in 
St.  Helena.  After  Napoleon's  death  (1821), 
he  retumed  from  this  island  to  France. 

Bertuch,  Frederic  Justin,  born  at 
Weimar,  in  1747,  since  1785  counsellor 
of  legation  in  the  service  of  the  ^\ike 
of  Weimar,  has  done  much  in  several 
branches  of  literature  and  the  arts,  in  the 
study  of  which  he  has  been  engaged  from 
his  early  youth.  He  is  principally  known, 
in  foreign  countries,  by  the  Geographical 
Institute  ( GeographiscMS  InstUut)  which 
he  established  at  Weimar.  This  society 
has  published  numerous  maps,  and,  in 
connexion  with  the  periodical  paper  Ge^ 
ograpUsckt  Ephemmden,  conducted  by 
D,  and  others,  nas  been  of  much  service 
to  geography.  B.,  together  with  Wieland 
and  Schiitz,  also  projected  the  AUgemeine 
LUeraturzeUimg,  which  now  appears  at 
Halle  on  the  Saale.  In  1817,  he  began 
the  OppoiiHonaUattj  wliich  was  suppressed 
by  government  in  1820. 

Bervic,  Charles  Clement,  one  of  the 
most    distinguished    engravers    of   the 

Digitized  by 



French  sefaool,  bom  at  P^iris  in  1756, 
studied  hie  art  under  Greorge  WUle,  and 
may  be  considered  his  most  eminent 
popiL  The  works  of  B»  are  among  the 
best  of  the  French  school,  but  are  not 
numerous.  The  most  celebrated  of  them 
b  the  full  lengdi  figure  of  Louis  XVI, 
after  a  picture  of  Caflot  The  copies  are 
veiy  rare  and  dear,  because  the  plate  was 
broken  to  pieces  in  the  revolutionary  tu- 
mults of  1793.  The  exactness  of  his 
drawing,  the  firmness  and  brilliancy  of 
his  touch,  the  purity  and  correctness  of 
his  design,  and  the  happiness  with  which 
he  transferred  to  his  plate  the  beauties  of 
the  original,  give  a  hich  character  to  his 
productions.    Hp  died  in  1822. 

Berwick,  James  Fitz-James,  duke  ofj 
commanded  the  armies  of  England, 
France  and  Spain^  was  a  peer  of  Ekig- 
land  and  France,  as  well  as  a  grandee  of 
Spain,  and  was  knighted  by  the  sovereign 
or  each  of  these  countries.  He  was 
the  natural  son  of  the  duke  of  York,  af- 
terwards king  James  II,  and  Arabella 
Churchill,  sister  of  the  duke  of  Marlbor- 
ough ;  was  bom  in  1670,  and  first  went 
by  the  name  of  Fitz- Jamea  He  received 
his  education  in  Fitmce,  and  served  his 
first  campaigns  in  Hungary,  under  Charies 
duke  of  Lorraine,  general  of  Leopold  L 
A  short  time  after,  me  English  revolution 
broke  out  B.  followed  his  fiither  in  the 
expedition  against  Ireland,  and  was 
wounded  in  a  battle  in  1689.  He  after- 
wards served  under  Luxemburg,  in  Flan- 
ders; in  1702  and  1703,  under  the  duke 
of  Burgundy ;  then  under  marshal  VlUeroi ; 
and  was  naturalized  in  France.  In  1706, 
he  was  made  marshal  of  France,  and  was 
sent  to  Spain,  where  he  gained  die  battle 
of  Almanza,  which  rendered  king  Philip 
V  again  master  of  Valencia,  in  1718 
and  1719,  however,  he  was  obliged  to 
serve  against  Pliitip  V,  who,  firom  grati- 
tude to  the  macsha],  had  taken  a  son 
of  bis  into  his  service.  On  his  entrance 
into  the  Spanish  dominions,  he  wrote  to 
his  son,  the  duke  of  Liria,  admonishing 
him  to  do  his  duty  to  his  sovereign.  At 
the  siege  of  Philipisburg,  in  1734,  his  life 
was  terminated  by  a  cannon  ball. 

BxRwicK-upoN-TwEED  (ancicntly  3V- 
etif);  a  town  of  Enffland,  on  the  north 
or  Scotch  side  of  the  Tweedy  within  half 
a  mile  of  its  confluence  with  the  German 
ocean.  It  is  a  county  of  itself  recukriy 
fortified  with  walls,  bastions  and  ditches ; 
54  mUes  S.  £.  Edinburv^  335  N.  W. 
London;  lon.3°W.;  ]at.SS°47'N.;  pop. 
7746w  It  exports  com,  pork,  eggs  aiul 
nlmon.     The  town  has  been,  of  kte, 

much  improved,  and  the  streets  are  well 
paved.  The  bridge  over  the  Tweed  is 
1164  feet  long,  and  contauis  6  arches. 
The  barracks  can  accommodate  600  men. 
B.  sends  two  members  to  parUament,and 
has  markets  on  Wednesday  and  Saturday. 
It  was  formerly  the  chief  town  in  the 
county  of  Berwick,  and  the  tlieatre  of 
many  sanguinary  conflicts  between  the 
EngUsh  and  Scottish  armies.  Both  na- 
tions considering  it  a  fortress  of  great  im- 
portance, the  town  aiid  its  neighborhood 
were  a  constant  scene  of  bloodshed.  Af- 
ter repeated  sieges,  it  was  finally  ceded  to 
England  m  the  year  1502 ;  and,  by  a  treaty 
between  Edward  VI  and  Mary  queen  of 
Scotland,  it  was  declared  to  be  a  fxee 
tbwn,  independent  of  both  states.  Upon 
the  death  of  Elizabetli,  in  1603,  James  VI 
of  Scotland  was  proclaimed  at  B.  king 
of  England,  Firance  and  Ireland ;  and 
when  Uiat  monarch  entered  into  his  new 
dominions,  the  constituted  authorities  of 
the  town  received  him  with  every  dem- 
onstration of  joy  and  respect  In  return, 
the  king  confirmed  all  their  ancient  char- 
ters, ai£ling  many  privileges,  which  still 
remain  peculiar  to  the  town  and  its  lib- 
erties. The  peculiar  privileges  of  B^  and 
the  circumstance  that  it  was  once  inde- 
pendent of  England  and  Scotland,  are  the 
occasion  why  it  wasformeriv  the  custom  to 
extend  the  provisions  of  English  statutes 
to  B.  by  name.  The  statute  20  Geo.  II, 
c.  42,  provides,  that,  where  England  only 
is  mentioned  in  an  act  of  parliament,  tlie 
same  shall  be  deemed  to  comprehend  the 
dominion  of  Wales  and  the  town  of  B. 

Bertl,  or  Emerald;  a  well-known 
species  in  mineralogy,  sometimes  massive 
in  its  structure,  though  commonly  found 
crystallized  in  regular,  six-sided  prisms, 
often  deeply  striated  longitudinally,  and 
terminated  at  one  or  both  extremities  by 
a  rough,  imperfect  plane,  or,  more  rarely, 
by  a  very  flat^  sut-sidcd  pyramid,  of  which 
,the  summit  is  replaced.  Its  crystals  are 
of  various  dimensions,  being  from  half  an 
inch  to  upwards  of  a  feot  in  length,  and 
from  a  quarter  of  an  inch  to  10  inches 
in  diameter.  The  larger  crystals,  how- 
ever, are  inferior  to  the  smaller,  in  regard 
to  those  qualities  fer  which  this  species  i^ 
esteemed.  The  lustre  of  the  beryl  is 
vitreous;  ita  color,  green,  passing  into 
blue,  yellow  and  white.  The  brightest  of 
these  colors  is  emerald  green,  which,  as  it 
is  rarely  known  to  pass  insensibly  into 
the  paler  hues^  has  been  made  the  basis 
of  a  distinct  species  in  those  qwcimens  in 
which  it  occurs  under  the  name  of  emer- 
aUL     Thia  distinction  of  species  is  not 

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coflfiidered,  at  present,  as  well  founded; 
and  the  beiyl  and  emerald  are  looked 
upon  as  idemksai  by  moat  mineralogists. 
It  is  translucent  or  tnoMparent,  and  its 
iiardneas  enables  it  to  scntch  quaita.  Its 
specific  gnwky  is  ii^m  3.6  to  2.7.  It  is 
composed  of  alez,  68.95;  ahunine,  17.60; 
glucine,  13.13;  oxyde  of  iron,  .72,  with  a 
trace  of  lime  and  oxyde  of  chrome. — ^The 
beryl  is  widely  difiused.  It  belong  to  the 
primitive  rocks,  and  is  embedded  in  veins 
of  quartz  and  feldspar,  which  trsvecse 
gramte  and  mica  slate.  It  is  dso  found  in 
great  abundance  in  a  coinpect  ferruginoas 
clav  in  Dmuria,  and  in  nactured  crystals 
and  rolled  masses  in  secondary  deposits^ 
where  it  is  not  supposed  to  have  had  its 
origin.  Some  or  the  most  remarkable 
fecalities  of  beryl  are  found  in  Siberia, 
Limoges  19  Prance,  and  in  Massachusetts, 
Maine  and  New  Hampshire  in  the  U. 
Stales.  The  defep-green  variety,  emerald, 
so  much  valued  as  &  gem,  cornea  jfrom 
Peru  and  Uj^r  Egypt:  a  few  fine  crys- 
tals have  also  been  obtained  fixMn  granite 
veins  at  Topsham  in  Maine. 

Bbeselius,  James ;  bom  at  Lmkiomng, 
in  East  Gothland,  in  1779.  As  early  as 
J  796,  he  began  the  study  of  medicine  and 
the  natural  sciences,  particulariy  chemis- 
try, for  the  prosecution  of  which  he  has 
since  made  some  scientific  journeys.  He 
is,  at  present,  professor  of  chemistry  and 
pharmacy,  secretary  of  the  royal  academy 
of  sciences  at  Stockholm,  &c  Charles 
XIV  (Bemadotte)  has  made  him  a  noble- 
man. He  has  done  much  towards  estab- 
lishing the  electro-chemical  system,  which 
at  present  prevails,  and  according  to 
which  no  chemical  process  can  take 
place  without  t|ie  intervention  of  electri* 
city.  He  has  enriched  chemiistry,  which, 
in. our  times,  has  become  a  perfectly  new 
science,  by  the  most  important  discoveries 
and  profound  works.  In  particular,  he 
has  distinguished  hinlself  by  researches 
into  the  bws  of  definite  proportions,  dis- 
covered bv  Richter,  and  has  proved  hhn- 
self  one  of  the  best  chemical  analysts.  His 
system  of  minendogy  is  founded  on  his 
chemical  principles.  Most  of  his  works 
have  been  traniBlated  into  English  and 

Besancon  (in  old  German,  BtBom); 
Ion.  6^3^  E. ;  lat  47«  14^  N.;  48  miles  fit>m 
Piaris;  a  laree,  old,  well-built  city,  much 
fortified  by  Louis  XIV;  was  transfened, 
l^  the  peace  of  Nimwegen,  with  Franche- 
Cfompte  to  France}  at  jnesent,  is  the  chief 
place  of  the  shcth  mihtaiy  division ;  has 
29,000  mhabitantB,  and  is  rituated  ki  the 
depaitment  Donbs.     There  10  an  aich-> 

bishop  in  B.,  tmder  wham  are  the  biahopB 
of  Autun,  Metz,  Nancy,  Strasburg  and 
Dijon.  The  academy  df  sciences  at  B. 
was  established  in  1752 :  there  is  also  hers 
an  academy  of  fine  aits,  a  school  for  artil- 
lery, one  for  watch-makers,  containing  200 
pupils  and  a  fine  Ubrary,  besides  several 
museums,  a  botanical  garden,  an  agricul- 
tural society,  &c  B.  is  a  great  manufito- 
taring  place.  It  was  calkwl,  in  ancient 
times,  ruontium,  and  was  a  fortified  place 
as  early  as  the  time  of  Caesar,  who  drove 
firom  hence  the  Sequani.  Here  also  he 
conquered  Ariovistus.  Several  streets 
have  still  the  old  Roman  names.  The 
ruins  of  a  triumphal  arch  are  yet  to  be; 
seen.  The  river  Doubs  divides  the  ciW 
into  two  parts,  the  upper  and  lower.  B, 
contains  3300  houses,  8  churches,  8  hos^ 
pitals,  a  citadel,  &c«  The  former  univer- 
sity was  changed,  in  1801,  into  a  lyceum. 
It  is  the  chief  place  of  an  amnuHssement^ 
which  contains  98,211  inhabitants. 

Bessarabia  ;  since  the  peace  of  Bucha- 
rest, in  1812,  between  Turkey  and  Russia, 
a  Russian  province,  between  45^  and  48^ 
N.  lat.,  and  28^  and  SV  E.  Ion. ;  contaiiung 
about  8800  square  miles  (according  to  some 
accounts,  more  than  double  this^amount), 
with  315,000  inhabitants;  situated  on  the 
Black  sea,  between  (he  northern  arm  of 
the  Danube,  the  Pruth  and  the  Dniester. 
B.  is  a  plain  countiv,  fertile  in  grain,  but 
is  mostly  used  for  tlie  pasmrage  of  sheep 
and  horses.  Most  of  the  in)ud)itBntB  are 
Walachians,  Gipsies  and  Tartars.  The 
capital  is  Chotzymf,  a  fortress.  Bender, 
Ismail,  Ackerman  and  Kilia  Nova  are  also 
fortresses.  Kiachenau,  the  seat  of  a  Greek 
Ushop,  has  a  large  nursery  of  trees.  The 
population  has  heen  much  increased  by 
colonists  fipom  Poland,  Germany,  France, 
&c  These  amount  already  to  8300, 
mostly  Lutherans.  A  considerable  num- 
ber of  troops  are  kept  in  B.  to  protect  the 
fiontiers.  Many  mechanics  are  thus 
drawn  there  to  supply  the  wants  of  the 

Bessel,  Frederic  William ;  considered 
by  many  the  best  astronomical  observer 
of  the  present  a^ ;  has  been  professor  of 
astronomy  in  Kdnissberg  since  1810;  was 
bom  in  Minden,  July  22, 1784;  entered,  at 
the  a^  of  15  years,  one  of  the  fint  com- 
mercial houses  in  Bremen.  The  mari- 
time intercourse  of  that  place  with  foreign 
countries  excited  in  him  an  inclination  for 
geography;  and  afterwards  for  the  science 
of  navigation,  and  induced  him  to  attempt 
the  acquimtioD  of  mathematical  knowl- 
edge mm  book&  He  mma  passed  to 
astronomy,  and,  as  his  days  were  other- 

Digitized  by 



occupied,  be  devoted  his  nights  to 
these  labors.  An  astronomical  woric 
which  he  wrote  procured  him  the  ac-: 

r'lntance  of  Olbers  (q.  v.),  who,  from 
time,  became  his  adviser.  In  1806, 
he  joined  Scroter  at  Lilienthal,  with  rec- 
ommendations fiiom  Olbers,  and  was  em- 
ployed for  four  years  as  inspector  of  the 
instruments  belonging  to  the  university  of 
Gottin^^  From  thence  he  was  invited 
to  Konursberg,  where  he  built,  in  181^^ 
13;  the  observatory,  which  is  a  monument 
of  the  scientific  enterprise  of  the  north  of 
Germany,  since  it  was  erected  when  Prus- 
sia was  almost  exhausted-  by  war,  and 
Konigsbeig  was  situated  on  the  great 
theatre  of  Napoleon's  operations  against 
Russia.  The  observations,  uninterrupted- 
ly continued  at  this  observatory,  are  con- 
tained in  5  vols.,  folio.  The  observatory 
of  Konigsbeig  was,  till  1819,  provided 
with  English  instruments,  when  the  min- 
istry supplied  it  with,  the  means  of  pro- 
cunng  new  instruments,  mfide  by  Reich- 
eaba^  (q.  v.),  of  the  best  woricmanship. 
Bemdes  these  observadons  and  separate 
treatises,  B.  published,  in  his  work  on 
the  comet'  of  1807,  a'  theory  of  the  dis- 
turbances of  these  celestial  bodies,  and 
Fundamenia  AstrotufmiiB  pro  cau  1755 — a 
work  in  which  he  has  reduced  Bradley's 
observations,  and  given  their  results.  He 
treats  also  of  ^  .various  subjects  con- 
nected with  these  observations,  namely, 
the  instruments  used  and  the  corrections 
to  be,  mada  in  them.  For  the  present 
period,  B.  has  endeavored,  by  his  own 
observations  and  a  strict  criticism  of  meth- 
ods and  instruments,  toattain  the  necessary 
certainty.  Of  his  Astronomical  Observa- 
tions at  (he  Observatory  of  Konigsberg, 
the  10th  No.,  from  Jan.  I  to  Dec.  31, 
1824,  appeared  at  Kdnigsber^,  1826. 

Betsl  is  the  leaf  of  a  climbing  East 
Indian  plant  (piper-betel),  which  Mongs 
to  the  same  tnbe  as  pepper,  and,  in  shape 
and  appearance,  is  not  much  unlike  ivy, 
but  is  more  tender,  and  full  of  juice. 
There  is  «n  almost  incredible  consump- 
tion of  betel  throughout  India,  and  other 
parts  of  the  East.  The  mhabitants  chew 
It  almost  incessantly,  and  in^such  quantity 
that  their  lips  become  quiteVed,  and  their 
teeth  black-^  color  greatly  preferred  by 
them  to  the  whiteness  which  the  Europe- 
ans so  much  affect  They  carry  it,  in  lit- 
tle white  boxes,  dbout  their  persons,  and 
present  it  to  each  other,  by  way  of  oom- 
phment  and  civility,  in  the  same  manner 
as  Europeans  do  snuS  This  is  done  b^ 
the  women  as  well  as  by  the  men ;  and  it 
would  be  coDsiderad  an  offence,  if  those 

VOL.  lu  8 

to  whom  it  is  ofieoed  should  refuse  to  ac- 
cept of  and  chew  it  The  leaves  are 
sometimes  used  alone,  but  much  more 
commonly  when  covered  with  a  kind  of 
hme  made  of  sea^^ell,and  wrapped  round 
slices  of  the  areca  nut,  the  fruit  of  the 
areca  palm,  of  the  size  of  a  small  e^^^  and 
resembling  a.nutmeg  deprived  of  its  hUsk. 

BethaniAjOt  BfiTnAinr  \  a  village  at  the 
foot  of  mount  Olivet,  on  the  west  side^ 
about  two  miles  east  of  Jerusalem,  where 
Lazarus  dwelt,  and  was  raised  from  the 
dead,  and  where  the  ascension  of  Christ 
is  related  to  have  taken  plaee.  The 
house  and  grave  of  Lazarus'  and  the 
house  of  Mavy  Magdalene  are  still  ^own 
to  curious  travellers.  The  name  of  B. 
was  sometimes  extended  to  the  whole 
tract  fix>m  the  village  itself  to  Bethphage. 

Bethesda  ;  a  pool  in  /udea,  the  name 
of  which  signifies  house  of  mercy.  In  the 
five  halls  or  porticos  near  it  many  patients 
lay  waitmg,  acccmling  to  the  account  of 
John  (ch.  v),  for  the  moving  of  the  waters, 
to  bathe  in  it  According  to  the  opinion 
of  the  Jews,  an  angel  descended,  at  a  cer> 
tain  time;  into  the  pool,  and  troubled  the 
water,  and  whoever*  firat  entered  the  wa- 
ter, a^r  this  agitation,  was  cured.  This 
pool  sterns  to  have  been  composed  of  a 
red-colored  mineral  water,  which  received 
its  healing  power  fiom  Uie  red  earth  at 
the  bottom.  If  the  healing  fountain,  after 
havinff  been  obstructed  for  a  time,  began 
to  bubble  up  anew,  and  the  patient  made 
use  of  it  before  the  motion  ceased,  it 
healed  his  disease.— lb  Ueattke  pool  of 
Bethesda,  is  used  proverbially,  in  Gennany, 
in  speaking  of  the  theological  candidates 
who  are  waiting  for  a  benefice. 

Bethlehem  ;  tlie  birth-place  of  David 
and  Christ ;  a  village,  fonnerly  a  town,  in 
Palestine,  a  part  of  Syria,  in  the  pachaUc 
of  Damascus,  five  miles  from  Jerusalem, 
at  the  foot  of  a  hill  covered  with  vines 
and  olive-trees,  which,  however,  is  not  the 
mount  of  Olives  mentioned  in  the  Bible. 
An  aqueduct  conveys  water  fipom  the  hill 
to  the  village.  It  has  300  houses,  and 
2400  preek  and  Arm^ian  inhabitaats, 
who  make  wooden  rosaries  and  cruci- 
fixes, mlaid  with  mother  of  pearl,  for  pil- 
grims ;  also  excellent  white  vrine.  In  a 
rich  ffrotto,  furnished  with  silver  and 
crystfu  lamps,  under  the  chou:  of  the 
church  of  a  convent  in  this  village,  a 
trou^  of  marble  is  shown,  which  is  said 
to  be  the  manger  in  which  Jesus  was 
laid  afler  his  birth.  There  are  three  con- 
vents there,  for  Catholics,  Greeks  and  Af- 
menistns.  The  greatest  ornament  of  the 
place  is  the  stately  church  wected  by  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



empreM  Helena  over  the  place  where 
Christ  is  said  to  have  been  born,  and 
bearing  her  name.  It  is  built  in  the  form 
of  a  cross,  and  the  top  commands  a  fine 
view  over  the  surroundmg  country.  Sev- 
eral spots  mentioned  in  the  Bible  are 
shown  there. 

Bbthlehem,  There  are  many  places 
in  the  U.  States  with  this  name.  One  of 
the  most  important  is  the  borough  and 
post-town  in  Northampton  county,  Pexm- 
sylvania,  on  the  Lehigh,  12  miles  S.  W. 
Easton,  54  N.  N.  W.  Philadelphia.  Pop- 
ulation m  1810, 1436 ;  in  1820, 1860.  It 
IS  pleasandy  situated,  regularly  laid  out, 
budt  chiefly  of  stone,  and  inhabited  whol- 
ly by  Moravians,  who  have  a  bishop  there. 
B.  contains  two  academies,  one  for  young 
ladies,  and  another  for  boys. 

Betrothment,  in  law ;  a  mutual  prom- 
ise or  compact  between  two  parties,  by 
which  they  bind  themselves  to  marry. 
The  word  imports  giving  one's  troth, 
i  e.,  true  &ith  or  promise.  Betrotbment 
amounts  to  the  same  with  what  is  call- 
ed, by  dvilians  and  canonists,  sponsalia 
or  tspousalsy  sometimes  duponsation^ 
and,  by  the  French, fianfcdUes.  Betrotb- 
ment is  either  solemn  (made  in  the  face 
of  the  church),  or  private  (made  before 
wimesses  out  of  the  church).  According 
to  the  Roman  law,  betrotbment  ought  to 
be  made  by  a  stipulation,  L  e.,  a  contract, 
m  which  one  binds  himself,  by  an  answer 
to  a  quesdon  put  to  him,  to  tlie  fulfiknent 
of  a  contract  As  betrothments  are  con- 
tracts, they  are  subject  to  die  same  rules 
as  other  contracts;  for  instance,  that  they 
•re  valid  only  between  persons  whose  ca- 
pacity to  contract  is  recognised  by  law ; 
and  the  use  of  fraud,  violence  or  intimida- 
tion vitiates  the  contract  The  consent 
of  both  parties,  of  course,  is  required. 
This  may  be  ejmressed  either  verbally,  or. 
by  writing,  or  by  action.  In  GermiMiy, 
the  consent  of  the  parents  is  always  ne- 
cessary, if  the  parties  are  under  age,  npt 
yet  sui  jwiii  But  if  the  parents  withhold 
their  consent  unreasonably,  the  permis' 
flion  of  the  judge  is  allowed  to  sanction 
the  contract  If  the  opinions  of  the  pa- 
rents are  diverse,  the  law  gives  effect  to 
that  of  the  fiither.  Some  provincial  laws 
require  the  consent  «f  the  relations,  and 
the  presence  of  witnesses.  Betrothments 
contracted  thus,  aocordinf  to  law,  are 
called  spon»€i%a  pMha ;  o£ers  are  called 
^potuaha  ehmUsthvu  The  latter  are,  in 
some  places,  utterly  invalid ;  in  others,  on- 
ly punishable.  By  the  common  Gemian 
law,  however,  they  are  valid  in  every  case 
in  yrbkh  consummation  or  coisecratioii 

by  the  priest  has  taken  place.  The  pS' 
rents,  in  these  cases,  are  not  allowed  to 
«pply  for  a  dissolution  of  the  contract,  nor 
can  they  refuse  their  consent,  except  for 
highly  important  reasons.  Public  be- 
trothment  mduces  the  oblisation  to  marry. 
In  case  of  refusal  to  complete  the  contract 
by  marriage,  the  injured  par^  is  allow- 
ed an  action  at  law  to  compel  its  perform- 
ance ;  but,  since  unhappy  marriages  are 
among  the  greatest  misfortunes,  the  means 
of  compulsion  applied  by  the  law  are 
never  great,  amoundng  only  to  a  small 
fine,  or  a  short  imprisonu/ent  If  circum- 
stances take  place  which,  if  happening 
before  the  betrotbment,  would  have  neces- 
sarily prevented  it,  the  party  affected  by 
them  IS  allowed  to  recede  fitim  the  en- 
gagement, and  the  modem  laws  allow 
only  an  acdon  for  damages.  In  Germany, 
betrotbment  generallv  takes  place  in  a 
small  company  of  relations  and  finends. 
In  Russia,  it  was  once  binding  and  indis- 
soluble, like  marriage,  but  is  now  a  mere 
form  accompanying  the  marriage  cer&» 

Betterment  is  a  term  used,  in  some 
of  the  y.  States,  to  signify  the  improve- 
ments niade  on  lands  b^  the  occupant,  in 
building,  fencing,  dralmng,  &c. ;  and  the 
statutes  of  some  of  the  U.  States  provide, 
that  where  a  purchaser  comes  into  posses- 
sion under  what  he  supposes  to  be  a  good 
tide,  and  the  land  is  afterwards  recovered 
against  him  by  virtue  of  a  better  dtlej,  in 
case  he  or  those  under  whom  he  claims 
haye  been  hi  possession  of  it  a  certain 
number  of  yean,  he  shall  be  entided  to 
claim  a^nst  the  ewner  who  so  recovers 
possession  of  the  land,  the  value  of  the 
improvements  or  hetUrmenU.  This  is  a 
very  equitable  provision  of  the  laws  in 
states  where,  as  in  many  parts  of  the  U. 
States,  titles  are  not  fulfy  establi^ed  and 
confirmed  by  a  long  period  of  possession, 
and  where,  in  newly-setded  territories,  the 
improvements  may,  in  a  few  years, 
amount  to  more  than  the  original  value 
of  the  land. 

Betterton,  Thomas,. a  celebrated  act- 
or in  the  reign  of  Charles  II,  was  bom  in 
Westminster,  in  1635,  and  excelled  in 
Shakspeare's  characters  of  Hamli^t,  Othel- 
lo, Brutus  and  Hotspur.  In  1635,  he 
opened  a  new  play-house  hi  Lincoln's- 
inn-fields,  but  did  not  succeed.  He  died 
in  1710,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster 
abbey.  He  wrote  the  Woman  made  a 
Justice,  a  comedy;  the  Amorous  Wid- 
ow, or  the  Wanton  Wi^;  Diocletian,  a 
dramatic  opera,  &c.  The  Unjust  Judge» 
or  Appius  and  Vuipnia,  a  tragedy,  was 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



written  origioany  by  Mr.  John  Webster, 
end  altered  by  B. 

B£TTiifKLi.iy  Saverio^an  Italian  author, 
bom  at  Mantua,  in  1718,  studied  there  and 
at  Bolosna,  under  the  Jesuits ;  entered,  in 
l!736,  the  novitiate  of  this  order,  and 
taught,  fiom  1739  to  44,  belles-lettree  at 
Br^nia^  where  he  made  himself  known 
by  some  poems  composed  for  the  use  of 
schools.  In  Bolo^pa,  where  he  studied 
theoloffv,  he  oontmued  to  cultivate  his 
poetical  talents,  uid.  wrote  for  the  theatre 
of  the  coUege  his  tragedy  of  Jonathan. 
In  1751,  he  wos  intrusted  with  the  direc- 
tion of  the  college  of  nobles  at  Parma. 
After  having  remained  there  eight  years, 
he  travelled  in  France  and  Germany,  and 
returned  to  Veroni^  where  he  remained 
till  1767,  engaged  in  preaching  and  in- 
struction. .^Jler  the  suppression  of  the 
Jesuits,  in  1773,  he  returned  to  his  native 
city,  where  he  resumed  his  liteiary  la- 
bofB  vn^  renewed  zeaL  He  published 
several  woiks,  among  which  some  were 
intended  for  ladies;  as^  his  Correspond- 
ence between  two  Ladies,  his  Letteis  to 
Lesbia  on  Epigrams^  and  likewise  his 
Twen^-fbur  Imlogues  on  Love.  He  be- 
gan, in  1799,  a  complete  edition  of  his 
works  (Venice,  1801, 13  vols.  12mo.)  He 
present  the  cheeiflilnefis  and  serenity 
^  his  spirit  to  the  age  of  90  years,  and 
died  in  1808,  with  the  composure  of  a 
{ibiloeoDher,  and  the  devotion  of  a  Chns- 
tian.  Beeddes  his  worics  already  men- 
:tioned,  we  cite  his  JDelT  EiOmkumo  ddU 
htUe  Arfij  Ruorgmento  negU  ^ndj^  nette 
ArH  €  n^  Coshmd  dapo  U  MQU  (3  vols.), 
a  superficial  woric,  which  is,  however,  not 
destithite  of  new  and  just  views.  The 
LdUre  dUd  di  Ftr^io  a^  Jircadi  at- 
tracted ^reat  attention,  fnie  ideas  ex- 
pressed m  this  work  of  the  two  great 
namSes  of  Italian  poetry,  particularly  of 
Dante,  involved  him  in  many  contests. 
His  Foene  (3  vols.)  contain  7  poemdtij  16 
letters  in  blank  verse,  sonnets,  eanzonif 
Sic  Although  this  collection  does  not 
show  any  great  poedcal  power,  yet  it  is 
ahrays  elegant  and  mgenlous.  It  is 
preceded  by  a  treatise  on  Italian  po- 

Bet,  among  the  Tuiks,  rignifies  a  gcv- 
emor  of  a  town,  sei^rt  or  small  district. 
The  Tdiks  write  die  word  heg.  (q.  v.) 

Be  Bit  (properiy,4e  Beze),  Theodore;  next 
to  Calvin,  the  iwipt  distinguished  for  genius 
end  Influence  among  the  preachers  of  the 
Calvinistio  church  in  the  16th  century. 
Bom  of  a  aobiaftmily  at  Vezelay,  in  Bur- 

under  MelchiorVolmar,  a  Geiman  philob- 
ger  devoted  to  the  refonnation ;  and  eaxly 
lamiliar  with  the  ancient  classical  literature, 
he  became  knovra,  at  the  age  of  20  years, 
as  a  Latin  poet,  by  his  petmant  and  witty 
JuioenUia  (a  collection  of  poems  of  which 
he  was  afterwards  ashamed).  In  1539,  he 
was  made  a  licentiate  of  law,  and,  in  the 
same  year,  invited  by  his  fiunily  to  Paris. 
He  received  from  his  uncle  the  reversion 
of  his  valuable  abbey  Froidmond,  and 
lived  on  the  income  of  two  benejSces  and 
the  property  which  he  had  inherited  from 
a  brother.  His  habits,  at  this  time,  were 
dissipated.  His  handsome  figure,  his  tal- 
ents, and  his  connexion  with  the  most 
distinguished  ftmilies,  opened  to  him  the 
most  splendid  prospecta  But  a  clandes- 
tine marriage,  m  1543,  recalled  him  from 
his  excesses,  and  a  dan^rous  illness  con- 
firmed the  intentiim,  which  he  had  fbrmed 
at  Orieans,  of  devoting  himself  to  the  ser- 
vice of  the  refbrmed  church ;  so  that,  afrer 
his  recovery,  he  forsook  all  the  advan- 
tages of  his  situation  in  Paris,  and  repair- 
ed, with  his  wife,  to  Geneva,  in  1547. 
8oon  after,  he  accepted  a  professorship  of 
the  Greek  language  at  Lausanne.  Dur- 
in{^  the  10  years  of  his  continuance  in 
this  office,  he  wrote  a  tragi-comip  drama, 
in  French,*-the  Sacrifice  of  Abraham«-«< 
which  was  received  vrith  much  approoa* 
tion ;  delivered  lectures  (which  were  nu- 
merously attended^  on  the  Epistle  to  the 
Romans  and  the  Epistles  of  Peter  (T^ich 
served  as  the  basis  of  his  Latin  transla- 
tion of  the  New  Testtunent,  of  which  he 
afterwards  published  several  editions,  al- 
ways with  improvements) ;  finished  Ma« 
rot's  traoslatiou  of  the  Psalms  in  Frcoach 
verse ;  and  obtained  to  such  a  degree  the 
confidence  of  the  Swiss  Calvinists,  that 
he  was  sent,  in  .1558,  on  an  embassy  to 
the  Protestant  princes  of  Germany,  to  ob- 
tain their  intercession  at  the  French  court 
fi>r  the  release  of  the.Huffuenots  impris- 
oned in  Paris.  In  the  fofiowing  year,  he 
went  to  Geneva  as  a  preacher,  and,  soon 
afler,  became  a  professor  of  theology,  ana 
the  most  active  assistant  of  Calvin,  to 
whom  he  had  already  recommended  him? 
self  by  several  worics  (on  the  punishment 
of  heretics  by  the  nuu^strate,  the  vindica^ 
tion  of  the  burning  of  Servetus,  and  some 
violent  controversial  writings  on  the  doo« 
trine  of  predestination  and  the  commun- 
ion, against  Castalio,  Westphal  and  Hess- 
huss).  His  talents  fbr  negotiation  were 
now  often  put  in  requisition  by  the  Cal- 
vinists. He  was  sent  to  the  court  of 
AnUiony,  king  of  Navarre,  at  Na^ac.  to 
obttin  the  tpler^tion  of  the  French  Hu** 

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ffuenotfl,  and,  at  his  desire,  he  appeared, 
1561,  at  the  religious  conference  at  Pois- 
sy,  where  he  spoke  in  behalf  of  his  party 
with  a  boldness,  presenee  of  mind  and 
eneray,  which  gained  him  the  esteem  of 
the  French  court  He  often  nreached  in 
Paris  before  the  queen  of  Navarre  and 
the  prince  of  Cond6 ;  also  in  the  suburbs. 
At  tne  conference  of  St.  Germain,  in  1562, 
he  spoke  stronsly  against  the  worship  of 
images,  and,  alter  the  conomencement  of 
the  civil  war,  accompanied  the  prince  of 
Cond6  as  chaplain,  and,  on  the  capture 
of  the  prince,  joined  the  admiral  Co- 
ligny.  After  the  restoration  of  peace,  he 
returned  to  Geneva,  in  1563,  where,  be- 
»des  discharging  the  duties  of  his  offices, 
he  continued  to  engage  in  theological 
controversies  in  sunportof  the  Calvinists ; 
and,  after  Calvin's  death,  in  1564,  became 
his  successor,  and  was  considered  the  first 
theologian  of  thiis  church.  He  presided  in 
the  synods  of  the  Frenbh  Calvmists  at  La 
Rochelle  (1571)  and  at  Nismes  (1572), 
where  he  opposed  Morel's  proposal  for 
the  alteration  of  clerical  discipline ;  vras 
sent  by  Cond^  (1574)  to  the  court  of  the 
elector  palatine ;  ana,  at  the  religious  con- 
ference at  Montpellier  (1586),  opposed  the 
theologians  of  Wiirtemberg,  pajticularly 
James  Andreas.  At  the  a^e  of  69  yeara, 
he  married  his  second  wife  (1588),  and 
still  continued  to  repel,  with  the  power 
of  truth  and  wit,  the  attacks  and  calum- 
nies, which  his  enemies,  apostatized  Cal- 
vinists (such  as  Volsec),  Lutherans,  and 
particularly  the  Jesuits,  heaped  upon  him. 
They  reported,  in  1597,  that  he  bad  died, 
and  returned  before  bis  death  to  the 
Catholic  ftdth.  B.,  now  78  years  old,  met 
his  assailants  in  a  poem  full  of  youthful 
enthusiasm,  and  resisted,  in  the  same  year, 
the  attempts  of  St  Francis  de  Sales  to 
convert  him,  and  the  allurins  offers  of  the 
pope.  In  1600,  he  visited  Henry  IV,  in 
the  territory  of  Geneva,  who  presented 
him  vrith  500  ducats.  After  having  en- 
joyed excellent  health  during  almost  his 
whole  life,  he  died,  Oct;  13,  1605,  of  old 
age.  By  a  rigorous  adherence  to  the 
principles  of  Calvin,  in  whose  spirit  he 
presided  over  th^  church  of  Geneva,  he 
had  become  the  chief  ef  his  party,  and 
enjoyed  for  40  years  the  reputation  of  a 
patriarch,  without  whose  approbation  no 
important  step  was  taken.  In  order  to 
preserve  the  unity  and  pennanency  of 
his  church,  he  sacrificed  his  own  opinions 
to  the  established  dogmas  of  Calvin,  and 
rendered  tiie  most  important  services  by 
his  various  erudition,  his  constant  zeal, 
liis  active  spirit,  his  brilliant  eloquence, 

and  even  by  the  imnressionof  hispenmi- 
al  appearance,  which  age  made  stm  more 
striking.  He  defended  his  doctrines  viith 
abihty  and  enthusiasm,  and  often  with 
merciless  severity  and  obstinacy.  Among 
liis  many  woiks,  his  exe^etic  writings, 
and  an  able  and  correct  Histoiy  of  Cal- 
vinism in  France,  fit>m  1581  to  6^  which  is 
ascribed  to  him,  are.  still  much  esteemed. 
His  correspondence  with  Calvin  is  to  be 
found  in  the  ducal  Ubraiy  at  Gotha.  A 
catalogue  of  his  woriss  is  given  by  Antho- 
ny la  Faye,  who  has  written  an  account 
of  his  Ufe. 

Bezant  ;  round,  flat  pieces  of  pure 
gold,  without  any  impression,  supposed 
to  have  been  the  current  coin  of  6yzan.- 
tium.  This  coin  was  probably  introduced 
into  coat-armor  by  the  crusaders.  Doc- 
tor Henry,  in  his 'Histoiy  of  England,  es- 
timates its  value  at  9t.  4ifL  sterlmff.  The 
gold  ofiEered  by  the  king  of  En^and  on 
the  altar,  at  the  feast  of  tiie  Epiphany  and 
the  Purification,  is  called  bexanL 

Bezoar  (Persian,  pazary  a  goat,  or  pa^ 
Tochar,  against  poison);  a  concretion  or 
calculus,  of  an  orbicular  or  oval  form,  met 
with  in  the  bodies  of  various  animals. 
These  substances  are  found  in  the  stom- 
ach, gall-bladder,  saUvaiy  duct%  and 
pineal  j^land,  but  especially  in  the  intes- 
tines of  certain  animals  of  the  order  rumt- 
nanticu  They  were  formerly  celebrated 
for  their  supposed  medicinal  virtues,,  and 
distiuffuished  by  the  name  of  the  coun- 
tries from  which  they  came,  or  the  ani- 
mals in  which  they  were  found.  They 
were  considei^  as  highly  alezipharmic ; 
so  much  so,  that  other  medicines,  suppos- 
ed to  possess  the  same  virtues,  obtamed 
the  name  of  hezoardics^  So  efficacious 
were  these  once  thouffht,  that  they  were 
eagerly  bought  for  10  times  their  w^iffht 
in  gold.  Besides  beinff  taken  .intenaiUy, 
they  vvere  worn  around  the  neck,  aa  pre- 
servatives fix)m  contagion.  For  Uiis  pur- 
pose, it  is  said,  that  in  Portugal  it  was 
customary  to  hire  them  at  the  price  of 
about  10  shillings  per  day.  On  analysis, 
these  substances  are  found  to  contam,  for 
tiie  most  part,  bile  and  resin.  It  is  almost 
needless  to  add,  that  the  accounts  of  their 
extraordinary  virtues  must  now  be  con- 
sidered as  totally  febulous. — A  strange  ori- 
gin was  assigned  to  the  bezoar  by  some 
of  the  old  naturalists.  The  Oriental  stag^ 
when  oppressed  vrith  age  and  infinnity, 
were  said  to  feed  upon  serpents,  which 
restored  their  youthlul  vigor.  To  coun- 
teract the  poison  which  by  this  means 
wai(  absorbed  into  their  system,  they 
plunged  into  some  running  stream,  leav* 

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Inr  diebr  heads  aoly  above  iratflr.  In 
tbv  atuatioii,  a  yiacoufl  jfluid  distilled 
teom  their  eyes,  which  was  indurated  by 
the  heat  of  the  sun,  and  formed  the  be- 
zoar. — The  great  value  of  the  bezoar  at 
one  time  gave  birth  to  many  imitatioils 
dT  it,  and  various  tests  have  been  proposed 
to  detect  the  artifidal  stones.  The  fcl- 
lowing  cruel  and  absurd  one  is  given  by 
Ciusius:— Thread  a  needle,  and  draw  the 
thread  through  a  leaf  plucked  from  a  yew- 
tree  ;  then  pass  the  needle  through  a  aog*8 
foot,  and  leave  the  thread  in  the  wound ; 
when  the  dog  becomes  convulsed,  and 
appean  dying,  mix  some  scrapings  of  be- 
zoar with  water,  and  moipten  uie  animaFs 
mouth  with  it ;  if  he  recover,  the  tone  is 
^nuine.  Simpler  methods,  perhaps,  are, 
inmierBion  in  warm  water,  wnich  neither 
loses  its  own  color,  nor  diminishes  the 
weight  of  the  bezoar :  or  rubbing  it  over 
|>aper  smeared  with  chalk  or  auick-lime ; 
the  genuine  stone  leaves  a  yeuow  hue  on 
|he  first,  a  green  one  on  the  last 

Bia;  a  name  given  by  the  Siamese  to 
those  small  shells  which  are  called  0019- 
riet  throughout  almost  all  the  other  parts 
of  the  East  Indies.    (See  Comies.) 

BijlOioli,  Josaphat;  a  learned  Italian 
linffuistat  Paris.  Before  the  invasion  of 
Ita^jT,  by  the  Joint  forces  of  Austria 
and  Russia,  in  1796,  he  was  professor  of 
Greek  and  Latin  literature  at  the  unirer- 
skv  of  Uibino.  As  B.  had  shown  him* 
self  a  friend  to  the  cause  of  libertjr,  he 
lock  refuge  in  Paris,  and  was  appomted 
professor  of  Ital^n  literature  at  a  prytc^ 
neufHf  and  delivered  lectures  before  a 
splendid  audience.  He  is  the  editor  of 
the  Latere  del  Card,  Bentiooglio  (Paris, 
1808—12],  and  author  of  a  Grammaire 
raimmnit  dela  Langtte  Baiienne  h  VVsage 
dt9  Dranfds,  suime  iPtm  TraiU  dt  la  Po^ 
ine  Malienne  (Paris,  18091  which  obtained 
the  approbation  of  the  French  institute, 
and  has  passed  through  four  editions.  He 
has  also  prepareda  Grammaliea  ragjanata 
deUa  iMurua  Fhmeese  aW  Uso  de^  Bali' 
aiU  (1812).  His  edition  of  the  Dmna 
Commedia  ddDanUMghieri  (Paris,  1818, 
3  vols.),  for  the  correcmess  of  the  text 
and  the  ezceUence  of  the  commentary,  is 
held  in  great  esteem ;  but  it  has  also  cqn^ 
tributed  ^  the  propagation  of  many  new 
errors  relatmg  to  Dante,  partly  from  the 
editor's  violent  spirit  or  opposition  to 
Lombardi.  It  obtained  the  honor  of  be« 
ing  reprinted  in  Itafy  (Milan,  1820,  lOmo.) 
B.  has  published,  at  Paris,  Petnrea,  ana 
the  poems  of  Michael  Anf^elo  BuonarottL 
jvidk  a  commentary  similar  to  that  or 
Bttiteu  and  is  now  occupied  with  the 

eompoflition  of  an  Italian-French  and 
French-Italian  dietiooary, 

BiAiicBiin,  Francesco,  bora  at  Verona, 
1662,  studied  mathematies,  physics,  anatn 
omy  and  botany,  at  first  nnder  the  JesiiitSi 
afterwards  (1680|  at  Padua.  He  was  in-t 
tended  for  the  clerical  profession,  renair-r 
ed  to  'Rome,  and  there  applied  himself  to 
jurisprudence,  but  continued  at  the  same 
time  the  study  of  experimental  physics, 
astronomy,  &c.,  as  well  as  of  Greek,  He^ 
brew,  &c.  Antiquities  also  became  one 
of  his  fevorite  studies.  He  passed  whole 
days  amidst  ancient  monuments,  was 
present  at  all  the  ezcavatiohs  in  seareh  of 
them,  visited  all  the  museums,  and  made 
drawings  of  the  remains  of  antiquity  widi 
as  much  taste  as  skill.  At  the  death  of 
Innocent  XI.  cardinal  Ottoboni  ascend-* 
ed  the  papal  throne  under  the  name 
of  .aUxandar  VIU,  and  bestowed  on  B.  a 
rich  benefice,  whh  the  appointment  of  tu<> 
tor  and  libranan  to  his  nephew,  the  cardi-r 
nal  Pietro  Ottoboni.  Pope  Clement  XI 
also  patronised  him,  and  appointed  him 
secretaiy  to  the  commisQon  employed  in 
the  coirecti6n  of  the  calendar,  ft.  was 
commissioned  to  draw  a  meridian  in  the 
chureh  of  ^t  Maria  d^  wftupeK,  and  to 
erect  a  sun-diaL  He  successmlly  accom^ 
plisbed  this  difiicult  undertaking,  with  the 
assistance  of.  Maraldi.  Being  on  a  tour 
through  France,  Holland  and  England, 
he  formed  the  idea  of  drawing  a  meridian 
in  Italy  from  one  sea  to  the  <Mher,  in  im]<» 
tation  of  that  which  Cassinl  had  drawn 
through  France.  He  was  occupied  eight 
Tears  tt  his  ovm  expense  in  that  wora  $ 
but  other  employments  withdrew  his  at* 
tention  from  it,  and  it  remained  unfinished. 
He  concluded  his  career  vrith  two  import 
tant  woriEs  (17127),  on  t|ie  planet  Venus  and 
on  the  sepulchre  of  Augustus.  He  died  in 
1729,  A  monument  was  erected  to  his 
merooiy  in  the  cathedral  at  Veiona*  He 
united  the  most  extensive  learning  wili| 
modesty  and  the  most  amiable  manners. 

Bias  ;  son  of  Teutamus ;  bom  at  Priene, 
one  of  the  principal  cities  of  Ionia,  about 
570  B,  C.  He  was  a  practical  philoso* 
pher,  studied  the  laws  ef  his  ebuntry,  and 
employed  his  knowledge  in  the  service 
of  his  fiiiends ;  defenmng  them  in  the 
courts  of  justice,  or  setthn^  their  disputes, 
He  made  a  noble  use  of  his  wealth*  His 
advice,  that  the  lonians  should  fly  before 
the  victorious  Cyrus  to  Sardinia,  was  not 
followed,  and  the  victoiy  of  the  armv  of 
Cyrus  confirmed  the  correcmess  of  his 
opinion.  TheinhabitantBofPriene,whei| 
bede^  by  Maza^es,  resolved  to  abandon 
the  City  with  their  property.    On  this  oc« 

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casion,  B.  repKed  to  one  of  hiB  ^low- 
citizend,  who  expressed  his  afltoniahment 
that  be  made  no  preparations  for  his  de- 

rture, — ^**'I  carry  every  thing  with  me." 
remained  in  his  native  country,  where 
he  died  at  a  very  advanced  age.  His  coun- 
trymen buried  him  with  splendor,  and  hon- 
ored his  memory.  Some  of  his  sayings  and 
precepts  are  yet  preserved.  He  was  num- 
Dered  among  tlie  seven  sages  of  Greece; 

BiBBiENA,  Fernando;  a  painter  and 
architect.  His  father,  Giovanni  Maria 
Galli  (a  less  distinguished  pabiter  and 
architect),  named  his  son  B.  from  his  na- 
tive town  in  Tuscany.  The  son  was  bom 
at  Bologna,  1657.  Carlo  Cignani  (q.  v.) 
directed  his  studies,  B.  was  afterwards 
invited  to  Barcelona.  The  duke  of  Par- 
ma subsequently  made  him  director  of  his 
theatres.  Charles  VI  afterwards  invited 
him  to  Vienna.  Several  beautiful  build- 
ings were  erected  in  Austria  from  his 
plans.  In  his  theatrical  paintmgs,  he  has 
continued  the  vicious  style  of  Sorromini 
and  others.  His  writings  display  extent 
and  accuracy  of  kno  wlec^  W  h^i  con- 
siderably advanced  in  life,  his  weak  sight 
prevented  him  from  painting:,  and  he 
occupied  himself  with  the  revision  of  his 
works,  wliich  he  pubUahed  anew  at  Bo- 
logna, 1725  and  17B1,  in  2  vols.;  the  first, 
umler  the  title  Direxwfd  a'  giovani  Stu- 
denU  nd  Disegno  dtU  Arck&tttara  cwiU : 
in  the  seconi^  he  treats  of  perspective. 
He  finally  became  blind,  and  died  1743. 
His  three  sons  extended  their  father's  art 
throu§^  all  Italy  and  Germany.  Antonio 
succeeded  to  his  fiither's  place  at  the  court 
of  the  emperor  Charles  VI.  Giuseppe 
died  at  Berlin,  and  Alessandro  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  elector  palatine.  A  collection 
of  B.'s  decorations  has  been  published  at 

Bible  ;  a  hooky  firom  the  Greek  fitpXos^ 
which  signifies  the  soft  baik  of  ^  tree,  on 
which  the  ancients  wrote.  The  collection 
of  the  Sacred  Writings,  or  Holv  Scriptures 
of  the  Christians,*  is  called  the  Bible,  br 
the  Book,  by  way  of  excellence.  Some 
of  these  writings,  which  are  also  received 
by  the  Jews  as  the  records  of  their  faith, 
are  called  the  Old  TegUanent,  or  tmrUii^a 
of  iht  M  cooenant,  because  the  Jewish 
reli^on  was  represented  as  a  compact  or 
covenant  between  God  and  the  Jews,  and 
the'Greek  word  for  covenant  (iiaB^Kri)  ^gBH- 
fies  also  ku<  trtZi^  or  teMoment.  The  same 
fiffure  was  applied  to  the  Christian  religion, 
iniich  was  considered  as  an  extension  of 
the  old  covenant,  or  a  covenant  between 
.God  and  the  whole  human  race.  The 
sacred  writings  peculiar  to  the  Christians 

are,  therefore,  called  the  Setiptwrti  t^fke 
J^ew  Ttgtament,  (See  TtsUment.)  The 
order  of  the  books  of  the  Old  Testament, 
as  they  are  arranged  in  the  editions  of  the 
Latin  version,  called  the  Vvlgatt  (q.  v.), 
according  to  the  decree  of  the  council  of 
Trent  (sess.  41  is  as  follows :— Genesis, 
Exodus,  Leviticus,  Numbers,  Deuterono- 
my, Joshua,  Judges  and  Ruth ;  I  Samuel, 
or  I  Kings;  II  Samuel,  or  II  Kings;  I 
Kings,  otnerwise  called  III  Kings;  II 
Kings,  odierwise  called  IV  Kinjrs;  I  £s- 
dras  (as  it  is  called  in  the  Septuagmt  (q.  v.) 
and  Vul^e),  or  Eifcra ;  II  Esdras,  or  (as 
we  can  It)  Nehemiah;  *Tobit,  *Judith, 
Esther,  Job,  Psalms,  Proverbs,  Ecclesi- 
astes,  Song  of  Solomon,  *The  Book  of 
Wisdom,  ^Ecclesiasticus,  Isaiah,  Jeremi- 
ah and  *Baruch ;  Ezekiel,  Daniel,  Hosea, 
Joel,  Amos,  Obadiah,  Nahum  (which,  in 
our  editions,  is  placed  after  Micah  and 
before  Habakkuk],  Jonah  (which  we  place 
after  Obadiah),  Micah,  Habakkuk,  Zeph- 
aniah;  Haggcu,  Zechariah,  Malachi,  *I 
Maccabees  and  *II  Maccabees.  (Those 
to  which  an  asterisk  is  prefixed  are,  by 
Protestants,  considered  apocryphal,  q.v.) 
The  books  received  by  the  Jews  were 
divided  by  Ezra  into  three  classes: — 1. 
The  Law,  contained  in  the  Pentateuch, 
(q.v.|  or  five  books  of  Moses.  2.  The 
tropnets,  comprinng  Joshua,  Judges  and 
Ruth,  I  and  II  Samuel,  I  and  II  Kings,  I 
and  II  Chronicles,  Isaiah,  Jeremiah  and 
Lamentations,  Ezekiel,  Daniel,  the  12  mi- 
norprophets,  Ezra,  Nehemiah  and  Esther. 
3.  The  Cetubim,  or  Hagiographa,  that  is, 
holy  writings,  containing  the  Psalms,  the 
Proverbs,  Ecclesiastes  and  the  Song  of 
Solomon.  These  books  were  written  in 
the  Hebrew  language  (q.  v.),  while  those 
which  are  rejected  from  the  canon  as 
apocr^hal  bv  the  Protestants,  are  fotind 
only  m  Greek  or  Latin.  The  books  of 
Moses  were  deposited,  according  to  the 
Bible,  after  his  death,  in  the  tai^macle, 
near  the  ark:  the  other  sacred  writings,  it 
is  further  said,  were  successively  deposit- 
ed in  the  same  place,  as  they  were  written. 
After  the  building  of  the  temple,  they 
were  removed  by  Solomon  to  that  edifice ; 
on  the  capture  of  Jenisalem  by  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, the  autographs  probably  per- 
ished, but  numerous  copies  were  preserv- 
ed, as  is  inferred  from  allusions  in  writers 
subsequent  to  the  Babylonish  captivity. 
It  is  generally  admitted,  that  the  canon  of 
the  Old  Testament  was  settled  soon  after 
the  return  firom  Babylon,  and  the  reCstab- 
lishment  of  the  Jewish  religion.  This 
work  was  accomplished,  according  to  the 
traditions  of  the  Jews,  by  Ezra,  with  the 

Digitized  by 




asBistance  of  the  great  synagogue,  who 
collected  and  compared  as  many  copies 
aa  could  be  found.  From  this  collation  a 
correct  edition  of  the  whole  was  prepared, 
with  the  exception  of  the  writingB  or  Ezra, 
Malachi  and  Nehemiah,  which  were  add- 
ed by  Simon  the  Just  When  Judas 
IMacGahceus  repaired  die  temple,  which 
had  been  destroyed  by  Antiochus  Epiphar 
nes,  he  placed  in  it  a  correct  copy  or  the 
Hebrew  Scriptures,  whether  die  autograph 
of  Ezra  or  not  is  not  known.  This  copy 
was  carried  to  Rome  by  Titus.  Tne 
divinon  into  chapters  and  verses  is  of 
modem  origin.  Cardiaal  Hugo  de  Sanoto 
Caro,  who  flourished  in  the  13th  century, 
hayinj^  divided  the  Vulgate  into  chap- 
ters, ror  convenience  of  reference,  simi- 
lar divisions  were  made  in  the  Hebrew 
text  by  rabbi  Mordecai  Nathan,  in  the 
15th  century.  The  present  division  into 
verses  was  made  by  Athiaes  a  Jew  of 
Amsterdam,  in  his  edition  of  1661.  The 
punctuation  is  also  the  woik  of  modem 
scholais.  Biblical  critics  divide  the  Scrip- 
tures of  the  Old  Testament  into  the  l^en- 
tateuch,  or  ^ve  books  of  Moses ;  the  his- 
torical books,  from  Joshua  to  Esther 
inclusive ;  the  doctrinal  or  poetical  books 
of  Job,  Psalms,  Proveriis,  Ecdesiastes  and 
the  Song  of  Solomon;  the  prophetical 
books^— The  most  esteemed  manuscripts 
of  the  Hebrew  Bible  are  those  of  die 
Spanish  Jews.  The  most  ancient  are  not 
more  than  seven  or  eight  centuries  old : 
the  fiimous  manuscript  of  the  Samaritan 
Pentateuch,  in  the  possession  of  the  &&- 
marjtans  of  Sichem,  is  onlrSOO  years  old : 
a  manuscript  in  the  jBoaleian  library  is 
thought  to  be  700  years  old:  one  in  the 
Vatican  is  supposed  to  have  been  written 
in  973.  In  some  manuscripts,  the  Masora 
(q.  V.)  is  addedd — ^The  piloted  editions  of 
the  Hebrew  Bible  are  very  numerous. 
The  earliest  were  printed,  in  Italy.  The 
first  edition  of  the  entire  Hebrew  Bible 
was  printed  at  Sonoino,  in  1488.  The 
Brescian  edition  of  1494  was  used  by 
liUther,  in  making  his  German  transla- 
tion. The  editions  of  Athias,  a  Jew  of 
Amsterdam,  1661  .and  1667,  are  much 
esteemed  for  their  beauty  and  correctness. 
Van  der  Hooght  followed  the  latter.  Doc- 
tor Kennicott  did  more  than  any  one  of 
his  predeceason  to  secde  the  Hefc^w  text 
His  Hebrew  Bible  appeared  at  Oxford,  m 
1776—1780,  2  vols!,  folio.  The  text  is 
from  that  of  Van  der  Hooght,  with  which 
630  MSS.  were  collated.  De  Rosea,  who 
published  a  supplement  to  Kennicott's 
edition  (Parma,  1784—90,  5  vok,  4to.), 
MJJated  958  MSS.    The  German  Orien- 

talists, Geeenius,  De  Wette,  &c.,  in  recent 
times,  have  done  veiy  much  towards  ccr- 
recting  the  Hebrew  text  The  earUest 
and  most  &mous  versioh  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament is  the  Septuagint,  or  Greek  trans- 
lation. The  Syriac  version,  called  the 
PtachitOf  was  made  early  in  the  second 
century.  It  is  celebrated  for  its  fideUty. 
The  Coptic  version  was  made  firom  the 
Septuagmt,  some  time  before  the  seventh 
century.  The  Gothic  version,  by  Ulphi- 
las,  was  also  made  from  the  Septuagint, 
in  the  fourth  century.^  The  most  impor- 
tant Latin  version  is  the  Vulgate.  (For  an 
account  of  the  principal  polyglots,  see 
P(%iot>— The  books  of  the  New  Tes- 
tament were  all  written  in  Greek,  unless 
it  be  true,  as  some  critics  suppose,  that 
th«  Gospel  of  St  Matthew  was  originally 
written  m  Hebrew.  Most  of  these  wn- 
tings  have  always  been  received  as  banon- 
ical ;  but  the  Episde  to  the  Hebrews,  by 
an  uncertain  aumor,  that  of  St  Jude,  the 
second  of  Peter,  the  second  and  third  of 
John,  and  the  Apocal^rpse  (q.  v.)  have 
been  doubted.  Eusebius  distin^fuishes 
three  sorts  of  books  connected  with  the 
New  Testament: — 1.  those  which  have 
always  been  unanimously  received,  nam»- 
Iv,  the  four  Gospels,  the  Acts  of  the  Apos- 
tles>  13  Epistles  of  Paul,  the  first  Epistle 
of  Peter,  and  the  first  of  John :  2.  those 
which  were  not  received,  at  fisst,  by  all 
the  churches;  of  these,  some  which  nave 
been  already  mentioned,  though  at  first 
rejected  by  some  churches,  Iwve  been 
since  Universally  received ;  odiers,  such  as 
the  Books  of  the  Shepherd,  the  Letter  of 
St  Bamabos,  the  two  Episdes  of  St 
Clement,  have  not  been  generally  acknowl- 
edged as  canonical :  3.  books  forged  by 
heretics,  to  maintain  their  doctrines ;  such 
are  the  Gospels  of  St  Thomas,  St  Peter, 
&c.  The  division  of  the  text  of  the  New 
Testament  into  chanters  and  verses  was 
introduced  earlier  than  that  of  the  Old 
Testament ;  but  it  is  not  precisely  known 
when,  or  by  whom.  (For  tlie  numerous 
translations  of  the  Bible,  in  modem  times, 
see  the  article  Bible  Societies^  and  the  annual 
reports  of  these  societies,  puticularly  of  the 
British  and  foreign  Bible  society.)  In  Bib- 
lical criticism,  the  Germans  have,  without 
doubt,  done  more  than  any  other  nation; 
and  we  should  far  exceed  our  limits,  if 
we  were  to  attempt  an  enumeration  of 
their  works  in  this  department  (See 
Wette,  Griesbach,  Gesenius^SchUiennaekerf 
Mchadisj  &c>--The  whole  Bible  was 
translated  into  Saxon  by  Bede,  in  the 
beginning  of  the  eif[hth  century.  The 
mt  Engiiah  translation,  by  an  unknown 

Digitized  by 




hand,  10  mpoeed  to  Imve  been  made 
near  the  end  of  the  ISlfa  eentunr.  Wick- 
lifielB  translation  of  the  entue  Bible  from 
the  Vulgate^  1380,  was  first  printed  1731. 
The  first  printed  eiditiaa  of  any  part  of  the 
Scriptures  in  English  was  a  translation  of 
the  New  Testament  fix>m  the  orijrinal 
Greek,  published  by  Tmdal,  1536.  The 
whole  impression  was  bought  up  and 
burnt  by  the  bishop  of  London.  The 
authorized  ▼ernoanow  in  use,  in  En^and 
and  America,  was  made  by  the  command 
of  James  I,  and  is  commonly  called  ting 
Jame»^9  bAu.  Forty-seyen  distinguished 
scholars  were  apjMinted  fat  this  purpose, 
and  djyided  into  six  classes.  Ten  at  West- 
minster were  to  trandate  to  the  end  of 
II  Kings;  eight  at  Cambridffe  were  to 
finish  the  remaining  historical  books  and 
the  Uaffiograpfaa :  at  Oxford,  seven  were 
engaged  on  the  Prophets:  the  four  Gos- 
peb,  Acts  of  the  Apostles  and  Apocalypse 
were  aasiffned'  to  another  company  of 
eiffht  at  Oxford ;  and  the  Episues  were 
alkmed  to  a  company  of  seven  at  West- 
minster: the  apociyplud  books  were  to  be 
translated  bv  a  company  at  Cambridge. 
Each  individual  translated  all  the  bodes 
allotted  to  his  class.  The  whole  class 
then  compared  all  the  translations,  and 
adopted  the  readinss  agreed  on  by  the 
majority.  The  book,  thus  finished,  was 
sent  to  each  of  the  oth^r  classes.  This 
translation  occupied  three  yeara.  Copies 
were  then  sent  to  London,  one  from  eaeh 
of  the  above-named  places.  Here  a  com- 
mittee of  six,  one  fit>m  each  class,  review** 
ed  the  whole,  which  was  last  of  all  reyised 
by  doctor  Smith  and  doctor  Bilson,  bishop 
of  Winchester.  It  was  printed  in  1611. 
The  latest  and  most  complete  revision 
was  made  by  doctor  Blayney,  Oxford, 
1769.  (For  an  account  of  the  German 
translation,  see  Luther,  and  RtfomuUion, 
As  a  general  book  of  reference,  relating  to 
the  literature  of  the  Bible,  Home's  Intro- 
duction to  the  Study  of  the  Scriptures 
may  be  consulted.  See  also  Harris's 
J^ahtral  Hutory  of  the  BiUe.) 

BibU^  Geography  of,  describes  Palestine, 
and  gives  an  account  of  the  Asiatic  coun- 
tries bordering  on  Palestine,  and  of  ^e 
provinces  of  the  Roman  empire  into  which 
Christianity  was  introduced,  during  the 
age  of  the  apostles.  The  sources  of  this 
science  are  tiie  Scriptures,  the  writings  of 
Josephua,  tlie  geocnmhical  authors  of 
antiquity, — Strabo,  Ptolemy  and  Pompo- 
nius  Mela, — and  the  Onomastiam  Urbvum 
et  Loeorum  Sertphtra  Socfte,  written  bv 
Eusebius,  bishop  of  Cnsarea,  in  the^ourth 
centuiy,  in  Greek,  and  translated  by  Je- 

itMM  into  LatfaL  Among  the  leuned 
moderns  who  have  cultivated  this  science, 
so  important  for  the  interpreter  of  the 
Holy  S6riptures,  are  Bachiene,  Well%  and 
the  Dutchman  Ysbrand  of  HamekiekL 
(See  Geogre^.) 

Bible  Socibtixs.  A  ekmrman  of 
Wales,  whom  the  want  of  a  Webh  Bible 
led  to  London,  occasioned  the  establish^* 
ment  of  the  British  and  foreign  BiUe 
society,  which  was  founded  in  London, 
Mareh  7, 1804.  It  was  caUed  die  BtUe 
society f  because  its  obiect  was  the  distri-> 
butioB  of  the  Bible ;  Britiahj  because  its 
operations  were  first  directed  towards  the 
poor  of  Great  Britain ;  and  foreign,  be^ 
cause  it  proposed,  as  far  as  its  means  would 
permit,  to  send  Blble^  in  all  languages^  to 
all  paits  of  the  worid.  The  KMes  dis^ 
tributed  by  the  society  were  to  be  without 
additions  and  explanations,  in  order  to 
sive  them  a  more  universal  cireulation. 
in  the  same  year,  the  first  general  meet- 
ing was  held  in  London,  which  unani- 
mously adopted  the  proposed  plan.  Lord 
Teignmouth  was  chosen  president,  atad 
many  bishops,  lords  and  memben  of  par- 
liament accepted  the  office  of  vice-preai« 
dent  In  lolS,  484  similar  institutions 
had  been  fonned  in  all  parts  of  Great 
Britain,  and  connected  witn  the  former  as 
a  parent  society,  to  support  it  with  pe- 
cuniary contributions,  and  to  receive,  in 
return,  a  supply  of  Bibles.  There  are, 
besides,  several  Bible  societies  among  the 
lower  class  of  people,  the  piembera  of 
which  pay,  weekly,  a  penny  or  -a,  half* 
])enny  to  provide  themselves,  their  chil- 
dren or  other  poor  persons  with  Bibles. 
In  Germany,  Switzerland,  Holland,  Rus- 
sia, Sweden,  Denmaric,  America,  similar 
Bible  societies  have  been  formed,  and  are 
connected  with  the  British.  The  94th 
annual  report  of  the  British  and  forei^ 
Bible  society  in  London,  1828,  gives  a  list 
of  edition^  of  the  whole  or  parts  of  the 
Scriptures,  printed  for  the  society,  in  the 
following  languages: — ^English,  Welsh, 
Gaelic,  Irish,  Manks,  French,  Basque, 
Breton,  Flemish,  Spanish,  Portuguese, 
Italian,  Dutch,  Danitti,  Hebrew,  Swedish, 
Crerman,  Polish,  Greek  (ancient  and  mod- 
ern), Armenian  (ancient  and  modem), 
Arabic,  Coptic,  Indo-Portuguese,  Spiac, 
Carshun,  Esquimaux,  Mohawk,  Ethio[HC, 
Malav,  Turkwh,  Hindostanee,  Greenland- 
ish,  Amharic,  Persian,  Bohemian,  Latin,  • 
Albanian.  The  same  report  gives  the 
following  summary  of  languages  and  di- 
alects, in  which  the  distribution,  printing 
or  translation  of  the  Scriptures,  in  whole 
or  in  part,  has  been  promoted  by  the  so- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


cisQr,  direcdy  or  indinetly :— Reprints, 
42  \  retrandations,  5;  lanjguages  and  di- 
alects in  whibh  die  Scriptures  had  never 
been  printed  beforiB  the  institution  of  the 
society,  58 ;  new  translations  .commenced 
or  completed,  38 ;  total,  143.    The  soci- 
ety provides  many  transliitionB  of  single 
books  of  the  Bible,  or  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment, in  numerous  languages  and  dialects 
o€  the  nations  of  Middle  and  Eastern  Asia, 
at  Calcutta  and  Madras ;  as  well  as  in  the 
languages  of  the  Levant,  North  Africa, 
&c.  (e.  g^  the  Arabic,  Tartar,  Syriac,  and 
two  dialects  of  the  Ethiopic),  at  Smyrna, 
Malta,  and  other  depots  of  the  Mediterra- 
nean ;  and  aids  all  the  Bible  societies  of 
the  continent  of  Europe.    It  has  agents 
in  almost  all  ports  of  the  inhabited  globe, 
who  travel  at  its  expense,  to  discover  the 
best  means  of  dif^sing  the  Bible,  and  to 
procure  able  translators  and  manuscripts 
of  ancient  translations  for  the  use  of  the 
society.    Pinkerton  foimd,  in  Paris,  trans- 
lations of  the  Bible  in  the  dialects  of 
Northern  Ana  and  Thibet,  with  the  char- 
acters belonging  to  them,  which  had  been 
brought  to  France,  under  Napoleon,  from 
the  archives  of  the  propaganda  at  Rome. 
The  most  difficult  transuttion  was  that 
into  the  Esquimaux  language.    Accord- 
ing to  the  24th  report  above-mentioned, 
published  in  1828,  there  were  issued  in 
England,  during  the  24th  year  from  the  es- 
tablishment of  the  society,  Bibles,  137,162 ; 
Testaments,  199406  j  purchased  and  is- 
sued for  the  society,  m  foreign  parts,  du- 
ring the  same  period.  Bibles,  212,024; 
Testaments,  818,834 :  total  issued  on  ac- 
count of  the  Bocietj,  from  its  establish- 
ment.   Bibles,   2,24iB,182;    Testaments, 
.3,42^1;   grand   total,  5,670,523.     In 
addition  to  wis,  the  society  has  granted 
about  £53,800  for  distributing,  in  various 
parts  of  the  European  continent,  French, 
German,  Swedish  and  Danish  Bibles  and 
Testaments.    The  number  of  Bible  so- 
cieties throughout  the  world,  ^ven  in  the 
same  report,  is  as  follows  : — In  Qreat 
Britain  and  Ireland,  connected  with  the 
British  and  foreign  Bible  society,  262 
auxiliaries  350  branches,  and  14Q3  asso- 
ciations ;  in  Ireland,  connected  with  the 
Hibernian  Bible  society,  70  auxiliaries,  38 
branches,  and  18  associations;  on  the 
European  continent  and  in  the  Ionian 
islands,  854  societies;  in  Ama,  13;  in 
Africa,  4 ;  in  America,  549  (there  are,  in 
fact,   631  societies  in  America,  in  the 
present  year,  1829) ;  total,  4291.— In  Ger- 
many, the  following  were  the  chief  Bible 
societies  in  1817 : — 1  at  Hanover,  where 
an  edition  of  the  Bible,  ,of  10,000  copies, 

has  been  comideted ;  1  at  Berlin ;  1  at 
Dresden,  which,  besides  a  stereotype  edi- 
tion of  the  German  Bible,  has  also  publish- 
ed an  edition,  in  the  Wendish  ton^e,  for 
Lusatia ;  1  at  Frankfort  on  the  Maine.  In 
Bavaria,  the  distribution  of  the  Bible  ha» 
been  confined  to  the  efforts  of  individuals. 
(180,000  copies  of  the  Catholic  transla- 
tions of  the  New  Testament,  by  Gossner 
and   van  Ess,  had  been  distributed'  in 
Germany  and  Switzerland,  up  to  1821. 
Many  of  these  reached  the  Austrian  prov- 
inces, which  at  present  are  closed  against 
German  Bibles.]    The  society  at  Stutt- 
gait  has  printed  an  edition  of  10,000  Bi- 
bles and  2000  Testaments,  which  have 
already  been  taken  up.    Societies  exist  at 
Hambui^,  Baden,  Weimar,  Bremen,  L&- 
beck;  at  Schleswig-Holstein,  Schwerin, 
Ratzeburg,  Eutin,  Brunswick,  &c  (each 
of  them  havinff  auxiliary  societies).   Prot- 
estant Switzenand  has  a  Bible  society  of 
its  o^ni ;   so  has  the  kingdom  of  the 
Netherlands,  which  provides  its  colonies 
wlt)i  Bibles.   In  Paris,  such  a  society  was 
instituted,  Dec.  6, 1818,  for  the  Protestants 
in  France.    The  means  of  this  society 
were  small  (in  1820,  not  more  than  58,212 
francs  had  been  received),  and  it  had 
principally  in  view   the   supplying   of 
schools,  hospitals  and  prisons;  but,  as 
Catholics  also  have  received  the  Bible,  it 
has  met  with  a  strong  opposition  from 
the  papal-jesuitical  party  in  France.    In 
Strasbun^,  an  edition  of  20,000  Bibles  was 
printed  for  Alsace.    In  Sweden,  the  chief 
society  in  Stockholm  have  distributed  a 
larffo  number  of  Bibles  and  Testaments^ 
In  P^orway  and  Denmark,  editions  have 
be6n  published  with  the  same  view,  and 
the  Danish  society  has  branches  in  Ice- 
land and  the  West  Indies.    The  Russian 
society  in  Petersburg  has  vied  with  the 
English,  and  some  years  since  had  print- 
ed the  Bible  in  31  languages  and  dialects 
spoken  in  tiie  Russian  dominions,  among 
which  is  one  in  the  modem  Ruasiany 
since  Uie  translation  of  the  church  is  in 
the  Sclavonic,  and  unintelligible  to  lay- 
men.    This  new  translation  has  been 
joyflilly  received  by  tiie  country  people^ 
and  shows  them  the  errors  and  many  su- 
perstitions which  disfigure  the  ritual  of 
the  Greek  church.    On  this  account,  it 
will  probably  give  rise  to  contests,  which 
can  hardly  be  terminated  without  a  grad- 
ual reformation  of  the  Greek  ehurch. 
Part  of  the  clergy  are  opposed  to  the 
distribution  of  the  Bible,  and  persecutions 
against  zealous  readers  of  the  saered  book 
have  already  taken  place  in  the  moro 
distant  governments.    The  Goepels  in  thd 

Digitized  by 




Cdmuc  language  and  the  Persian  New 
Testaments  are  much  aouffht  for.  A 
tituislaiion  of  the  Bible  for  the  Booriaits, 
Mongol  worahippeis  of  the  Lama,  near 
lake  Baikal,  is  preparing,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  two  young  Booriaits  of  hi^  birth, 
who  embraced  Christianity  at  Peteraburg. 
Auxiliary  societies  have  been  formed  at 
Irkutsk,  Tobolsk,  among  the  Kirghises, 
Georgians,  and  Cossaclra  of  the  Don. 
The  word  of  God  is  carried  from  Odessa 
to  the  Levant  The  bull  of  Pius  VII, 
June  28, 1816,  obtained  by  the  archbishop 
of  Gnesen,  did  not  prevent  the  Poles  from 
forming  a  sociely  m  Warsaw,  under  Uie 
protection  of  Alexander.  In  1817,  the 
distribution  of  the  Bible  by  such  societies 
was  forbidden  in  Austria,  and  those  al- 
ready existing  in  Hungary  were  sup- 
pressed. Italy,  Spain  and  Portugal  have 
had,  as  yet,  no  Bible  societies;  France 
only  one;  but  the  English  have  provided 
them  with  Bibles  in  their  own  tongues.  In 
the  U.  States  of  America,  the  great  Amer- 
ican Bible  society,  formed  in  1816^  acts  in 
concert  with  the  auxiliary  societies,  of 
which,  in  1839,  there  were  690.  The 
management  of  the  society  is  intrusted 
to  a  bKoard  of  managers ;  stereotype  plates 
have  heen  procured,  and  Bibles  are  issued 
at  a  low  pnee  for  the  auxiliaries,  and  for 
mtuitous  distribution  among  the  poor. 
During  the  first  year,  6,410  copies  of  Bi- 
Ues  and  Testaments  were  distributed. 
In  1827,  the  number  amounted  to  134,000, 
and,  durinff  the  first  8  months  of  18S&,  to 
146,000.  The  whole  number  issued  since 
the  organization  of  the  society  is  about 
700,000.  These  have  been  moedy  in  Eng- 
lish, Spanish  and  French,  fix)m  the  societv's 
plates.  The  manajgers  have  occasionally 
purchased  Bibles  in  Europe,  and  issued 
them  to  appUcants,  in  GellnaI^  Dutch, 
Welsh,  Gaelic,  Portuguese,  modem  Greek, 
and  some  o^er  European  languages. 
They  have  also  furnished  money  to  print 
translations  into  pajgan  languages,  by 
American  missionaries.  They  have  in 
operation  8  power-presses  and  20  hand- 
presses,  and  copies  are  prepared  at  the  rate 
of  300,000  a  year.  Many  of  the  auxiliary 
societies  have  undertaken  to  discover  the 
number  of  (amities  in  theur  vicinity  desti- 
tute of  the  Bible,  and  to  supply  them.  It 
is  the  object  of  the  society  to  supply  eveiy 
frunily  in  the  U.  States,  before  devoting 
much  attention  to  distribution  abroad. 
Yet  Spanish  America  and  Ceylon,  Ghreece 
and  the  Sandwich  islands,  have  been  fur- 
nished wkh  Bibles  by  the  society.  The 
eolonies  also  exert  themselves  in  this 
cause,   Hayti  has  o&red  her  assistance, 

and  even  the  Esauimanz  aheadv  read 
the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  in  theur  own 
lan^fuage.  A  similar  zeal  for  the  distri- 
bution of  the  Bible  has  been  awakened  in 
Southern  Afiica  and  in  India,  where  Bi- 
bles are  published  in  the  languages  of  the 
cotmtry :  even  the  islands  on  the  eastern 
coast  of  Asia  are  not  neglected.  In  the 
Netherlands,  there  is  a  firatemal  union  of 
diflerent  sects  for  this  purpose,  as  is  also 
the  case  in  other  countries  containing 
various  sects.  Such  associations  excite 
among  difl^rent  sects  a  feeling  of  mutual 
symptttliy,  by  a  consideration  of  their 
mutual  puticipation  in  the  most  impor- 
tant truths  of  Christianity. — Such  a  gen- 
eral diffusion  of  the. Bible  is  an  event  of 
(peat  historical  importance.  Its  transla- 
tion into  languages  which  have  been 
hitherto  destitute  of  all  Uterature,  and 
even  of  writing,  must  contribute  (preatly 
to  the  progress  of  intellectual  cultivation 
throuf^hout  the  earth,  and  must  have  an 
especial  influence  on  the  advancement 
of  general  philology.  The  Bible  societies 
may  be  consider^  as  asnsting  to  pave 
the  way  for  the  introduction  of  European 
civilization  into  all  the  less  enlightened 
regions  of  the  earth.  The  societies  ad- 
here to  the  principle  of  publishing  the 
Bible  without  notes,  starting  from  the 
Protestant  principle,  that  the  Bible,  and 
the  Bible  alone,  is  the  foundation  of 
Christian  faith.  Undoubtedly,  the  various 
sects  of  Christians,  differing  so  greatly  as 
they  do,  and  always  must,  respecting  cer- 
tain points  of  faith  and  the  interpretatioa 
of  particular  passages  of  the  Scriptures 
could  not  be  made  to  co-operate  with  zeal 
in  the  distributicm  of  the  Bible,  if  the  text 
were  accompanied  with  commentaries. 
But  now  missionaries  and  ministen  must 
supply,  by  verbal  explanation,  the  place 
ofnot^  because  it  is  clear  to  every  Dody 
diat  the  Bible  cannot  be  understood 
without  the  explanation  afforded  by 
study.  Thus  the  opinions  of  individuals^ 
orally  detivered,  are  substituted  for  the 
more  precise  and  profound  criticism  of 
united  commentators.  It  seems  to  vol 
that  the  fiiends  of  Bible  societies  and 
their  opponents  (a  part  of  the  Catholic 
clergy)  have  both  run  into  extremes ;  the 
former  by  injudiciously  distributing  the 
Scriptures,  in  some  cases^  before  people 
were  fit  to  understand  them ;  and  tne  fat^ 
ter  by  an  unqualified  prohibition  of  the 
leadmg  of  the  Bible  by  the  laity.  The 
order  of  the  pope,  that  only  certain  edi^ 
tions  and  versions  should  be  read  by  the 
Cathotics,  originated  fit)m  views  founded 
on  the  ejqpenence  of  all  ages  of  Chtia-> 

Digitized  by 




tianiQr,  that  ineQ  of  pure  intentiona  often 
611  into  dreadful  eirois  and  abeurdities 
fiom  want  of  just  direction  in  the  study 
of  the  Bible.  And  it  remains  a  fiict  no| 
to  be  disputed  by  the  most  ardent  defend- 
er of  immediate  and  supernatural  assist- 
ance to  the  reader  df  the  Bible,  that, 
beiu^  composed  of  parts  extremely  vari- 
ous m  their  character,  written  in  times 
and  countries  veiy  remote  from  us,  often 
in  meti^horical  language,  and  intimately 
connected  with  the  customs,  views,  his- 
tory and  language  of  particular  nations, 
and  even  incBviduals,  its  real  meaning  is 
not  to  be  found  without  an  extensive  study 
of  many  different  branches  of  science, 
the  results  of  which  may  be  used  to  assist 
the  less  informed  reader.  Histoiy  shows 
us,  that  the  blackest  crimes  and  the  most 
egregious  follies  have  been  defended  by 
the  mis^plication  of  the  text  of  the  Sa- 
cred Scnpturea,  It  must  be  left  to  time 
to  show  what  will  be  the  ultimata  effect 
of  Bible  societies.  Undoubtedly  it  will  be 
found,  that  some  portion  of  their  efiorts 
have  been  made  in  yain,  as  was,  indeed, 
to  be  expected ;  and,  in  many  instances, 
they  appear  to  us  to  have  been  made 
injudiciously.  The  extension  of  the 
habit  of  reading  through  so  many  parts 
of  the  world,  we  imagine,  will  be 
one  of  the  greatest  and  most  lasting 
consequences  of  the  exertions  of  these 

Biblical  Aecilsoloot  is  the  science 
which  describes  the  jpplitical  state,  man- 
ners and  customs  of^the  Jewish  nation, 
as  well  as  the  usages  of  the  early  Chris- 
tian church ;  coiise(|uent]y,  the  antiquities 
of  the  Bible.  Civil  relations,  religious 
ceremonies,  holy  places,  domestic  cus- 
toms and  utensils,  modes  of  dress,  and 
other  external  circumstances,  form  the 
subject  of  tins  science.  The  antiouities  of 
the  Bible  are  partly  Jewish,  partly  Chris- 
tian. The  sources  of  the  former  are  the 
Old  Testament,  the  works  of  Josephus 
and  Philo,  the  Talmud,  and  the  writings 
of  the  rabbins.  The  sources  of  Chris- 
tian antiquities  are  the  New  Testament 
and  the  writings  of  the  Others,  who 
lived  and  wrote  soon  after  the  age  of  the 
apostles.  Without  the  knowledge  of  the 
manners  and  customs  of  a  nation,  many 
passages  of  their  authors,  which  contain 
allusbns  to  them,  remain  unintelligible, 
and,  on  this  account,  the  knowled^  of 
the  antiquities  of  the  BiMe  is  necessary  to 
the  intmreter  of  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
Among  the  modem  authors,  who  have 
written  on  Jewidh  antiquities,  Voland, 
John  Simoniflb  £n»t  Aug.  SchulSy  George 

Lawrence  Bauer,  Wamekros  de  Wette 
and  John  Jahn  particularly  deserve  to 
be  mentioned.  We  may  find  information 
concerning  Christian  antiquities  in  the 
commentaries  on  the  New  Testament, 
and  in  the  historians  of  the  church.  Tlie 
Germans  have  particulariy  distinguished 
themselves  in  this  department. 

BiBLioGRAPHT  (from  fiifiXtnt  a  book, 
and  ypa^f  I  describe)  was  originally  a 
branch  of  archautfraphfy  or  the  art  of  de- 
scribing or  explaming  antiquities,  and  de* 
noted  skill  in  the  |>eru8ing  and  judging 
of  ancient  manuscripts ;  but  in  its  modem 
and  more  extended  sense,  it.  signifies  the 
knowledge  of  books,  in  reference  to  the 
subjects  discussed  in  them,  their  different 
degrees  of  rarity,  curiosity,  reputed  and 
real  value,  the  materials  of  which  they 
are  composed,  and  the  rank  which  they 
ought  to  hold  in  the  classification  of  a 
library.  It  is,  therefore,  divided  into  two 
branches,  the  first  of  which  has  reference 
to  the  contents  of  books,  and  may  be 
called,  for  want  of  a  better  phrase,  xidd' 
Udtwd  bibliography ;  the  second  treats  of 
theur  extemal'  character,  the  history  of 
particular  copies,  ^c,  and  may  be  termed 
makrid  bifohography.  The  object  of  the 
first  kind  is  to  acquaint  Uterary  men  with 
the  roost  valuable  books  in  every  depart- 
ment of  study,  either  by  means  of  cator 
logues  rawniUes  simply,  or  b}r  similar 
catalogues  accompanied  with  critical  re- 
marks. Bibliography  belongs  to  those 
sciences,  the  progress  of  which  is  de- 
pendent, in  a  great  desree,  on  external 
circumstances.  It  has  oeen  and  still  is 
cultivated  most  successfully  in  France. 
This  is  owinff  not  only  to  the  riches  of 
the  great  and  daily  increasing  public  li- 
braries, liberally  thrown  open  to  the  use 
of  the  public,  the  larse  number  of  fine 
private  collections,  and  the  femiliarity  of 
its  numerous  literary  men  with  books 
of  all  ages  and  countries,  but,  in  a  great 
de£pree,to  the  practical  spirit  of  the  nation 
wjSch  induces  their  bibliographers  to 
keep  constantly  in  view  the  supply  of 
existing  wants.  Brunet's  Manud  du  lA" 
hrttire  was  the  first  important  work  which 
contained,  in  an  alphabetical  form,  a  Ust 
of  the  most  valuable  and  costly  books  of 
all  literatures ;  Barbier's  DicUonntdre  des 
Oiwrages  Anonymeiy  the  first  systematic 
and  satjsfiustory  treatise  on  this  subject ; 
Renouard's  Catahgtte  tP  vn  Amateur^  the 
first,  and,  for  a  long  time,  the  best  |piide 
of  the  French  coUectors ;  the  Btbhogra- 
fMe  de  la  JVance,  the  first  woriL  which 
showed  how  the  yearly  accumulation  of 
literary  works  can  be  recorded  in  the 

Digitized  by 




moet  authentic  manner.  No  leas  valuable 
are  the  woika  of  Peignot,  Petit  Radei, 
Renouard  on  the  Aldines  (see  MHne 
EdiHon8)f  and  many  otheia.  English 
bibliography  can  boast  of  but  one  of 
die  advantages  of  the  French;  that  is,  of 
rich  public  and  private  collections ;  but  the 
use  of  them  is  allowed  only  to  a  limited 
degree,  and  die  English  bibliographers 
are  far  behind  the  French.  The  works  of 
doctor  Adam  Clarice  (Bibliographical  Dic- 
tionary, 1820)  and  of  Robert  Watt  (BiUi- 
otheca  Britanmca,  1811))  are  compilations 
of  httle  value ;  the  undiffc»sted  collections 
of  Beloe  (Anecdotes  of  Literature,  1807), 
of  Brydges  (British  Bibllompher,  1818 ; 
Cemura  LiierariOf  1805),  of  Savage  (the 
Librarian,  1808^,  and  otners,  are  destitute 
of  judicious  selection,  and  often  of  cor- 
recmess.  Ottley's  Inquiry  into  the  Origin 
and  Early  History  of  Engraving  (1816), 
and  Singer's  Researches  into  the  History 
of  Playing  Cards  (1816),  woriis  which  be- 
long to  very  important  points  of  bibliogra- 
.  phy,  are  deficient  in  correct  criticism ;  and 
if  we  are  not  dazzled  by  the  type,  the 
paper  and  the  engravings  of  Dibdin's 
productions  (Typographical  Antiquities, 
1810 ;  Bibliolkeca  l^enceriana,  1814 ;  Bib- 
Hogmphical  Decameron,  1817;  Tour  in 
France  and  Germany,  1821),  we  cannot 
be  blind  to  the  superficial  acquirements 
of  the  author.  There  is  now  publishing, 
in  E^^land,  the  Bibliographer's  Manual, 
an  imitadon  of  Bruners  Marmd  above- 
mentioned.  It  is  to  be  completed  in  12 
pan&  The  learned  Germans,  litde  assist- 
ed by  public,  almost  entirely  destitute  of 
private  collections,  consulting  only  the 
real  wants  of  the  science,  have  actively 
endeavored  to  promote  it.  Ersch  is  the 
founder  of  Gennan  bibliography.  He 
gave  it  a  trulv  scientific  character  by  his 
extensive  work,  •^^gemeuKA  Repertorium 
der  LUeraiur  (Universal  Repertory  of 
Literature,  1793— 1807)»  and  by  his  Hand- 
buck  der  DevUchen  LUaratvr  (Manual  of 
German  Literature).  German  bibliogra- 
phy is  particularly  rich  in  the  literature 
of  separate  sciences ;  and  the  bibliogmphy 
of  the  Greek  and  Latin  Literature,  as  well 
as  the  branch  which  treats  of  ancient  edi- 
tions, was  founded  by  the  Germans.  The 
first  attempt,  in  Germany,  to  prepare  a 
universal  bibliographical  work,  was  made 
l^Ebert  (q.  yX  who  wrote,  also,  in  the 
10th  number  oi  Hermes,  a  review  of  the 
whole  modem  German  bibtiography. 
The  bookseUers'  dictionary  is  a  very 
valuable  German  biblioj^phical  work. 
A  supplement  is  published  annually. 
The  «>llowing  are  valuable  German  bib- 

liographical works  in  particular  depart- 
ments of  science  and  literature : — ^T.  A. 
Noeselt's  JSmoemaut  vur  KtnntnUs  der  BeS' 
ten  AUgememen  Bucker  in  der  Theologies 
4th  ed.  L^psic^  1800,  and  the  continua- 
tion of  it  by  Simon,  Leipsic,  1813 ;  C.  F. 
Burdach's  lAteraiur  der  Heilwissemchc^ 
Gotha,  1810, 2  vols. ;  W.  Gf.  Ploucquet's 
LUeraiiura  Medica,  Tfibingen,  1808, 4  vols. 
4to. ;  T.  G.  Meuael"^  BiHwtheca  HisUnica, 
Leipsic,  1781^1802, 11  vols,  in  22  vol- 
umes, not  finished ;  fiis  LUeraiur  der 
Statistik,  Leipsic,  1816,  2  vols. ;  G.  R. 
Bohmer's  Bibliotktca  Seriptorum  lEstoria 
Max&aliSy  Leipsic,  1785—99,  7  vols.: 
Alb.  Ua^le^sBttdioihecaBotanicaf  Zurich, 
1771,  2  vols.,  4to.;  AnaUmdca^  Zurich, 
1774, 2  vols.,  4lo. ;  Chirurgica,  Bern,  1774, 
2  vo]s.,4to.,  and  Medieina  Pradiat,  Bern, 
1776  et  seq.,  4  vols.,  4to.,  &c.— Fred.  Blume 
has  lately  published  the  first  volume  of 
Iter  Italicum,  containing  an  account  of  the 
archives,  inscriptions  and  libraries  in  the 
Sardinian  and  Austrian  provinces.  Italian 
bibliography  is  no  longer  what  it  was  in 
the  times  of  Mazzuchelli,  Audiffi«di  and 
Tiraboschi.  A  great  indifference  is  al- 
most universal  in  regard  to  the  public 
libraries;  the  private  coDections  are  be- 
coming more  and  more  scarce,  and  the 
precious  oQes  of  count  Cassano  Serra 
and  Melzi,  in  Naples  and  Milan,  have 
been  lately  sold  to  England.  The  bib- 
liographical works  of  Italy  treat  prin- 
cipally^  of  the  provincial  libraries  (one  of 
the  latest  is  Moreri's  Bibltogrcfia  deUa 
Toseanoy  1805) :  Gamba*s  Sarit  de  Terti 
(1812)  is  a  very  valuable  worit.  The 
Dutch,  Spaniards  and  Portuguese  have, 
of  late  years,  done  little  for  this  science ; 
but  the  learned  Bentkowsky's  Polish 
Literature  (1814)  deserves  the  highest 
praise.  The  count  Zechenyi,  a  Hunga- 
rian, published  a  catalogue  of  all  Hun- 
garian works.  Pest,  1799—1807,  9  vols., 
8vo.,  and  1  vol,  4to.  Russia  has  pro- 
duced, in  the  department  of  bibliography, 
little  more  than  catalogues.  In  regard  to 
particular  sciences,  manv  useful  cata- 
logues exist,  commonly  called  Bildioihecce. 
Well  arranged  and  accurate  catalogues 
of  libraries,  which  are  rich  in  particular 
departmenia,  ma^  be  used  with  advan- 
tage by  the  bibhogmpher,  as  may,  also^ 
the  annual  catalogue  of  the  book-fair  at 
Leipsic.  (See  .^Au,  CataUmes  of,) — 
Directions  for  the  study  of  bmHoffraphy 
are  contained  in  Achard^s  Cours  de  Bib- 
liograpUt  (Marseilles,  1807,  3  vols.),  Th. 
Hartwell  Home's  Introduction  to  the 
Study  of  Bibliography  (London,  1814,  2 
vols.),  and  Gabr.  Peignot'e  Dictiomudn 

Digitized  by 




rmmmU  de  BiUUogk  (Ptm,  180S-4, 
3  vola) 

Material  Btbliognmhf,  often  called,  by 
way  of  eminence,  6t6/togn^/^,  considers 
books  in  regard  to  their  exterior,  their  his- 
tory, &>c^  and  has  been  princiiMlly  culti^ 
Tated  in  France  and  Enguuid.  The  differ- 
ent branches  of  material  bibliography 
(see,  also,  BtUiomama)  may  here  be  men- 
tioned : — ^the  knowledge  of  the  ancient 
editions  (incunabuUiy  or,  if  classical  au- 
thors, edUiones  principea),  some  of  the 
best  works  on  which  are,  G.  Wfg.  Pan- 
zec^s  ^maka  Thfpagraphiei  (Nuremberg, 
1793 — 1803, 11  vols.,  4ta),  cominff  down 
to  1536;  the  Anrudes  JypogmjpMcij  by 
Maittaire'  (Hague,  1719  et  seq.,  11  vols^ 
4to.),  which  not  only  contains  the  titles, 
but  investigates  the  subjects  of  works. 
More  exact  descriptions  of  particular  an- 
cient editions  are  found  in  Sema  Santan- 
der's  Didionn,  BUdiogr.  der  ISihiu  SUcle 
(Brussels,  1805,  3  vols.) ;  Fossius'  C(da^ 
io^  Codicwn^  sec  15,  Imprtssar,  BtUi- 
MeoB  MaMtbtcehianiB  (Florence,  1793, 

3  vols,  fol!),  and  others.  The  study  of 
rare  books,  on  account  of  the  vague  prin- 
ciples on  which  it  rests,  is  more  difficult 
than  is  generally  believed,  and  easily  de- 
generates into  superacid  and  capricious 
trifling.  This  has  been  more  injured 
than  promoted  by  I.  Vogt's  Cakdagus 
lAbrorvm  Rariorum  (Frankfort  and  Leip- 
sic,  1793),  and  J.  Jac.  Bauer's  Bibliothua 
IjUiror,  Rarior,  Universidis  (Nuremberg, 
1770-^1,  12  vols.)  We  may  also  men- 
tion here  the  catalogues  of  the  books  pro- 
hibited by  the  Roman  church  (Inaices 
Jjibrorum  ProhOntorum  et  Expurgatorum), 
For  the  discovery  of  the  authors  of  anon- 
ymous and  pseudonymous  works,  we  may 
use  Barbiers  Dtctiomaire  des  Oworagta 
anonumes  et  naeud^mymes  (Paris  1806 — 9, 

4  vols.),  whicn  is  valuable  for  its  accuracy 
(but  it  contains  only  French  and  Latin 
works).  We  need  not  observe,  what  an 
important  source  of  information,  in 
department  of  bibliography,  are  lite 
journals.  (See  BUdiomama^ 

BiBLiOMANCT ;  diviuation  performed  by 
inecms  of  the  Bible;  also  called  sortes 
bibUem^  or  aortes  sanctorum.  It  consisted 
in  taking  passages  at  hazard,  and  drawing 
indications  thence  concerning  things  fu- 
ture. It  was  much  used  at  the  consecra- 
tion of  bishops.  It  was  a  practice  adopted 
from  the  heathens,  who  drew  the  same 
kind  of^  prognostication  fixmi  the  worics 
of  Homer  and  VirgiL  In  465,  the  coun- 
cil of  Vannes  condemned  all  who  prac- 
tised this  art  to  be  cast  out  of  the  com- 
munion of  the  church ;  asdidthecoundJs 

VOL.  Ill'  9 

of  Agde  and  Auxerre.  But,  in  the  12th 
century,  we  find  it  employed  as  a  mode 
of  detecting  heretics.  In  the  GaUican 
church,  it  was  lon^^  practised  in  the  elec- 
tion of  bishops ;  children  being  employed^ 
on  behalf  of  each  candidate,  to  draw  slips 
of  paper  with  t^xts  on  them,  and  that 
which  was  thought  most  favorable  de- 
cided the  choice.  A  similar  mode  was 
pursued  at  the  installation  of  abbots,  and 
the  reception  of  canons ;  and  this  custom 
is  said  to  have  continued  in  ihe  cathedrals 
of  Ypres,  St.  Omer  and  Boulogne,  as  late 
as  tlie  year  1744.  In  the  Greek  church, 
we  read  of  the  prevalence  of  this  custom 
as  early  as  the  consecration  of  Athana- 
sius,  on  whose  behalf  the  presiding  pre- 
late, Caracalla,  archbishop  of  Nicomedia, 
opened  the  Gospels  at  tne  words,  ''For 
the  devil  and  his  angels."  Matt.  xxv.  41. 
The  bishop  of  Nice  first  saw  them,  and 
adroitly  turned  over  the  leaf  to  another 
yerscy  which  was  instantly  read  aloud: 
**  The  birds  of  the  air  came  and  lodged 
in  the  branches  thereof  Matt.  xiii.  32. 
But,  this  passage  appearing  irrelevant  to 
the  ceremony,  uie  firet  became  gradually 
known,  and  the  church  of  Constantinople 
was  violently  agitated  by  the  most  fiital 
divisions  during  the  patriarchate. 

Bibliomania  is  a  word  lately  formed 
from  the  Greek,  and  signifies  a  passion 
for  possesedng  curious  Moks.  Tne  true 
bibhomanist  is  determined  in  the  purchase 
of  books,  less  by  the  value  of  their  con- 
tents, than  by  certain  accidental  circum- 
stances attending  them.  To  be  valuable 
in  his  eyes,  they  must  belonff  to  particular 
classes,  be  made  of  singular  materia^ 
or  have  something  remuicable  in  their 
history.  Some  books  acquire  the  char- 
acter of  belonging  to  particular  classes, 
firom  treating  of  a  paxticular  subject  of 
interest  to  the  bibliomanist ;  others  finom 
something  peculiar  in  their  mechanical 
execution,  or  fi*om  the  circumstance  of 
having  issued  firom  a  press  of  uncommon 
eminence,  or  because  they  once  belonged 
to  the  library  of  an  eminent  man.  Some 
of  tliese  collections  are  of  much  intrinsic 
value.  Among  them  are,  various  editions 
of  the  Bible  (the  most  complete  is  at 
Stuttgart);  collections  of  editions  of 
single  classics  (e.  g.,  those  of  Horace  and 
Cicero,  in  the  city  library  at^  Leipeic); 
the  editions  in  tunim  Ddpkaii  and  evm 
notia  variorum;  the  editions  of  Italian 
classics  printed  by  the  academy  delta 
Cruaca;  woiks  printed  by  the  Ejzevirs, 
hv  Aldus,  Comino  in  Padua,  and  Bodoni 
(the  most  complete  collection  of  Bodoni's 
editions  is  in  the  librvy  of  the  duchess 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



d'Abrantes) ;  the  clashes  edited  by  Mait- 
taire,  Foulis,  Barbou,  Brindley,  and  oth- 
eiB,  and  the  celebrated  Bipont  editions ; 
with  otheiis. — It  was  more  customary  in 
former  times  than  at  present  to  make 
collections  of  books  which  have  some- 
thing remarkable  in  their  history ;  e.  g., 
books  which  have  become  very  scarce, 
and  such  as  have  been  prohibited.  Of 
the  first  sort,  the  collections  of  Engel  and 
Salthon  were  formerly  among  the  most 
considerable.  The  one  at  Dresden  is 
among  the  largest  now  existiAg.  Books 
distinguished  for  remarkable  mutilations 
have  also  been  eagerly  sought  for.  Those 
which  appeared  in  the  infancy  of  typog- 
raphy, called  ijicunabtdoy  from  the  Lat- 
in cunoBj  a  cradle,  principally  the  first 
edition^  (editiones  jnincipes)  of  tlie  an- 
cient classics,  are  still  in  general  request 
Much  of  the  value  of  a  book,  in  the  eyes  of 
a  bibliomanist,  depends  upon  the  material 
of  which  it  is  composed.  An  enormous 
price  is  frequently  given  for  splendid  proof 
impressions  of  copperplate  engravings,  and 
for  colored  impressions,  for  works  adorned 
with  miniatures  and  illuminated  initial  let- 
ters ;  Ukewise  for  such  as  are  printed  upon 
vellum.  (The  most  considerable  collec- 
tion of  vellum  copies  was  sold  at  auction, 
in  1815,  at  the  sale  of  M'Carthy's  books, 
in  Paris.  A  bibhographical  work  upon 
this  subject  is  now  preparing  by  van  Praet, 
in  Paris.)— Works  printed  upon  paper  of 
uncommon  materials  (e.  g^  (Euvres  du 
Marquis  de  VUleto,  Lond.  1786, 16mo.),  or 
various  substitutes  for  pe^er  (e.  g.,  E. 
Bruckmann's  Natural  History  of  Asl^stos, 
upon  paper  made  of  asbestos,  Bmnswick, 
1727,  4to.),  have  been  much  sousht  afler ; 
likewise  those  printed,  upon  colored  pa- 
per. In  Italy,  tlie  color  of  books  of  this 
sort  is  commonly  blue ;  in  France,  rose- 
color  ;  in  some  ancient  German  books,  the 
color  is  yellow  *,  sometimes,  though  rarely, 
green.  A  Ust  of  books  of  this  class  is  to 
be  found  in  Pei^not's  Refertqtre  des  Bib- 
licgrapldta  sptcudeSy  Pans,  1810. — Oflier 
books,  in  high  esteem  among  bibliomanists, 
are  those  which  are  printed  on  large  pa- 

i)er,  with  verv  wide  margins.  True  Wb- 
iomanists  onen  measure  the  margin  by 
inches  and  lines.  In  English  advertise- 
ments of  rare  books,  some  one  is  often 
mentioned  as  particularly  valuable  on  ac- 
count of  its  being  "  a  tall  copy."  If  the 
leaves  happen  to  be  uncut,  the  value  of  the 
copy  is  much  enhanced. — Other  works, 
highly  valued  by  bibliomanists,  are  those 
Which  are  printed  with  letters  of  gold  or 
silver,  or  ink  of  singular  color ;  e.  g.,  1. 
FatH  NiapolwMi^  Paris,  1804, 4to.,  a  copy 

on  blue  vellum  paper,  with  golden  letters  $ 
2.  Magna  Charta,  London,  Whitaker, 
1816,  foho,  three  copies  upon  purple- 
colored  vellum,  with  golden  tetters ;  also, 
books  printed  from  copperplates.  Cata- 
logues of  these  have  been  made  by  Peig- 
not  and  others. — In  France  and  England, 
the  bibliomania  often  extends  to  the  bind- 
ing. In  France,  the  bindings  of  Derom0 
and  Bozerian  are  most  valued ;  in  Eng- 
land, those  of  Charles  Lewis  and  Roger 
Payne,  several  specimens  of  whose  skill 
are  to  be  seen  in  the  library  of  lord  Spen- 
cer ;  among  others,  the  Glasgow  edition 
of  ^schylus,  1795,  the  binding  of  which 
cost  £16  7«.  sterling.  Payne  is  said  to 
have  sometimes  received  from  20  to  30 
guineas  for  binding  a  single  volume. 
Tins  species  of  luxury  is  carried  to  such 
a  height  in  London,  tliat  a  copy  of  Mack- 
lin's  Bible  (4  vols,  in  fi>Uo\,  in  red  or  blue 
morocco  leather,  costs  To  guineas,  and 
BoydelPs  large  edition  of  Shakspeare 
(9  vols,  with  large  engravings)  £132  ster- 
ling. Even  the  edges  of  books  are  often 
adorned  with  fine  paintings.  Many  de- 
vices have  been  adopted  to  give  a  fectitious 
value  to  bindings.  Jeffery,  a  London 
bookseller,  had  Fox's  History  of  King 
James  II  bound  in  fox-skin,  in  allusion  to 
the  name  of  the  author ;  and  the  Ibmous 
English  bibliomanist  Askew  even  had  a 
book  bound  in  human  skin.  In  the  li- 
brary of  tlie  castle  of  K6nig8berg  are  20 
books  bound  in  silver  (commonly  called 
the  sUver  library.)  These  are  richly 
adorned  with  large  and  beautifully  en- 
graved gold  plates,  in  the  middle  and  on 
3ie  comers.  To  the  exterior  decorations 
of  books  belongs  the  bordering  of  the 
pages  with  single  or  double  lines,  drawn 
with  the  pen  (exemplaire  regU),  common- 
ly of  red  color — a  custom  which  we  find 
adopted  in  the  early  ase  of  printing,  in  the 
works  printed  by  Stephens.  The  custom 
of  coloring  engravings  has  been  dropped; 
-except  ineases  where  the  subject  particu- 
iaily  requires  it  (for  instance,  in  works 
on  natural  history,  or  the  costumes  of 
different  nations),  because  the  colors  con- 
ceal the  delicacy  of  the  en^ving.  On 
this  account,  tl^  colored  copies  of  Durer's 
wood-cuts  are  esteemed  less  than  those 
which  are  lefl  uncolored.  The  other 
means  of  idle  competition  being  almost 
all  exhausted,  the  bibliomanists  have  late- 
ly hit  upon  the  idea  of  enriching  many 
worics  by  the  addition  of  engravmgs,  il- 
lustrative indeed  of  the  text  of  the  book, 
but  not  particularly  called  for,  and  of  pre- 
paring only  single  copies.  Thus  Long- 
man,  m  London,  ofien  an  illustrated  copy 

Digitized  by 



of  the  otherwifle  common  Biognphical 
Dictionary  of  all  the  Engravers,  by  John 
Stniu  (London,  1785--86,  2  vols.  4to.), 
which  is  increased,  in  this  way,  to  37  large 
Tols^  in  folio,  and  costs  not  less  than 
£2000  sterling.  The  library  of  Dresden 
lias  a  similar  copy  of  BuddsBUs's  Historical 
Lexicon,  of  an  earlier  date.  Among  the 
auctions,  where  the  bibliomania  raged 
with  the  greatest  fuiy,  was  that  of  the 
library  of  the  duke  of  Roxburgh  (q.  ▼. ),  in 
London,  1812.  Every  work  was  bought  at 
al  meet  incredible  prices.  The  iirst  edition 
of  Boccaccio,  published  by  Vaklarfer,  in 
1471,  was  sold  for  £2260  sterling ;  to  the 
memory  of  which  a  bibliomanio-Rox- 
hurgb  club  was  founded  in  the  following 
year,  of  which  lord  Spencer  is  president 
It  meets  yearlv  on  the  13th  of  July,  the 
anniversaiy  of  the  sale  of  Boccaccio,  in 
theSL  Alban's  tavern.  No  further  evi- 
dence is  necessary  to  show  that  biblioma- 
nia, which  flourished  first  in  Holland  (the 
seat  likewise  of  the  ttdipomcmia),  towards 
the  end  of  the  17th  century,  prevails  at 
present  in  Endand  to  a  much  greater  ex- 
tent than  in  France,  Italy  or  Germany. 
— Thomas  F.  Dibdin's  Bibliomania  or 
Book-madness  (London,  1811),  and  his 
Bibliographical  Decameron  jLondon, 
1817,  §  vols.),  contain  many  useful  direc- 
tions (or  the  assistance  of  collectors  of 
books. — ^The  modem  bibliomania  is  very 
different  from  the  spirit  which  led  to  the 
purchase  of  books,  in  the  middle  ages,  at 
prices  which  appear  to  us  enormous.  Ex- 
ternal decorations,  it  is  true,  were  then 
held  in  high  esteem ;  but  the  main  reason 
of  the  great  sums  tlien  paid  for  books 
was  tbeor.  scarcity,  and  the-  difficulty  of 
prociuring  perfect  copies  before  the  in- 
vention of  the  art  of  printing.  There  is 
sometimes  found  a  rage  for  possessing 
books,  without  reference  to  the  value  of 
tiieir  contents,  or  the  other  circumstan- 
ces which  have  been  mentioned  as  in- 
fluencing the  bibliomanisL  A  priest  in 
Saxony  is  said  to  have  murdered  three 
persons,  with  a  view  of  getting  posses- 
sion of  their  libraries.  These,  however, 
^e  did  Hot  read. 

Big^tre;  a  casde  and  village  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Paris,  ^tuated  on  a  hill, 
and  commanding  one  of  the  finest  pros- 
pects of  Paris,  of  the  course  of  the  Seine, 
and  of  the  environs.  Louis  XIII  erected 
the  castle  for  the  rendence  of  invalids. 
When  Louis  XIV  afterwards  erected  the 
great  h/Hd  royal  des  inwdidu,  B.  became 
a  great  hospital,  for  which  it  is  particidar- 
ly  adapted  by  its  healthy  situation :  water 
miy  w»8  wandog  in  its  vicinity,  to  obttihi 

which  a  well  was  dug  in  the  rock  (1733). 
B.  contains  also  a  house  of  correction 
(maison  de  force)  for  dissolute  persons, 
swindles,  thieves,  &c.  Since  the  revo- 
lution, a  prison  for  criminals  condemned 
to  the  galleys  has  been  erected  here, 
Srom  which  they  are  transferred  to  the 

Eubllc  ship-yards.  In  the  prisbn  and  the 
ouse  of  correction  are  shops  foi*  the 
grinding  of  glass,  and  for  other  kinds  of 
work,  in  which  the  prisoners  are  usefiilly 
employed.  '  In  the  hospital  of  B.,  2200 
beds  are  devoted  to  the  reception  of  aged 
patients.  No  one  is  admitted  under  the 
age  of  70  years.  They  are  attended  to 
with  the  greatest  care,  and  febricate  neat 
little  works  of  wood  and  bone,  known  in 
France  by  the  name  of  jBic^treworilu.  A 
large  hospital  for  incurable  madmen  has 
also  been  erected  since  the  revolution. 

BiDASsoA,  a  boundary  river  between 
Spain  and  France,  rises  in  the  Spanish 
territory,  becomes  a  boundary  at  Vera, 
and  is  navigable  to  Biriatou  at  high  tide. 
It  forms  the  isle  of  Pheasants,  or  the  isl- 
and of  Conference,  where  the  peace  of 
the  Pyrenees  was  concluded  (1659),  and 
fldls  into  the  bay  of  Biscay,  between 
Andaye  and  Fontarabia.  On  the  Span- 
ish side  of  the  river,  on  the  margin  of  the 
valley  through  which  it  flows,  is  an  advan** 
tageons  position,  near  St.  Mareial,  which 
commands  the  great  road  to  Bayonne, 
before  which  (Aug.  31, 1813)  8000  Span- 
iards repulsed  a  French  foroe  of  double 
that  nimiber,  who  attempted  to  fbree  this 
position  in  order  to  relieve  St  Sebastian. 
BiDDLE,  John,  a  celebrated  Socinian 
writer,  was  lK>m  in  1615,  at  Wotton- 
under-Edge,  in  Gloucestershire.  He  en- 
tered Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  in  liia 
ISHh  year.  He  graduated  as  A.  M.  in 
1641.  Being  led  to  doubt  of  the  doctrine 
of  the  Trinity,  he  drew  up  12  arguments 
on  the  subject ;  in  consequence  of  which  he 
was  committed  to  jail  by  the  parliament- 
ary committee  then  sitting  at  Gloucester, 
but  was  liberated  on  security  being  given 
for  his  appearance  when  caUed  for.  About 
six  months  afterwards,  he  was  examined 
before  a  committee  of  the  parliament,  to 
whom  he  readily  acknowledged  his  opin« 
ion  against  tlie  divinity  of  tlie  Holy  Ghost, 
I£s  Twelve  Arguments  were  now  order- 
ed to  be  burnt  by  the  common  hang- 
man. He  however  pernsted  in  his  opin- 
ion, and,  in  1648,  published  two  tracts, 
containing  his  Confessions  of  Faith 
concerning  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  The 
Testimonies  of  Ireneeus,  Justin  Martyr, 
and  several  other  eariy  writera  on  the 
same  subject.     These  publications  in»^ 

Digitized  by 




duced  the  assembly  of  dimes  to  solicit 
parliament  to  decree  tlie  punishment  of 
death  against  tliose  who  should  impuen 
the  established  opinions  respecting  the 
Trinity  and  other  doctrinal  points,  as 
well  as  to  enact  severe  penalties  for  mi- 
nor deviations.  The  parliament  indulged 
these  ministers  in  their  intolerant  request, 
which  imme^ately  exposed  Biddle,  who 
would  neither  consent  nor  recant,  to  the 
loss  of  life ;  but  difference  of  opinion  in 
the  parliament  itself,  and  the  pehaltiee  to 
which  this  sweepins  measure  rendered 
many  in  the  army  liable,  prevented  its 
execution.  He  was,  some  time  after, 
again  remanded  to  prison,  by  the  zeal  of 
president  Bradshaw,  and  remained  for 
some  years  in  confinement,  subjected  to 
the  greatest  privations.  A  general  act  of 
oblivion,  in  1651,  restored  him  to  liberty, 
when  he  immediately  disseminated  his 
opinions,  both  by  preaching  and  by  the 
publication  of  his  Twofold  Scripture 
vatechism.  A  complaint  being  made 
to  Cromwell's  parliament  against  this 
book,  he  was  confined,  in  the  ^te-house 
for  mx  months.  Cromwell  banished  him 
to  Sl  Mary's  castle,  Scilly,  where  he  as- 
signed him  an  annual  subsistence  of  a 
hundred  crowns.  Here  he  remained 
three  years,  until  the  protector  liberated 
him,  in  1658.  He  then  became  pastor  of 
an  independent  congregation,  and  contin- 
ued to  support  his  opinions,  until  fear  of 
the  Presbyterian  parliament  of  Richard 
Cromwell  induced  him  to  retire  into  the 
country.  On  the  dissolution  of  that  par- 
liament, he  preached  as  before,  until  the 
restoration,  which  obliged  him  to  confine 
his  exertions  to  private  preaching.  He 
was,  however,  in  June,  1662,  apprehend- 
ed at  one  of  the  private  assemblies,  and, 
upon  process  of  law,  foied  £100,  and 
orderea  to  lie  in  prison  until  it  was  pejd. 
He  fell  a  martyr  to  this  sentence,  by  catch- 
ing one  of  the  distempers  so  common  at 
that  time  in  jails,  and  died  in  Sept  of  this 
year,  in  the  47th  year  of  his  age,  a  mar- 
tyr to  religious  intolerance.  The  private 
character  of  this  courageous  sectarian, 
like  that  of  most  of  those  who  suffer 
from  principle,  was  moral,  benevolent 
and  exemplaiy;  and  his  learning  and 
logical  acuteness  rendered  him  very  fit 
to  gain  proselytes.  He  did  not  agree  in 
all  points  with  Socinus,  but  was  apparent- 
ly unsolicitous  to  establish  a  perfect  agree- 
ment Toulmin  styles  hun  the  father  of 
iA#  modem  Vinianane* 

BiDPAi.    (See  Pilpiy.) 

Bielefeld  ;  a  town  m  the  province  of 
Westphalia,  near  PiuaaiaQ  Mmden ;  km. 

8P  27'  E.;  lat  5P  53^  N.;  population, 
6000«  Tlie  best  German  linens  are  man- 
ufactured here,  and  exported,  in  Urge 
quantities,  to  South  America. 

Bi&vkE,  marquis  de,  maisha],  bom 
1747,  served  in  the  corps  of  the  French 
musketeers,  was  a  life-guaid  of  the  king 
of  France,  and  acquired  much  reputation 
by  his  puns  and  repartees.  After  pubhsb- 
ing  several  entertaining  works,  he  com- 
posed (1783)  Le  S^dudettTj  a  comedy  in 
verse,  for  m&  theatre,  which  has  main- 
tained its  place  on  the  stage,  although  it 
is  bad  both  in  plan  and  execution.  W  hen 
he  was  introduced  to  Louis  XV,  the  king 
wished  to  hear  a  ccderrdMmrg  (pun)  of  his. 
Dwinez-moi  tin  eujet,  sire^  said  B^-^Fcdtes^ 
en  un  surmoi, — iSKre,  k  roi  fCtttpas  tin  sujetj 
was  the  witty  answer  of  B.  In  1789,  he 
went  to  Spa  for  the  benefit  of  his  health, 
and  died  tuere.  Mea  amis,  he  said,  dying, 
je  m'm  vais  de  ee  pas  (de  Spa).  He  has 
written  several  worics;  among  others,  an 
Mmanae  des  Calembourgs.  There  is  also 
a  collection  of  his  jests  called  Bihniana, 

BioAMT,  in  the  canon  law,  means  being 
twice  married ;  in  the  common  acceptation 
of  the  word,  as  a  term  of  municipal  law, 
it  means  the  being  married  to  two  wives 
or  husbands  at  the  same  time.  Though 
the  laws  relating  to  plurality  af  wives  or 
husbands  mifht,  with  more  strict  propri- 
ety, be  treated  of  under  the  head  ofpobfg- 
amy,  they  are  more  usually  brought  under 
that  of  bigamy;  and,  in  compliance. with 
this  usafie,  they  will  be  introduced  in  this 
place.  The  laws  of  every  civilized  soci- 
ety make  some  provision  respecting  this 
subject  By  the  statute  of  4  Edward 
I,  Stat  3,  c  5,  the  marrying  of  a  second 
husband  or  wife,  the  first  being  alive,  was 
made  felony ;  and,  by  that  of  3  James  I, 
c  ll,«this  crime  was  made  punishable  b^ 
death.  But  the  same  statute  provided 
that,  where  either  party  was  absent  be- 
yond seas  for  seven  years,  whether 
known  or  not  known  to  the  other  party 
to  be  alive,  or  was  absent,  thouffh  not  be- 
yond seas,  for  the  same^  period,  and  not 
known  by  the  odier  to  be  alive,  the  other 
party  was  at  liberty  to  many  again.  The 
determination  of  bigamy  involves  the  con-* 
siderationof  what  constitutes  a  valid  mar- 
riage. If  a  person  be  married  within  the 
age  of  consent,  which,  in  England,  in  the 
case  of  the  husband,  is  14,  and  in  that  of 
the  wife  12  years,  or  was  otherwise  inca- 
pable of  making  such  a  contract ;  or  in 
case  the  roaniage  was  not  celebrated 
with  the  forms  and  ceremonies  required 
by  law;  in  these  cases, a  second  marriage 
does  not  subject  the  party  to  the  pena^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



«f  bigamy.  The  iMatute  of  James  I  has 
been  adopted  in  moat  of  the  U.  States  as 
to  the  description  of  the  crime,  but  the 
American  laws  generally  differ  from  it  as 
to  the  penalty,  naving  assigned,  hereto- 
fore, instead  of  death,  as  provided  by  the 
English  statute,  the  punishment  of  whip- 
ping, setting  on  the  gallows,  &c,  which 
latter  is  the  punishment  in  Franca ;  but 
most,  if  not  all  of  the  U.  States,  have  now 
dispensed  with  these  corporeal  inflictions, 
some  of  them  prescribing  imprisonment 
and  hard  labor  for  a  numb^  of  years, 
according  to  the  discretion  of  the  court ; 
others  leaving  it  to  the  verdict  of  the  juiy 
to  fix  the  penod  of  imprisonment 

Bio.    (QeeBad^,) 

BioNON,  Louis  Edward,  bom  1771,  at 
MeiUeraye,  department  of  Lower  Seine, 
studied  at  Paris,  in  the  colUge  Ligieux. 
He  approved  the  principles  of  the  revolu- 
tion in  1789,  but  was  proscribed  in  1793, 
because  be  opposed  all  violent  measures. 
He  therefore  joined  the  army.  In  1797, 
lie  entered  on  the  diplomatic  career.  In 
Berlin,  where  the  royal  family  of  Prussia 
l)estowed  on  him  many  marks  of  favor, 
he  was,  in  1801,  secretary  of  leffation,  and, 
in  1802  and  lQ(Xiy  char fiiPaffiares,  From 
1803  to  6,  he  was  minister  plenipotentiaiy 
at  the  court  of  Cassel,  where,  the  day  be- 
^re  the  battle  of  Jena,  he  proposed  to  the 
elector  a  treaty  of  neutrality,  which  was 
declined.  After  the  entry  of  the  French 
troops  into  Berlin,  h^  was  appointed  im- 
perial commissaiT  to  the  Prussian  states. 
He  was  afterwards  charged  with  the  gen- 
eral administration  of  the  domains  and 
finances  in  the  countries  taken  possession 
of  until  the  end  of  1808.  He  asserts,  that 
he  conducted  this  difficult  business  with 
as  much  mildness  as  possible,  and  that  he 
has  since  received  many  proofs  of  gmti« 
tude  from  the  people  among  whom  he 
acted.  In  1809,  he  was  minister  pleni- 
potentiary to  the  grand  duke  of  Baden, 
when  an  imperial  decree,  dated  Schon- 
brunn,  appointed  him  administrator-gen- 
eral in  Austria.  He  was  afterwards  in- 
trusted witli  an  important  mission  to 
Warsaw^  with  secret  instructions:  here 
he  remained  about  three  yeoxs.  At  the 
opening  of  the  campaign  m  1812,  M.  de 
F^dt  succeeded  him,  and  he  was  appoint- 
ed imperial  commissary  at  the  provisory 
government  in  Wilna.  Afler  the  retreat 
m>m  Moscow,  he  took  the  place  of  M.  de 
Pradt  in  the  embassy  at  Waraaw,  and,  in 
conjunction  with  prince  Poniatowski,  sue* 
ceeded  in  delaying  for  four  months  the 
retreat  of  the  Austrian  allied  army  under 
prince  Schwarzenberg,  afterwards  under 

general  Frimont,  until  the  scattered  Polish 
corps,  of  about  7000  men,  were  collected 
UDaer  Poniatowski  in  Cnicow.  Thisviras 
increased  to  20,000  men,  and  made  its  re-* 
treat,  in  May,  throueh  Austria  into  Saxo-, 
ay.  B.  now  repairea  to  the  French  head* 
quarters  at  Dresden,  and  remained  there, 
with  the  other  members  of  the  diplomatic 
corps,  during  the  siege,  until  the  capitula- 
tion. As  he  had  procured  passports  fix>m 
the  confederation  of  the  Rhine  for  several 
foreign  ministers,  prince  Schwarzenberg 
caused  him  to  be  escorted  by  one  of  his 
aides  to  the  French  out-poets  at  Strasburg, 
On  his  arrival  in  Paris,  Dec.  7, 1813,  he 
brought  to  the  emperor  the  first  informal 
tion  of  the  defection  of  Murat  He  soon' 
aflter  retired  into  the  country.  On  the 
restoration  of  the  Bourbons,  he  wrote  his 
Exposi  comvcaratif  de  la  Situation  de  la 
Drance  et  ceUt  des  principales  Puissances 
de  VEuroptj  in  which  he  showed  great 
penetration,  and  also  proved  himself  a 
true  Frenchman  of  the  school  of  Napole- 
on. During  the  "hundred  days,"  ^fapo- 
leon  appointed  him  under-secretary  of 
state  for  foreign  afiSiirs,  and,  in  1820,  sev- 
eral departments  chose  him  their  deputy. 
He  spoKe  against  the  law  of  exception, 
and  advocated  the  recall  of  the  exiles, 
reminding  the  ministers  of  certain  secret 
circumstances,  on  which  he  did  not  think 
proper  to  explain  himself  more  fully.  B, 
also  advocated  the  law  of  election.  In 
1820,  he  wrote  Des  ProscnpHons^  in 
which  he  paints  the  struggle  for  liberty 
against  eveiy  kind  of  tyranny.  His  latest 
writinffs  on  national  disputes  have  at- 
tracted much  notice ;  for  instance,  Coup 
d^(Eil  star  les  Dimilis  des  Cours  de  Baviire 
et  de  Bade  (1818),  and  particularly  his 
work  Du  Congrh  de  Th^au  (1821),  his 
Lettre  sur  les  Diff&ends  de  la  Maison 
d^ArOudt  avec  la  Prusse^  and  his  Les 
Cabinets  et  les  Peuples  (Paris,  1824). 

BiJA-puR,  or  ViJAYA-PDRi;  a  city  of 
Hindostan,  formerly  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince of  Beejapoor  (q.v.),called  Vixiapoar^ 
by  the  European  travellers  of  the  three 
last  centuries.  The  city  is  306  miles  N, 
Seringapatam,  384  N.  W,  Madras  ;  Ion, 
75°  47'  E. ;  hit  1G°  46'  N.  It  is  situated 
in  a  fertile  plain,  and  is  of  very  great 
extent,  consisting  of  three  towns  witliin 
each  other:  the  mnermost  is  the  citadel, 
a  mile  in  circuit ;  the  next  a  fort,  eight 
miles  in  compass ;  and  the  exterior  is  en- 
vironed with  walls  many  miles  in  circuit. 
But  a  great  proportion  of  the  space  is 
covered  with  ruins.  It  is  thinly  inhabited, 
but  the  population  is  unknown.  The  in- 
habitants affirm,  that,  according  to  au- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



tbentic  record9,  it  contained,  in  the*  time 
of  it8prosperiDr,964,456  houses,  and  1600 
moeqiies;  and  travelleis  are  of  opinion 
that  the  latter  number  is  not  esmgferated. 
It  was  taken  by  Aurangzeb  in  16B9,  when, 
it  is  said,  15,00P  cavaliy  could  encamp 
between  the  fort  and  the  ci^  wdl.  It 
was  one  of  the  wealthiest  cities  of  Asia* 
The  fort  is  protected  by  high  walls,  with 
massiye  towers,  and  is  surrounded  by  a 
ditch.  It  has  seven  gates,  and  contains 
several  cannon  of  enonnoos  dimensions, 
particularly  one  called  the  iovtreign  rf' 
ike  plains. 

Bilbao.    (See  BUboa,) 

BiLBOA,  or  Bilbao^  or  Vilvao,  a 
Spanish  province  in  Biscay.  The  capital, 
or  the  same  name,  is  a  seaport  on  the 
Ybei^baJ,  in  a  plain  surrounded  with 
high  mountains;  Ion.  3°  4^  W.;  lat,  43** 
16^  N.;  population,  15,000.  It  contains 
about  1300  houses,  part  of  which  are  built 
on  piles.  The  harbor  is  good,  and  well 
frequented.  Between  500  and  600  ves- 
sels visit  this  port  annually ;  and  the  year- 
ly export  of  wool  is  estimated  at  50  or 
60,000  sacks  of  2  cwt  each.  The  aur 
is  healthy;  the  inhabitants  are  strong, 
robust,  and  live  long.  It  is  well  supplied 
virith  water  and  provisions :  fish  are  very 
abundant ;  and  tne  environs  are  fertile  in 
legumes  and  fruits.  It  contains  5  parish- 
es and  12  religious  houses.  Among  the 
laws  peculiar  to  the  town  is  one  a^nst 
ingratitude.  Its  commerce  principally 
consists  in  wool  and  iron. 

BiLDsanTK,  William,  bom  at  Amster- 
dam, 1750,  lives  at  Leyden,  and  is  now 
considered  one  of  the  greatest  lawyers  in 
Holland— «  man  of  learning  in  the  iullest 
extent  of  die  wwd,  and,  according  to  the 
jadgmeift  of  the  Dutch  critics,  one  of  the 
greatest  poets  of  tlie  present  age.  He 
studied  the  classics  at  Leyden,  chieflY 
under  Ruhnken  and  Valkenaer.  In  1776, 
he  obtained  from  the  learned  society  of 
Leyden,  whose  judgment  was  always  re- 
spected, the  first  pn2e  for  a  poem  on  the 
influence  of  poetry  upon  govemmenL 
In  the  following  year,  he  obtained  from 
the  same  society  two  prizes  for  an  ode 
and  a  didactic  [wem,  On  True  Patriotism. 
Since  that  period,  he  has  ranked  with 
Feith  and  madame  de  Launoy,  amon^  the 
first  Dutch  poets.  The  present  a^  is  the 
epoch  of  the  modem  Dutch  s<mool  of 
poetry,  in  which,  besides  B^  Feith  and 
Launoy,  and  paitioularly  Bellannr,  Hel- 
men^  Tollens,  Loots,  van  Hall,  Kinker, 
Klyii  and  others  are  distinguished.  B. 
introduced  into  Dutch  poetry  iambics  and 
hMMameMBf  rather  to  ahow  ms  talent  for 

overcoming  difilcuhies  of  an  kinds  than 
firom  preference  to  these  measures,  which, 
on  the  contrary,  he  declared  not  admissi*' 
ble  into  Dutch  poetir.  In  1780,  he  ob- 
tained a  new  prize  tor  a  poem,  on  the 
connexion  of  poetir  and  eloquenee  with 
philosophy.  He  added  to  this  poem,  some 
time  afterwards,  an  inqiortant  commenta- 
ry, which  showed  him  to  be  a  man  of 
learning  and  a  philologer.  B.,  besides, 
devoted  himself  to  law,  at  the  Hague, 
witli  great  success.  On  the  invasion  of 
the  Netheriands  by  the  French,  he  left 
lus  country  on  account  of  his  adherence 
to  the  hereditary  sUidtholder,  and  remov- 
ed to  Brunswick,  where  he  studied  the 
Grerman  language  and  poetry,  and  after- 
wards to  London,  where  he  deUvered,  in 
the  French  language,  lectures  on  litera- 
ture and  poetry,  which  were  numerously 
attended.  After  the  ijew  order  of  things 
was  firmly  established  in  Holland,  he  re- 
turned, in  17d9,  and  soon  aflerwards  pub- 
lished some  of  his  principal  works.  Among 
these  are  a  didactic  poem  on  astronomy, 
and  the  masterly  imitations  of  Delilie's 
L'Homme  des  Chtmpa,  and  Pope's  Essay 
on  Man.  Louis  Bonaparte,  on  his  acces- 
sion to  the  throne,  appointed  him  his 
teacher  of  Dutch,  and  one  of  the  first 
members  of  the  national  institute  found- 
ed by  him.  AAer  the  incorporadon  of 
HoDand  into  the  French  empire,  B.'s 
muse  vead  silent ;  but  she  rose  the  more 
vigorously  after  the  deliverance  of  his 
country.  Perhaps  there  is  no  poem  of 
our  time  superior  in  fire,  vigor  and  enthu- 
siasm, to  HoUantPs  Vedossing^  the  joint 
composition  of  B.  and  his  wife,  who  is  a 
successful  poetess.  When  Napoleon  re- 
turned fi^)m  Elba,  B.  produced  a  number 
of  war-songs,  which  are  considered  among 
the  best  in  Dutch  poetry.  lie  publislied  his 
Mengdpoezy  (Miscellaneous  Poems,  two 
small  volumes,  Rotterdam,  1823,  second 
edition),  which  contains  some  ballads  and 
imitations  of  Osflian.  We  may  also  men- 
tion that  he  is  a  bitter  enemy  of  German 

BiLDOE.    (See  BUge,) 

Bile;  a  vellowish-green  liquid  sub- 
stance, of  a  bitter  taste.  Man  and  many 
animals  have,  on  the  inferior  8iu*face  of 
the  liver,  a  peculiar  bladder,  in  which  the 
bile,  formed  by  the  liver  from  the  blood, 
is  preserved.  It  consists  of  water  and 
several  other  substances.  The  water 
constitutes  the  greatest  part,  and  keeps 
the  other  parts  in  9  state  of  solution. 
The  remainins  ingredients  are  a  yellow, 
very  bitter,  flismle  resin,  which  contributes 
most  to  the  taste  of  the  bile ;  a  small  por- 

Digitized  by 




Ikm  of  natron;  some  ndbenl  alkaline 
salts ;  some  ozyde  of  iron ;  a  small  quan- 
ti^  of  a  yellowish  substance,  wbidi  is 
only  partly  dissolved  in  the  natron ;  «od 
a  considerable  portion  of  albumen.  The- 
sard  and  Berzelius  have  done  much  to 
determine  the  ingredients  of  the  bile.  Its 
principal  use  seems  to  be,  to  separate  the 
excrement  fiom  the  chyle,  after  both  have 
been  fi>rmed,  and  to  produce  the  evacua- 
don  of  the  excrement  ftom  the  body.  It 
is  prolNMe  that  the^  substances  would 
remain  mixed  together,  and  they  would, 
perhaps,  even  be  «utly  absorbed  together, 
were  it  not  for  the  bile,  which  seems  to 
combine  with  the  excrement,  and,  by  this 
combination,  to  fiicilitate  its  separation 
from  the  chyle,  and  thus  to  prevent  its 
absorption.  Fourcrojr. supposes  that  the 
bile,  as  soon  as  it  is  mixed  with  the  con- 
tents of  the  intesdnal  canal,  suffers  a  de- 
conposition ;  that  its  alkali  and  saline 
Ingredients  combine  with  the  chyle,  and 
render  it  more  liquid,  while  its  albumen 
and  resin  combine  with  the  excrementi- 
tious  mattery  and  gradually  render  them 
less  fluid,  from  the  late  experiments  of 
Berzelius  on  fteces,  it  cannot  be  doubted 
that  the  constituents  of  the  bile  are  to  be 
found  in  the  excrementidous  matter ;  so 
that  the  ingenious  theory  of  Fourcroy  is 
so  far  probal^  The  bile  also  stimulates 
the  intestinal  canal,  and  causes  it  to  evac- 
uate its  contents  sooner  than  it  otherwise 
would  do ;  for  when  there  is  a  deficiency 
of  bile,  the  body  is  constantly  costive. — 
Biliaiy  calculi,  or  gall-stones,  are  some- 
times found  in  the  gall-bladders  of  men 
and  animals.  They  are  more  rarely  met 
with  in  the  substance  and  body  of  the 
liver.  Those  that  are  found  in  the  human 
subject  consist,  principally,  of  that  peculiar 
subetance,  called,  by  Fourcroy,  adipoeire. 
Thev  are  of  a  white,  ffrayish-brown,  or 
black  color.     The  cafouli  found  in  the 

SJl-bladdera  of  quadrupeds  have  been  ' 
ought  to  consist  alnoost  entirely  of  ui- 
spissated  bile;  but,  though  much  less 
complicated  than  the  coirespondlng  con- 
cretions in  the  human  subject,  they  must 
contain  something  more  than  the  inspi^- 
aated  fluid,  since  they  are  insoluble,  both 
In  alcohol  and  water. 

BiLEDDLOBaiD  (Bhekbded  Dsherid,  coun- 
try of  dates) ;  a  country  in  Northern  Af- 
rica, south  of  mount  Atlas,  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Tunis,  on  the  west  by  Al- 
giers and  the  Sahara,  on  the  east  by  Tri- 
poli; supposed  to  be  about  180  miles 
square.  In  ihe  desert  are  oases  j(q.  v.), 
which  are  cultivated  and  watered  like 
At  the  foot  of  mount  Atlas^  the 

winds  which  come.At>m  these  mounl^M 
alky  the  heat  of  the  climate.  The  ehief 
products- of  the  oases  are  barley  of  an  ex- 
cellent kind,  used  by  the  caravans,  and 
dates^  which  are  no  where  else  so  excel- 
lent. Much  dew  falls  in  the  oase%  rain 
but  seldom.  All  the  prodoetiona  of  the 
tropics,  which  can  ripen  vrithout  rain, 
grow  here  in  abundance.  The  Berbers 
who  live  here,  as  likewise  the  Negroes  and 
Arabs,  carry  on  trade  by  means  of  oenr- 
vans.  A  laige proportion ofthevonng men* 
are  destroyed  oy  the  change  of  olimate  to 
which  they  are  thus  exposed,  as  also  by 
bad  nourashment  and  epidemic  fevers. 
Certain  parts  of  this  connuy,  called  Dasa, 
Tasilet  and  Segehnease,  belong  to  Mo- 
rocco ;  to  Algiers  helongs  Wai&eag,  and 
to  Tunis  Tozer.  Gademes,  WeUed-Sidi 
and  Mosselemis  ars  independent.  Little 
is  known  of  the  customs,  lawa^  ^Bc,  of 
the  inhabitants  of  B. 

BiLiN,  mineral  spring  of;  a  celebrated 
spring  near  the  tovim  ofBilin,in  Bohemia^ 
The  watOT  is  clear,  has  a  sourish  taste, 

and  mantles,  particularly  if  mixed  with 
wine  and  sugar.  The  temperature  of  the 
spring  is  59^  Fahrenheit.  The  vrater  is 
used  with  advantage  in  many  complaints. 
Bilious  Feves.  (See  Fever,) 
Btljm  of  Hxchargk  is  a  written  re- 
quest or  order  to  one  person  to  pay  a  cer- 
tain sum  of  money  to  another,  or  to  his 
order,  at  all  events ;  that  is,  without  any 
qualification  or  condition.  The  peraon 
who  makes  the  bill  is  called  the  drotoer; 
the  person  to  whom  it  is  addressed,  tlie 
drawee^  and  the  person  to  whom,  or  whose 
order,  on  the  &ce  of  the  bill,  it  is  payable, 
the  payee.  If  the  drawee  accepts  the  bill, 
he  tnereby  becomes  the  acceptor.  A  prom* 
issory  note  difiers  flnom  a  bm  of  exchange 
in  being  merely  a  promise  to  pay  money 
by  the  maker,  instead  of  being  a  request 
to  another  person  to  pay  it,  to  the  payee. 
The  expression  promissonf  note  is  not 
strictly  confined  to  lugotnoMt  notes,  or 
those  payable  "to  bearer,"  or  to  the  payee 
named 'in  it,  ''or  his  order,"  but  is  more 
frequently  used  to  denote  such  instru- 
ments ;  and  we  riiall  consider  promissory 
notes  in  this  sense  in  the  present  article, 
since  the  same  rules  and  principles  are, 
in  a  great  degree,  applicable  to  such  notes 
and  to  bills  of  exclianffe.  The  maker  of 
the  note  answers  to  me  acceptor  of  the 
bill,  since  he  is  the  party  promising  to 
pay  it ;  whereas  the  maker  or  drawer  of 
a  bill  of  exchange  does  not  directly  prom- 
ise, on  the  fSice  of  the  instrument,  to  pay 
it,  but  merelv  requests  the  drawee  to  do 
so:  this  is,  however,  conattoed  to  be  « 

Digitized  by 




vktual  promifle  that  the  dnwee,  on  the 
presentment  of  the  bill  for  acceptance, 
and  demand  of  payment  according  to  its 
tenor,  will  pay  it,  and  a  conditional  virtual 
promise,  that  he,  the  drawer,  will  pay  it, 
m  case  of  the  drawee's  ftiling  either  to 
accept  it  on  due  presentment,  or  to  pay  it 
on  due  demand*  Bank  checks  are  cff  a 
character  similar  to  promissory  negotiable 
notes,  as  to  the  rules  by  which  the  fiabili- 
tiee  and  rights  of  the  parties  to  them  are 
determined,  with  this  difference  in  their 
common  form,  that  pnmussory  notes  are 
usually  made  payable  to  the  payee  or  ^  his 
order,  whereas  checks,  as  also  bank-notes, 
are  usually  made  payable  to. the  ''bearer,'' 
and  the  right  to  demand  and  receive  pay- 
ment of  them  is  transferred  from  one  per- 
son to  another  by  mere  dehveiy,  without 
any  mdonement  or  written  order  by  the 
original  payee ;  while  the  transfer  or  as- 
signment of  a  promissoiy  note  or  bill  of 
exchange  is  made  by  the  payee  in  vniting, 
either  by  indorsement  or  otherwise.  He 
usually  merely  writes  his  name  on  the 
back,  whereby  he  becomes  the  indoraer, 
and  the  person  to  whom  it  is  thus  indors- 
ed or  assigned,  who  is  called  the  mdorae^ 
has  a  right  to  fill  up  this  blank  indorse- 
ment by  writing  over  it  an  order  to  jMiy 
the  contents  to  himself  or  to  any  other 
person ;  and  any  bona  fide  holder  of  the 
note  or  bill  has  the  same  right  to  fill  up 
the  indorsement  or  assignment  Thus  a 
note  or  bill  of  exchange,  bein^  once  in- 
dorsed in  blank,  becomes  assignable  or 
transferable,  like  a  check  payable  to 
"  bearer,"  merely  by  delivery  of  the  instru- 
ment. It  is  an  essential  qualit}'  of  a  ne- 
gotiable bill,  note  or  check,  that  it  be  a 
promise  to  pay  a  certain  sum  of  money. 
and  that  the  promise  be  absolute ;  for  if 
no  definite  amount  is  fixed,  or  it  be  a 
promise  to  deliver  goods  or  do  any  other 
act  than  pay  money,  or  if  it  be  conditional, 
it  is  not  a  bill  of  exchange,  or  negotiable 
promissory  note,  or  check.  Besides  the 
transfer  by  indorsement  above-mentioned, 
these  instruments  are  also  transferable  by 
assignment,  or  mere  delivery,  so  as  to 
give  the  holder  all  the  rights,  against  the 
maker  or  acceptor,  that  he  would  have 
had  if  he  had  himself  been  the  payee. 
Where  the  transfer  is  made  by  mere  de- 
livery, the  assignor  is  exempt 'from  all 
liability  to  tlie  holder  on  the  paper  itself; 
he  makes  no  promise  to  pay  the  money, 
but  still  he,  in  efiect,  warrants  that  it  is 
the  bill,  note  or  check,  which  it  purports 
to  be ;  for  if  it  be  a  forced  instrument,  if 
it  be  not  bwiafide  the  bill,  note  or  check 
which  it  purports  to  be,  he  will  be  liable 

to  indemni^  the  person  to  whom  be 
transferred  it  But  if  the  transfer  bft 
made  by  an  indorsement  in  writing,  vrith- 
out  any  condition  or  exception,  being  an 
absolute  order  to  pay  the  money  to  the 
indorsee  or  holder,  die  indorser  in  this 
case  becomes  in  his  turn  a  promiser;  fer 
he  thereby  virtually  promises,  that,  in  case 
the  maker  of  the  note  or  check,  or  the 
dravirer  or  acceptor  of  the  bill,  does  not 
pay  it  on  due  demand,  or  in  case  the 
drawee  does  not  accept  it,  if  it  be  a  bill, 
on  presentment  according  to  its  tenor, 
then  he,  the  indorser,  will  pay  it — ^Though 
the  ferms  of  bills  of  exchange,  promisso- 
ry notes,  checks  and  bank-notes  are,  re- 
spectively, pretty  uniform,  yet  no  precise 
form  of  words  is  necessary  to  constitute 
cither  of  these  instruments.  Any  words, 
purporting  to  be  an  absolute  promise  to 
pay  a  certain  sum  of  money,  or  an  abso- 
lute order  fer  its  payment  to  a  particular 
person  or  his  order,  or  to  the  bearer,  is 
cither  a  bill  of  exchange,  promissory  note, 
or  checks— Bills  of  exchange  are,  m  Eng- 
land, either  inland,  that  is,  payable  in  the 
kingdom,  or  foreign,  that  is,  payable  out 
of  Sie  kingdom.  A  similar  distmction  is 
made  in  the  U.  States,  where,  in  most  of 
the  states,  a  bill  payable  in  the  state  in 
which  it  is  made  is  considered  to  be  in- 
land. The  material  distinction  between 
foreign  and  inland  bills  is,  that,  on  inland 
bills,  a  protest  for  non-acceptance  or  non- 
payment is  not  usually  necessary,  and  that 
less  damages  can  be  claimed  in  conse* 
quence  of  the  dishonor  of  the  bill,  if,  in- 
deed, any  can  be  claimed.  Generally, 
in  faat,  if  not  universally,  only  the  face  of 
the  bill  Can,  m  such  case,  be  recovered  of 
the  drawer  or  indorser.  In  one  respect, 
foreign  bills  most  generally,  and  inland 
bills  and  promissory  notes  in  many  places, 
differ  in  construction  fipom  the  literal  im- 
port of  the  terms  of  the  instrument  as  to 
the  credit  or  time  of  payment,  being,  in 
fact,  payable  three  days  after  the  time 
specined;  these  tliree  days  of  additional 
credit  being  allowed  under  the  name  of 
grace :  but  this  additional  credit  is  oflen 
expressed  in  the  instrument  itself,  thus, — 
"  Pay  to  A.  B.  or  order,  in  sixty  days  and 
grace,^  which  is  equivalent  to  sixty-three 
days.  Another  mode  of  expression  for 
the  credit  to  be  allowed  on  a  bill  is  by 
the  word  tuance.  Thus  a  bill  is  drawn 
payable  at  one  or  two  usances;  and  it  is 
necessary,  in  order  to  ascertain  the  time 
of  payment,  to  know  what  period  is  meant 
by  a  usance,  and  this  will  vary  according 
to  the  place  at  which,  and  on  which,  the 
bill  is  orawn.    Thus  a  bill  dravm  in  £ng-i 

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bod*  ftt  one  usance,  on  Amsterdam,  Rot- 
tefdam,  Altona^or  any  place  in  FraDce,is 
payable  in  one  calendar  month  from  the 
date ;  on  Cadiz,  Madrid  or  Bilboa,  in  two ; 
on  Genoa,  Leghorn  or  Venice^  in  three 
months. — If,  on  presentment  of  a  bill  of 
exchange  to  the  drawee,  he  refuses  to  ac- 
cept it  according  to  its  tenor,  the  holder 
has  an  immediate  cause  of  action  against 
the  drawer  and  indoraers,  and  may,  on 
giTing  them  notiee  of  the  non-acceptance, 
forthwith  demand  the  amount  of  the  bill, 
though  it  was  on  a  long  credit,  and,  if  it 
had  been  accepted,  he  must  have  waited 
three  or  six  months  for  his  money.  This 
rule  is  perfectly  equitable,  since  the  draw- 
er and  mdorsers  impliedly  agree  that  the 
draft  shall  be  accepted  on  presentment, 
and,  on  its  not  being  so,  their  promise  is 
violated.  But  the  holder  must  give  no- 
tice to  the  drawer,  and  the  other  parties  to 
whom  he  wishes  to  resort,  of  the  non- 
acceptance  or  non-payment  of  the  bill 
In  case  of  the  dishonor  of  a  bill,  the  hold- 
er has  ^nerallv  the  right  to  recover  of 
the  parties  liable  to  him,  that  is,  the  draw- 
er and  indorsera^  not  only  the  amount 
expressed  on  the  face  of  the  bill,  together 
with  the  expenses  of  protest  and  interest, 
but  something  in  admtion,  on  account  of 
his  disappointment  in  not  having  funds  at 
the  place  on  which  the  bill  is  drawn,  as 
he  had  a  right  to  expect  The  rate  or 
amount  of  this  damage  must,  as  is  evident, 
be  very  various,  according  to  the  distance 
of  the  places,  the  credit  on  which  the  bill 
WHS  drawn  (in  case  of  protest  for  non-ac- 
ceptance), and  the  rise  or  fall  of  exchange 
on  the  same  place  afler  the  purchase  of 
the  bill.  One  rule  of  estimatmg  the  dam- 
age is  the  cost  of  reCxchaoge,  or  of  an- 
other bin  on  the  same  place,  with  the 
addition  of  one,  two,  &c.,  up  to  twenty 
per  cent  damages.  In  other  places,  no 
regard  is  had  to  refixchange,  but  the  hold- 
er recovers  a  certain  per  cent  over  the 
ftce  of  the  bill,  by  way  of  damage,  and 
this  rate  is  the  same  whether  exchange 
may  have  risen  or  fallen  from  the  time  of 
purchasing  the  bill  to  that  of  its  being 
returned  dishonored. — ^Exchange  appears 
to  have  been  known  anciently  at  Tyre, 
Carthage,  Athens,  Corinth,  Syracuse  and 
Alexandxia.  The  first  well-ascertained 
traces  of  it,  in  modem  times,  are  found, 
subsequently  to  the  12th  century,  in  some 
of  the  provinces  of  France,  particularly  at 
the  &ir  of  Champagne.  It  was  brought 
to  perfection  m  Italy.  Its  ^reat  utifity 
an^  convenience  connst  in  its  negotia- 
faihty.  Suppose,  fi>r  instance,  a  number 
of  penKina  to  hKve^  aererally,  sums  of 

money  deposited  in  various  countriesL 
One,  whose  fiinds  are  in  South  America, 
wishes  to  make  purchases  at  St  Peters- 
burg ;  and  one,  who  is  entitled  to  the  pro- 
ceeds of  a  cargo  at  St  Petersburg,  wishes 
to  make  a  purchase  at  Canton ;  and  an- 
other, having  funds  at  Canton,  desires  to 
make  an  importation  from  South  Amer- 
ica. By  merely  making  and  deUvering  a 
slip  of  paper,  each  one  will,  in  efiSct, 
transfer  his  funds  quite  across  the  globe. 
Another  advantage  of  exchanse  is  the  fa^r 
cility  it  afibrds  in  a^justinflf  balances.  Its 
effect  in  this  respect  may  be  illustrated  by 
the  practice  of  banks  and  bankers  in  some 
particular  cities.  In  London,  for  instance, 
the  bankers  meet  at  a  certain  hour  everv 
day,  to  pay  and  receive  payment  of  each 
others'  cheoks ;  but  the  amount  actually 
paid  will  bear  a  very  smaU  proportion  to 
the  whole  amount  of  the  checks,  sinee 
the  greater  part  is  settled  by  merely  can- 
celling the  checks  Iftiev  hold  against  each 
other.  So  where  tJl  tne' batiks  of  a  city, 
as  is  the  practice  in  many  commercial 
towns,  take  indiscriminately  each  other's 
notes,  and  settle  the  balances  every  day, 
thev  all  make  an  exchange  of  the  notes 
which  they  hold  against  each  other,  and 
only  pay  over  in  specie  the  balances. 
Thus^  by  the  paymem  in  specie  of  a  com- 
parativeiy  Veiy  small  sum,  some  hundreds 
of  thousands  may  circuhite  between  these 
institutions  and  their  respective  customers 
and  depositors.  In  the  seme  manner  the 
balances  are  adjusted  between  two  com- 
mercial countries,  or  all  the  commercial 
countries  of  the  world.  Among  the  rm* 
ous  merchants  of  the  United  states,  for 
instance,  some  have  sent  goods  to  Eng- 
land, others  to,Fiance,  and  others  to  H(3- 
land,  and  each  one.  may  wish  to  import 
goods  from  a  countiy  other  than  that 
wh^re  his  funds  lie.  One,  according^ 
ly,  sells  exchange  on  Amsterdam,  and 
buys  exchange  on  London,  or,  which  is 
the  same  thmg  in  effect,  as  far  as  he  is 
concerned,  he  orders  his  coirespondent  at 
Amsterdam  to  buy  excbanffe  on  London, 
and  remit  it  thither  for  nis  (the  mer- 
chant's) account  If  the  funds  which 
some    merchants  have  in  each  foreign 

Elace  are  exactly  equal  to  what  is  wanted 
y  others  in  the  same  place,  th^  whole 
transaction  is  onlv  a  transfer  among  them- 
selves of  each  other's  claims,  or  exchange, 
and  no  balance  remains ;  whereas,  wim- 
out  this  fiioility,  one  must  order  speeie 
home  from  Amsterdam,  whieh  the  other 
would  purchase  of  him  to  ship  it  to  Lon« 
don  ;  a  transaction  involving  much  delay, 
besides  the  expense  of  irel^t  and  insuc* 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



ance.  But  sdH^  all  the  merchants  of  the 
country  may  wish  to  invest  or  pay  greater 
sums  abroad  than  the  proceeds  of  all  the 
exports  aheady  made  or  making  from  the 
country  amount  to,  in  which  case  the 
course  of  exchan^  is  said  to  be  against 
the  country,  and,  in  this  case,  as  m  all 
others  where  the  quantity  of  an  article 
wanted  is  greater  than  that  offered  in  the 
market,  the  price  will  rise,  and  foreign 
exchange  will  be  above  par.  So,  if  the 
quantitv  of  exchange  demanded  on  any 
particular  country  is  greater  than  that  of- 
fered, the  rate  of  exchange,  in  respect  to 
that  particular  country,  isunfavor^Ie,  and 
rises.  This  has  most  generally  been  the 
case  in  the  U.  States,  in  respect  to  Eng- 
land. So,  vice  vtrsoy  if  the  funds  belong- 
ing to  Americans,  in  any  particular  for- 
eign country,  are  greater  than  the  sum 
wanted  by  other  Americans  to  make  pay- 
ments or  investments  there,  the  rate  of 
exchange  vrith  that  particular  country  is 
£ivorabTe,  and  the  pnce  of  it  falls.  And 
it  is  to  be  observed,  that  what  is  called  a 
faoorabU  rate  of  exchange  is,  in  fact, 
unfavorable  to  the  person  bavins  funds 
abroad,  who  wishes  to  realize  them  at 
home ;  for  he  must,  in  that  case,  sell,  at 
home,  his  foreign  exchange,  for  a  smaJler 
sum  than  its  nominal  amount  It  is  to  be 
borne  in  mind,  therefore,  that  an  unfavor- 
able rate  of  exchange  is  not  necessarily 
disadvantageous  to  a  countiy.  To  follow 
out  the  inquiry,  and  determine  in  what  cir- 
cumstances it  is  actually  disadvantageous 
or  indifferent,  or  in  ract  advantageous, 
w^ould  occupy  more  space  than  we  can 
give  to  the  subject  But  we  perceive 
Rom  this  operation  of  the  system  of  ex- 
change, that  it  is  onl^  neces^uy,  at  most, 
to  shif)  abroad,  or  import  nt>m  abroad, 
in  specie,  the  actual  batEince  on  the  whole 
aggregate  of  debts  and  credits,  all  the 
items  of  which,  as  far  as  they  o^t  each 
other,  are  adjusted  by  exchange ;  and  it 
is  by  no  means  always  the  case  that  this 
aggregate  balance  is  paid  in  specie ;  for 
the  very  circumstance  of  the  rise  of  ex- 
change on  any  particular  country  may 
make  the  trade  more  favorable,  and  in- 
duce shipments,  the  proceeds  of  which 
are  drawn  for  as  soon  as  the  shipments 
are  made ;  so  that,  in  such  a  case,  the  un> 
favorable  balance  may  be  actually  advan- 
tageous, by  promoting  trade. 

BiiiL  OF  Ladino;  a  memorandum  si^- 
ed  by  masters  of  slups,  acknowledging 
the  receipt  of  goods  intrusted  to  them 
for  transportation.  There  are  usually  tri- 
plicate copies,  one  for  the  party  send- 
ing^ another  for  the  party  to  whom  the 

goods  are  sent,  and  the  third  for  the  cap* 

Bill  of  Rights,  or  Declaration  of 
Rights,  is  the  assertion  by  a  people,  or 
recognition  by  its  rulers,  "of  that  residu- 
um of  natural  liberty,  which  is  not  re- 
quired by  the  laws  of*^  society  to  be  sacri- 
ficed to  public  convenience ;  or  else  those 
civil  privileges,  which  society  has  engaged 
to  provide,  m  lieu  of  those  natural  lii^r- 
ties  so  given  up  by  individuals.'*  The 
houses  of  lords  and  commons  delivered  to 
the  prince  of  Orange  a  list  of  such  rights 
and  privileges,  February  13, 1688,  at  the 
time  of  his  succession  to  the  British 
throne,  concluding  with  the  words  "  and 
they  do  claim,  demand,  and  insist  upon, 
all  and  mngular  the  premises,  as  their  un- 
doubted rights  and  privileges."  The  dec- 
laration is  usually  called  thehtUof  rights, 
A  omilar  declaration  was  made  in  the 
aci  of  setdemeni,  whereby  the  crown  was 
limited  to  the  house  of  Hanover.  Similar 
bUls  of  rights  are  prefixed  to  some  of  the 
state  constimtions  in  the  United  States. 
But  the  constitutions  of  all  the  states,  as 
well  as  that  of  the  United  States,  virtually 
include  in  themselves  declarations  of 
rights,  since  they  expressly  limit  the 
powers  of  the  government  The  same  is 
true  of  the  constitutional  charters  of  those 
European  governments  which  have  adopt- 
ed constitutions,  one  of  the  objects  of 
these  being  to  guaranty  certain  rights  and 
hberties  to  the  people. 

Bill  in  EquiTT,  or  Crancekt,  is  the 
statement  of  the  plaintiff's  case  in  a  court 
of  equity,  or  chancery,  corresponding  to 
the  declaration  in  a  court  of  law,  and  the 
libel  in  an  ecclesiastical  court 

Billiards;  a  very  interesting  game^ 
contributing  also  to  health  by  affording 
the  body  moderate  exercise.  It  was  in- 
vented in  France,  and  is  now  played  by 
all  European  nations  and  their  descend- 
ants. Tne  rules  for  the  different  games 
of  biUiards  are  too  numerous  to  be  given 
here.  They  are  also  generally  found  in 
billiard  rooms.  We  therefore  omit  them, 
although  we  usually  give  the  rules  of 
games,  in  order  to  furnish  a  means  of 
reference  in  doubtful  cases.  They  are 
to  be  found  in  Hoyle's  Games. 

BiLLiNOTON,  Elizabeth ;  the  most  cele- 
brated English  female  singer  of  her  day. 
She  was  of  German  origin,  but  bom  in 
England,  in  1770,  her  father,  Mr.  Weich- 
sell,  being  a  native  of  Saxony.  At  an 
early  age,  she  studied  the  piano-forte  mi^ 
der  Schrofiter,  and  attained  to  an  extraov^ 
dinanr  proficiency.  At  14,  she  made^ 
her  first  appearance  .as  a  singer  at  Ox-» 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



fbfd,uid  two  yean  afterwanis  married 
Ma  BillingtoD,  a  perfonner  on  the  double- 
baas,  whom  she  accompanied  to  Dublin. 
She  made  her  ddnd  there  in  the  opera  of 
Orpheus  and  Euridice.  From  Ireland 
she  returned  to  London,  where  she  ap- 
peared at  Coyent-garden,  for  the'  first 
time,  as  Rosetta,  in  Ame's  Love  in  a 
Village,  with  such  success  as  to  secure 
her  an  immediate  engagement  at  what 
was  then  considered  the  enormous  salaxy 
of  £1000,  for  the  remainder  of  the  season, 
besides  a  benefit;  the  managers  after- 
wards voluntarily  giving  her  the  profits 
of  a  second  niffht  While  in  town,  she 
continued  to  tuLB  lessons  of  Mortellori,  a 
celebrated  Italian  master,  then  in  London, 
and,  on  the  clonng  of  the  theatre,  repaired 
to  Pans,  in  order  to  profit  by  the  instruc- 
tions of  SacchinL  In  1785,  she  returned 
to  England,  and  appeared  at  the  concerts 
of  ancient  music  with  madame  Mara, 
whose  brilliant  performance  she,  to  say 
(he  least,  fully  equalled.  From  this  pe- 
riod till  1793,  no  music  meeting,  opera,  or 
concert,  of  reputation,  was  considered 
complete  without  her.  In  the  last  named 
year,  she  visited  Italy,  and  performed,  ac- 
companied by  her  brother  C.  Weichsell, 
at  the  theatre  of  St  Carlos  at  Naples ; 
Francis  Bianchi  composing  eitpressly  for 
her  his  celebrated  opera  mez  de  Castro, 
Her  engagement  here  met  with  an  abrupt 
and  melancholy  interruption,  her  husband 
dying  suddenly  of  apoplexy,  just  as  she 
was  preparing  to  set  out  for  the  theatre. 
In  1796,  she  appeared  at  Venice,  and  after- 
wards at  Rome,  being  every  where  re- 
ceived with  the  loudest  expressions  of* 
applause.    In  1799,  she  mamed  Mr.  Feli- 

rt,  whom  she  accompanied  to  Milan. 
1801,  her  wonderful  powers  being 
then  in  then:  meridian,  she  returned  to 
the  London  stage,  appearing  alternately  at 
either  house,  and  astonishmg  the  whole 
musical  world  by  her  Mandane--«  per- 
formance that  has  never  since  been 
equalled  in  English  opera.  Engagements 
now  multiplied  upon  her,  and  continued 
incessantlv  till  her  final  retirement  from 
public  Uf€,  which  took  place  in  1809. 
The  last  exhibition  of  her  powers  was  in 
aid  of  a  charitable  institution,  at  Whitehall 
chapel,  the  aueen,  the  prince  regent,  and 
most  of  the  branches  of  the  royd  fiimily, 
being  present  In  1817,  she  quitted  Eng- 
land for  ever,  and  died,  aAer  a  short  illnesa, 
at  her  villa  of  St  Aitien,  an  estate  she 
had  purchased  in  the  Venetian  terri- 

'BiN^Eif;  a  town  on  the  left  shore  of 
the  Khine,  where  the  Nahe  joms  this  river, 

opposite  RiJ^esheim,  fkmous  for  its  excel- 
lent wine.  Lon.  7°  48^  E. ;  lat  ^  5^  N. 
Population,  3300.  Near  it  the  Rhine  is 
compfessed  into  a  narrow  channel,  be- 
tween rocks,  so  as  to  make  the  navi^on 
difficult  This  strait  is  called  Bxngen- 
loch  (hole  of  Bingen).  The  fiimous  M&u- 
sethurm,  or  Tower  of  Mice,  where  the 
avaricious  bishop  Hatto  is  said  to  have 
been  eaten  by  nuce,  as  a  punishment  for 
usiuy,  exercised  in  a  time  of  fiunine,  is 
situated  in  the  vicinity. 

BiNOLET.    This  Garrick  of  the  Dutch 
stage  was  bom  at  Rotterdam,  in  1755,  of 
English  parents  in  good  circumstances. 
On  leaving  school,  he  was  placed  in  a 
counting-house.    It  was  not  long,  how- 
ever, before  he  discovered  an  invincible 
inclination  for  the  stage,  and,  at  the  age 
of  18,  joined  the  company  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  celebrated  Corver,  who 
was  his  first  instructer.    In  1779,  in  the 
24th  year  of  his  age,  he  made  his  (Ubut 
on  the  stage  of  Ainsterdam.    The  pubUc 
odium  was  then  excited  agauist  England, 
on  account  of  its  ships  having  captiu«d 
vessels  under  the  Dutch  flag,  without  any 
previous  declaration  of  war,  and  B.  was 
unfavorably  received  on  account  of  his 
English  descent   But  he  soon  conquered 
this  prejudice  by  his   performance   of 
Achilles,  in  the  tragedy  or  the  same  name ; 
and  firom  that  time  he  continued  to  be 
the  favorite  of  the  public.    He  was,  also, 
so  well  acquainted  with  the  French  lan- 
guage, as  to  appear  successfully  in  the 
French  theatres  of  Amsterdam  and  the 
Hague,  by  the  side  of  the  great  French 
actors,  who,  while  on  their  tours  for  tiie 
sake  of  improving  themselves,  used  to 
visit  the  Netherlands.    In  1796,  he  was 
director  of  a  company  of  actors,  who 
played  principally  at  Rotterdam  and  the 
Hague,  but,  also,  visited  other  cities  of 
HoUand.     Meanwhile,    he   was  always 
ready  to  perform  at  the  theatre  in  Am- 
sterdam, in  such  parts  as  could  only  be 
acted  by  himself.    One  of  his  last  repre- 
sentations, in  which  he  was  asrasted  by 
the  great  actress  Wattier  Ziesenis,  was 
the  part  of  Famese,  in  Lalain's  tragedy 
Maria,  acted,  in  1818,  before  the  royal 
family.    In  the  same  year,  he  died  at  the 

Binnacle,  or  Bittacle  ;  a  case  or  box, 
which  contains  the  compass  for  steering 
a  ship,  and  lights  to  show  the  compass 
at  night  In  ships  steered  by  a  wheel,  it 
is  common  to  have  two  binnacles,  or  a 
double  binnacle,  for  die  convenience  of 
the  steersman,  on  either  side  of  the 
wheel ;  but,  in  this  case,  the  compaeses  af- 

Digitized  by 




hu  eaeh  othen'  directioii,  and  thus  ren- 
der the  ship^  coinw  onoertain. 

Bill ojtfiAt,  in  algeknm ;  a  quantity  con- 
sisting of  two  terms,  or  membera,  con- 
nected by  the  sign  -|-or-^.  Binomial 
coefficients  are  the  numbers  that  indicate 
how  often  a  given  power  of  a  binomial, 
for  instance,  cS'a  4- 1)  contains  each  of  the 
products  of  its  parts. — ^The  binomial  the- 
orem is  that  celebrated  formula,  which 
teaches  to  find  any  power  of  a  given  bi- 
nomial a-\-b,by  means  of  the  two  terms 
a  and  6,  and  of  the  exponent  of  the  power. 
This  theorem,  frequent]^  called  the  JSTeuh 
fottum  theoremj  on  which  the  system  of 
analysis  is  principally  founded,  was 
known,  as  &r  as  relates  to  integral  |>08i- 
tive  exponents,  to  several  mathematicians 
before  Newton.  But  Newton  was  the 
first  who  tauj^t  its  application  to  frac- 
tional and  negative  exponents ;  and  this 
discovery,  one  of  the  most  important  of 
those  made  by  that  great  man,  is  en- 
graved upon  his  tomb-stone. 

BiOEiursTjkEHL,  James  Jonas,  a  dis- 
tinguished traveller,  bom  at  Rotarfoo,  in 
the  Swedish  province  of  Siidermannland, 
in  1731,  studied  at  Upsal,  afterwards  en- 
tered the  familv  of  baron  Rudbeck,  as 
tutor,  and  travelled  with  his  son  to  Eng- 
land and  the  continent  of  Europe.  WhUe 
residing  in  Paris,  he  studied  the  Oriental 
languages.  On  the  return  of  his  pupil  to 
Sweden,  B.  was  appointed,  by  Gustavus 
III,  to  make  the  tour  of  Greece,  Syria 
and  Egypt,  receiving,  at  the  same  time, 
the  title  of  professor  at  the  university  of 
Lund.  He  now  went,  at  the  king's  ex- 
pend, to  Constantinople,  in  1776,  where 
he  remained  for  some  time,  to  learn  the 
Turkish  language.  He  then  proceeded  on 
his  travels  as  rar  as  Saloniki,  where  he 
died  of  the  pla^e,  1779.  B.  had  given 
an  account  of  his  travels,  in  the  form  of 
letters  to  his  friend  Gioerwell,  who,  at 
firat,  published  them  separetelv  in  a  jour- 
nal, which  appeared  in  Stockholm,  hut 
afterwards  by  themselves  (1783).  This 
work  contains  learned  and  profound  re- 
searches on  medals,  manuscripts,  rare 
books;  and  a  great  many  anecdotes,  of 
which  the  most  interesting  are  those  re- 
ladng  to  Voltaire,  whom  B.  had  visited  at 
Femey.  His  remarks  and  opinions  on 
morals,  manners,  relicion  and  literature 
are  often  destitute  of^ truth  and  justice. 
He  was  possessed  of  more  learning  than 
taste,  of  more  memory  than  discernment 
and  judgment  His  health,  naturally 
strong,  and  fortified  by  exercise,  enabled 
him  to  support  constant  labor,  and  to  en- 
dure the  greatest  hardships. 

BioLoer  and  BtoiimT.    (See  L^eA 

BioK ;  bom  in  Smyrna,  or  in  its  neign- 
borhood;  a  Grecian  pastoral  poet,  of 
whose  life  no  account  is  to  be  Tound.  The 
eleg^,  which  Moschus,  his  friend  and 
disciple,  composed  on  the  occasion  of  his 
death,  seems  to  imply,  that  he  was  a  con- 
temporary of  Theocritus,  and  died  of 
poison.  He  proliably  lived  in  Sicily  or 
Magna  Grecia.  Among  the  fow  poems 
written-  by  him,  which  have  descended  to 
our  times,  his  elegy  on  Adonis  is  con- 
sidered as  the  l>est  The  poems  of  B., 
together  with  those  of  Moschus,  are  gen- 
erally found  as  an  appendix  to  the  idyls 
ofTheocritus.  They  have  been  published 
separately  by  Fr.  Jacobs,  Gotba,  1795; 
Gilbert.  Wakefield,  London,  1795;  and 
J.  C.  F.  Maass,  Leipsic,  1807. 

BioT,  Jean  Baptiste,  a  natural  philoso- 
pher and  astronomer,  member  of  many 
French,  as  well  as  foreign  literary  socie- 
tieS)  and  of  the  leirion  of  honor,  horn  at 
Paris,  in  1774,  studied  in  the  college  of 
Louis-le-jGfrand,  then  ioined  the  amiy« 
and  served  in  the  artillery.  His  love  of 
the  sciences  soon  led  him  back  to  Paris, 
where  he  continued  his  studies  in  the 
polytechnic  school,  tiH  he  felt  himself  fit 
for  a  professorship  at  Beauvais.  In  1800, 
he  was  made  professor  of  phvsics  in  the 
colUge  dt  Ihmce,  In  18(»,  he  was  ap- 
pointed a  member  of  the  first  class  of  the 
mstitute.  In  1804,  he  prevailed  on  the 
institute  not  to  vote  in  favor  of  Bona- 
parte's elevation  to  the  throne.  In  1806, 
ne  was  sent  with  Arago  to  Spain,  to  con- 
tinue the  measurement  of  an  arc  of  the 
'  meridian,  undertaken  to  establish  the  ba- 
sis for  the  introduction  of  a  new  decimal 
system  (q.  v.)  in  France.  Before  he  de- 
parted, he  was  appointed  a  member  of 
the  board  of  longitude.  His  mission  was 
successful.  He  now  devoted  himself 
with  unremitted  zeal  to  his  studies  and 
lectures.  In  1816,  he  was  chosen  editor 
of  the  department  of  mathematical  sci- 
ence for  the  Jotinud  des  Sav€ms,  His 
principal  works  are,  Th-aiUdt  Phvaiqut 
exphimehtale  et  maUUmaHque  (1816);  the 
abridgment  of  the  same,  in  a  popular 
style ;  Precis  iUmentaire  de  Phystque  tx- 
pirimentalef  and  JVaiU  Hhnentaire  d^An- 
tronomie  physique.  In  1817,  he  visited 
the  Orkney  islands,  to  correct  some  dis- 
puted astronomical  observations,  for  the 
nieasurement  of  a  degree.  B.  still  com- 
municates important  articles  to  the  litera- 
ry journals,  &c. 

Birch  (hehda  alba)  is  a  forest-tree,  ean- 
ly  known  by  the  smooth  appearance  and 
nlvery  color  of  its  baric ;  by  its  leaves  be- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



iftg  flomewfaat  triangular,  but  acute,  and 
small  in  comparison  with  those  of  other 
timber-trees,  and  by  all  the  small  branches 
being  slender  and  flexible. — Although  the 
Ikrch  is  considered  by  no  means  a  valua- 
ble timber-tree,  yet  its  wood  is  used  for 
numerous  purposes.  Being  of  white 
color,  and  firm  and  tough  in  texture,  it  is 
variously  employed  by  hoop-benders  and 
wheel- Wrights.  Turners  use  it  fop  trench- 
ers, bowls,  ladles,  and  other  wooden 
ware.  Ox-yokes,  small  screwd,  women's 
shoe-beela,  pattens,  and,  in  France,  wooden 
8hoes,arenubdeofit  The  North  American 
Indians  use  the  bark  of  the  birch-tree  for 
canoes,  boxes,  buckets,  baskets,  kettles,  and 
dishes,  curiously  jomuig  it  together  with 
threads  made  of  roots  of  the  -cedar-tree. 
Birch-trees  are  not  unfrequently  planted 
along  with  hazels,  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
eurinff  wood  to  be  converted  into  char- 
coal &r  forges.  This  charcoal  is  much 
esteemed ;  and  the  soot,  which  is  formed 
on  burning  the  wood,  constitutes  a  good 
black  sub^ance  for  printers'  mk.  Nearly 
all  the  other  parts  are  applicable  to  use- 
fid  purposes.  The  inhabitants  of  Sweden 
employ  the  bark  in  the  tabnmg  of  leather, 
and,  aner  burning  it  to  a  certain  degree, 
use  it  as  a  cement  for  broken  china  and 
earthen  ware.  The  navigators  of  the 
river  Volga  construct  of  it  portable  boats, 
cradles,  &c  It  is  serviceable  in  dyeinff 
a  yellow  color.  In  Norway,  it  is  drieo, 
ground,  mixed  with  meal,  and  boiled, 
with  other  food,  for  swine.  The  houses 
or  huts,  in  many  parts  of  the  north  of 
Europe,  are  covered  with  the  outward 
€md  tnicker  part  of  the  bark,  instead  of 
slates  or  tiles.  It  is  spun  into  a  coarse 
kind  of  ropes,  woven  into  shoes  and  hats, 
and,  in  Kamtschatka,  even  made  into 
drinking-cups.  The  Laplanders  fasten 
toj^ther  large  pieces  of  it  to  keep  off  the 
nun.  Abounding  in  resinous  matter, 
sUces  of  the  bark  are  sometimes  tied  to- 
gether, to  make  torches.  Diuing  a  scar- 
city of  com,  it  has,  in  several  instances, 
been  sround  with  bread  com,  and  suc- 
cessftulv  used  as  food  for  men.  In  most 
parts  of  England  and  America,  the  twigs 
of  this  tree  are  made  into  brooms.  They 
are  also  made  into  die  tops  of  fishing- 
rods  ;  and,  when  smeared  with  bu^-lime, 
are  used  by  bird-catchers.    The  Norwe- 

rs  fi«qnently  employ  them  as  fodder 
their  horses.    The  leaves  affi>rd  a 
yellow  djre. 

Birch,  Thomas ;  an  industrious  histo- 
rian and  biographer  of  the  18th  century. 
He  was  bora  in  London,  in  1705 ;  and 
his  fither,  who  was  a  Quaker,  pFScdsed 

VOL.  II.  10 

the  occupation  of  a  cofTee-mill  maker,  to 
which  the  son,  also,  was  destinecL  His 
early  taste  for  reading  induced  him  to 
prefer  a  hterary  life,  which  he  was  per- 
mitted to  choose,  on  condition  of  sup- 
porting himself  by  his  own  exertions. 
He,  accordingly,  after  some  previous  tu- 
ition, became  usher* in  three  different 
schools,  and  then  went  to  Ireland  with 
dean  Smedley.  Having  left  the  Quakers, 
he  took  orders  in  the  church,  in  1730, 
and  obtained,  m  1732,  a  living  in  Essex, 
through  the  patronage  of  the  attomey- 

feneral,  afterwards  lord  Hardwicke.  In 
734,  he  engaged,  with  some  coadjutors, 
in  writing  the  General  Historical  and 
Critical  Dictionary,  founded  on  that  of 
Bavle,  and  completed,  in  10  vols,  folio,  in 
1741.  He  subsequently  obtained  various 
preferments  in  the  church.  In  January, 
1765,  he  was  killed  by  a  fall  fix>m  his 
horse,  in  the  road  between  London  and 
Hampstead.  B.  had  formed  very  ex- 
tensive manuscript  collections,  which, 
together  with  his  hbrary  of  piinted  books, 
he  bequeathed  to  the  British  museum. 
He  produced  a  large  number  of  historical 
and  biographical  works  in  the  course  of 
his  laborious  life.  B.  was  one  of  the 
pioneers  of  literature.  He  collected  fiil- 
ly  and  fidthfiilly,  but  without  much 
discrimination,  materials  relating  to  the 
various  subjects  of  his  research,  wnich  are 
calculated  to  afford  important  assistance 
to  writers  possessed  or  more  taste  and 
judgment.  Doctor  Johnson  was  repeat- 
edly obliged  to  B.  for  literary  informa- 
tion :  he  bestowed  on  him  a  Greek  epi- 
gram, and  for  many  years  corresponded 
with  him.  The  literature  of  his  country 
is  much  indebted  to  the  activity  and  dili- 
gence of  B. 

Bird,  Edward  (R.  A.) ;  an  English 
painter,  who  died  at  Bristol,  in  Nov.,  1819. 
He  excelled  in  comic  subjects.  The 
marquis  of  Stafford  patronised  him.  He 
was  appointed  historical  painter  to  the 
princess  Charlotte  of  Wales. 

Bird  Island  ;  the  name  of  a  very  large 
number  of  islands  in  almost  all  the  parts 
of  the  world,  of  which  we  shall  mention 
only  the  following : — B,  Mands ;  a  clus- 
ter near  the  N.  E.  coast  of  New  Holland, 
80  called  by  captain  Cook.  They  are 
almost  covered  with  birds. — B.  Lin  the 
S.  Pacific  ocean;  Ion.  216^  24'  £.;  lat 
17^48^  S.—J5r.  /.,  inthegulf  of  St  Law- 
rtnce;  Ion.  60* 45^  W. ;  lat  47*  55^  N. 
— ^Another,  in  the  S.  Pacific  ocean ;  Ion. 
38»  2y  W.;  hit  54«  S.— One  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  same  ocean ;  Ion. 
W&'&E.;lBX.2^6^l!f.—B.  blonds;  a 

Digitized  by 




cluster  of  islands  in  the  Caribbean  sea ; 
Ion.  66°  5(y  W.;  lat.  12°  N.— The  name 
Bird  island  is  as  common,  and  as  vague, 
as  that  ot  Blue  mountains,  &c. 

Birds.    (See  Ornithology.) 

Birds'  Nest.  The  hirundo  escvlentOy  or 
salangane,  a  species  of  swallow,  the  nests 
of  whicli  are  used  as  an  article  of  luxury 
among  the  Chinese,  is  found  in  Uie  In- 
dian seas.  They  are  particularly  abun- 
dant in  Sumatra,  especially  about  Croe, 
near  the  south  end  of  the  island.  The 
nest  has  the  shape  of  a  common  swal- 
low's nest,  is  about  tlie  size  of  a  goose's 
egg,  is  found  in  caves,  particularly  on  the 
sea-shore,  and  has  tlie  appearance  of 
fibrous,  imperfectly  concocted  isinglass. 
More  or  less  of  this  substance  is  contained 
in  the  nests  of  all  swallo^vs  of  that  region. 
The  manner  in  which  tliis  substance  is 
procured  is  not  ascertained.  The  most 
probable  suppositions  are,  that  it  is  the 
spawn  of  fish  gathered  by  the  bird,  or  a 
secretion  elaborated  in  tlie  body  of  the 
animal.  The  Chinese  collect  the  nests, 
and  sell  them  to  all  parts  of  the  world. 
Dissolved  in  brotlis,  &c.,  they  make  a  de- 
licious gelly.  The  finest  are  those  obtained 
before  the  nest  has  been  contamuiated  by 
the  young  birds:  they  are  pure  white, 
and  are  scarce  and  valuable.  The  inferior 
ones  are  dark,  streaked  with  blood,  or 
mixed  with  feathers:  they  are  chiefly 
converted  into  glue.  Some  of  the  cav- 
erns, in  which  they  are  built,  are  diflicult 
of  access,  and  dangerous  to  climb,  so  that 
none  can  collect  the  nests  but  persons 
accustomed  to  the  trade  fi-om  tlieir 

BiRE??,  Ernst  John  von,  duke  of 
Courland,  bom  in  1687,  was,  as  is  assert- 
ed, the  grandson  of  a  groom  of  James, 
duke  of  Courland,  and  the  son  of  a  Cour- 
landish  peasant,  by  the  name  of  Bfihren. 
He  studied  at  K6nigsberg,and  endeavored 
to^  conceal  the  meanness  of  his  origin  by 
raising  himself  m  the  favor  of  the  great. 
His  agreeable  person  and  cultivated  mind, 

Srocured  him  the  highest  favor  of  Anna, 
uchess  of  Courland,  and  niece  of  the 
emperor  of  Russia ;  but  he  was  unsuc- 
cessful in  his  attempt  to  obtain  admission 
among  the  Courlaudisb  nobility.  When 
Anna  (q[.  v.)  ascended  the  Russian  throne 
(1730),  B.,  in  spite  of  the  conditions  to 
which  the  empress  had  consented  (one 
of  which  was  not  to  bring  him  with  her 
to  Russia),  was  loaded  by  her  with  honors, 
and  introduced  at  the  Russian  court. 
Here  he  assumed  the  name  and  coat  of 
arms  of  the  dukes  of  But)n  in  France, 
and  governed  under  the  name  of  his 

mistress.  Fierce  and  haughty  by  natur^^ 
he  indulffed  his  hatred  against  the  rivals 
of  his  amhition.  The  princes  Doleorucky 
were  his  first  victims.  He  caused  11,000 
persons  to  be  put  to  death,  and  double 
that  number  to  be  exiled.  It  is  said,  that 
the  empress  often  threw  herself  at  his 
feet,  to  induce  him  to  lay  aside  his  severi- 
ty, but  that  neither  her  entreaties  nor  her 
tears  were  able  to  move  him.  The  firm- 
ness of  his  character,  however,  introduced 
vigor  and  activity  into  all  branches  of  the 
administration  throughout  the  great  em- 
pire. In  1737,  Anna  forced  the  Cour- 
fanders  to  choose  her  favorite  (who  had, 
in  1722,  married  a  Courlandish  lady  of 
the  family  of  Trotta,  by  the  name  of 
Trey  den)  for  their  duke.  After  having 
declared  prince  Ivan  her  successor,  she 
appointed  B.,  according  to  his  wish,  re- 
gent. Anna  died  Oct  28,  1740.  The 
new  regent  acted  with  prudence  and 
moderation.  But  a  secret  conspiracy 
was  soon  formed  against  him.  Field- 
marshal  Munich,  witli  the  consent  of  the 
young  emperor's  mother,  caused  him  to 
be  arrested  in  his  bed,  during  the  night 
of  Nov.  19, 1740,  by  Manstein,  and  to  be 
confined  in  the  castle  of  Schliisselbur^. 
He  was  subjected  to  a  trial ;  but,  no  proots 
of  the  projects,  which  he  was  accused  of 
having  formed  for  the  advantage  of  his 
fiimily,  being  discovered,  the  sentence  of 
deatli  was  changed  into  diat  of  imprison- 
ment for  life,  and  his  fortune  was  declared 
confiscated.  Together  with  his  family, 
he  was  transported  to  Pelim,  in  Siberia,  and 
thrown  into  a  prison,  of  which  Munich 
himself  had  furnished  the  plan.  In  the 
following  year,  Elisabeth,  daughter  of 
Peter  the  Greal^  being  raised  to  the  Rus- 
sian throne  by  a  new  revolution,  B.  was 
recalled,  Dec.  20, 1741,  and  Munich  was 
obliged  to  occupy  his  prison.  At  Kasan, 
tlie  sledges  met ;  the  travellers  recognised 
each  other,  and  proceeded  on  tlieir  way 
without  interchanging  a  word.  The 
fiimily  of  B.  afterwards  lived  in  a  very  re- 
spectable condition  at  Jaroslaw. — ^After  a 
subsequent  exile  of  22  years,  die  duke,  as 
well  as  Miinich,  was  recalled,  in  1762,  by 
Peter  III.  When  Catharine  II  ascended 
the  throne,  the  duchy  of  Courland  was 
restored  to  B.,  in  1/63.  He  governed 
with  wisdom  and  lenity,  transferred  ^the 
government  to  his  eldest  son,  Peter,  1769, 
and  closed  his  restless  life,  Dec.  28, 1772. 
BiRMAN  Ebipire.  The  great  peninsula 
east  of  the  bay  of  Bengal  includes  Aschem, 
or  Assam,  and  the  Birman  empu«.  The 
latter  extends  firom  9°  to  26°  N,  lal.,  is 
about  1000  miles  long  and  700  broad ;  pop- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



ulation,  according  to  Syme6,in  1795,  about 
17,000,000.    The  natives  of  the  peninsula, 
a  handsomer  and  more  athletic  race  of 
men  than  the  Hindoos,  though  not  so 
neat,  are  warlike  and  hospitable,  have  no 
mendicants  among  them,  and  reverence 
the  aged.    The  iSirman  empire,  accord- 
ing to  the  reports  of  missionaries,  compre- 
hends the  kingdoms  of  Ava,  Pegu,  Arra- 
can,  and  the  tuijacent  states  on  the  north. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Thibet,  As- 
sam and  China ;  on  the  west,  it  is  separat- 
ed from  the  British  possessions  by  a  chain 
of  high  mountains  and  the  river  Naaf. 
In  the  16th  century,  the  Birmans  in  Ava 
made  themselves  independent  of  Pegu ; 
but,  in  1740,  they  were  subjugated  anew 
by  this  state.     Alompra,  one  of  their 
leaders,  however,  with  about  100  faithful 
adherents,  almost  immediately  summoned 
the  people  again  to  arms,  and,  in  1753, 
conquered  the  city  of  Ava.    Defeat  and 
victory  succeeded  alternately,  till  Alom- 
pra, in  1757,  conquered  the  city  of  Pegu. 
This  celebrated  monarch  died  in  1760,  at 
the  age  of  50  years.    He  labored  to  make 
his  subjects  happy  by  promoting  agricul- 
ture, by  restricting  the  arbitrajy  exercise 
of  power  on  the  part  of  his  officers,  and 
improving  the  public  morals.    Every  act 
of  the  magistrates,  in  the  Birman  empire, 
was  required  to  be  public,  and  every 
decree  to  be  made  known :  even  commer- 
cial treaties,  and  all  relations  established 
with  foreign  countries,  were  registered 
among  the  laws  of  the  state^  and  open  to 
the  inspection  of  every  one.    Namdogee, 
his  ekiest  son  and  successor,  who  died  in 
1764,  inheriting  his  father's  spirit,  adopted 
from  other  nations  whatever  was  of  gen- 
eral utility  to  his  own,  and  was  anxious 
to  do  away  abuses.    Both  father  and  son 
attended  particularly  to  the  administration 
of  the  East  India  company.    Shambuan, 
the  emperor's  brother,  became  regent,  as 
guardian  for  his  nephew  Mornien ;  but  he 
usurped  the  throne  himself^  and  conquered 
Siam.    In  1771,  however,  this  province 
recovered  its  independence,  while   the 
principal  part  of  the  Birman  forces  were 
engaged  in  a  war  with  China.  In  this  war 
tliey  were  victorious,  and  compelled  the 
Chinese,  whom  they  took  prisoners,  to 
intermanry  with  the  Birman  females,  and 
to  remain  in  their  territory.     Fortune 
continued  to  attend  this  pnnce ;  and,  in 
1776,  he  left  his  empire,  much  enlarged, 
to  his  son  Chengenza.    This  prince  hved 
uk  the  unrestrained  indulgence  of  every 
appetite,  till,  in  1783,  he  was  dethroned 
aod  put  to  death.    InnK>nsequence  of  the 
j«yoliitioD,  Shembuan  Menderagan,  the 

fourth  son  of  Alompra,  ascended  the 
throne.  He  ordered  his  nephew  Mornien, 
who  was  a  state  prisoner,  to  be  drowned, 
and,  in  1783,  subdued  Uie  kingdom  of 
Arracan.  He  then  engaged  ii^a  war  wltli 
Siam,  which  continued  till  1703,  and 
finally  compelled  it  to  submission  on  cer- 
tain conditions.  About  this  period,  some 
highway  robbers  fled  from  the  Birman 
empire,  and  took  refuge  in  the  territory  of 
the  East  India  company.  Shembuan  de- 
manded that  they  should  be  delivered  up. 
His  demands  were  not  immediately  com- 
plied with,  and  he  marched,  witli  a  strong 
force,  into  the  oflending  country.  At  the 
same  time,  he  carried  on  a  friendly  nego- 
tiation with  the  government  in  Calcutta, 
which  resulted  in  the  surrender  of  the 
criminals,  and  tlie  conclusion  of  a  treaty 
of  amity  and  commerce  between  tlic  two 
governments,  wliich  agreed  to  afford  each 
other  mutual  aid,  in  case  of  an  invasion 
from  China.  It  was  negotiated  by  cap- 
tain Symes.  Shembuan  was  succeeded, 
in  1819,  by  his  grandson.  The  last  vic- 
tory of  the  Birmans  was,  in  1822,  over  the 
northern  mountainous  province  of  Assam, 
at  the  source  of  the  Burrampooter.  The 
jiaity  driven  firom  Assam,  together  >vith 
the  Birman  rebels,  fled  to  the  British  ter- 
ritories, whence  they  intended  to  invade 
Birmah.  The  British  government  forth- 
with disarmed  the  insurgents,  but  refused 
to  deliver  them  up  or  to  drive  them  from 
the  island  of  Shapuri,  which  they  had 
occupied.  The  court  at  Ummerapoora, 
therefore,  attempted  to  set  the  Mahrattas 
and  all  Hindostan  iu  arms  against  tlie 
English.  At  length,  the  monarch  witli 
the  golden  feet  (one  of  tlie  titles  of  tlie 
sovereign  of  Birmah)  demanded  of  the 
government  at  Calcutta  the  cession  of 
Northern  Bengal,  as  being  a  part  of  Ava; 
and,  in  January,  1824,  the  Birman  forces 
marched  hito  ICadschar,  which  had  dej)os- 
ed  its  rulers,  and  put  itself  under  British 
protection.    Lord  Amherst,  as  govenior- 

Senenil  of  the  British  East  Indies,  now 
eclared  war  against  Birn^ah,  and  general 
Archibald  Campbell  prosecuted  it  so  suc- 
cessfully, that,  after  tiie  victory  at  Prome 
(Dec.  1— -3, 18S25),  he  obliged  the  monarch 
to  conclude  a  very  unequal  peace  at  Pa- 
lanagh,  Dec.  31, 1825.  As  tne  treaty  was 
not  ratifled,  on  the  part  of  Boa,  the  Bir- 
man emperor,  by  the  time  specified  (Jan. 
18, 1826),  Campbell  renewed  the  war,  on 
the  19th,  and  stormed  the  fortress  of  Mun- 
nun.  Feb.  24,  the  peace  was  ratified,  and 
the  war  concluded.  The  king  of  the 
white  elephants  ceded  to  the  company  the 
provinces  of  Arracan,  Merguy,  Tavoy  and 

Digitized  by 




Yea,  and  paid  tliem  a  sum  omountJiig  to 
about  $4,300,000.  Aasam  was  made  once 
more  independent,  and  rajahs  were  ap- 
pointed by  the  comjpany  to  govern  the 
northern  provinces  or  Munnipore,  Assam, 
Kadscharand  Yeahung.  The  important 
city  of  Rangoon  was  declared  a  free  port 
Thus  all  the  western  coast  of  the  Birmaa 
empire  was  ceded  to  the  East  India  com- 
pany, and  the  most  powerful  of  the  East 
Indian  «tates  was  divided  and  weakened. 
— Before  tbe  rains  commence,  the  heat  in 
the  valiejTB  of  this,  in  most  respects,  healthy 
country  is  excessive.  Though  B.  is  in 
general  fertile,  it  contains  several  vast 
deserts.  In  the  northern  part,  it  is  moun- 
tainous, and  abounds  in  gold,  silver,  pre- 
cious stones  and  marble;  also  in  iron, 
lead,  tin,  antimony,  arsenic,  sulphur  and 
petroleum,  which  issues  from  the  earth  in 
abundance.  In  the  southern  districts, 
owing  to  the  numerous  rivers,  the  soil  is 
marshy  and  extremely  productive.  Here 
grow  rice,  sugar-cane,  fine  tobacco,  cot- 
ton, indigo,  and  all  the  tropical  fruits. 
Land  is  cheap.  Timber  for  ship-buildinff, 
especially  teak  or  Indian  oak,  whicn 
grows  most  luxuriantly  in  a  wet  soil,  on 
3)0  banks  of  rivers,  is  abundant.  The  price 
of  labor  is  high.  All  but  the  low^  lands 
produce  grain,  or  serve  for  pasture.  Of 
manufactured  goods,  B.  exports  cotton 
and  silk  stuffs,  glass,  saltpetre,  powder, 
porcelain  and  marble  images  of  Gaudaraa, 
to  which  the  workmen  in  stone  give  an 
exquiate  smoothness.  The  East  India 
company  builds  vessels  even  of  1000 
tons  burthen  in  the  Birman  docks ;  and 
the  shipwrights  there  (giants  in  compar- 
ison with  the  puny  Hmdoos)  find  con- 
stant employment  The  Pegu  ships,  how- 
ever, are  not  so  well  made  as  those  built 
by  the  company,  in  their  own  territory. 
Tlie  trade  of  the  Birmans  is  very  lively, 
especi^ly  with  China,  by  means  of  the 
river  Irrawaddy,  which  extends  1240 
miles  into  the  interior,  and  has  populous 
cities  all  along  its  banks.  From  Bamoo, 
goods  are  conveyed  throud|i  the  interior 
to  China,  to  which  the  Birmans  send 
many  commodities  from  the  eastern  ar- 
chipelago of  Asia.  The  government  en- 
courages the  increase  of  the  population 
by  fiivoring  the  settlement  of  foreigners, 
tolerates  the  religion  of  eveiy  nation  in 
the  ports  of  Rangoon,  Negrais  and  Mer- 
ffuy,  and  encoura^s  the  intermarriage  of 
torei^ers  with  Birman  females.  Instead 
of  com,  silver  and  lead  in  bars  are  used, 
and  their  purity  is  strictly  tested  in  trade. 
The  forging  and  stamping  of  these  bars 
forms  a  particular  branch  of  business. — 

Menderagee  removed  the  royal  reaideiiee 
to  tlie  new  city  of  Umnterapoora  (190 
leagues  east  of  Calcuttal-on  a  tongue  of 
land  which  runs  up  into  tne  lake  of  Toun- 
zemahn.  Ava,  once  so  magnificent  a  city, 
about  four  or  five  miles  distant,  now  lies 
in  ruins.  The  buildings  among  the  Bir- 
mans are  veiy  slight,  as  the  government 
requues  them  to  be  chiefly  of  wood  or 
bamboo.  There  are  weU-oi]piQized  fire- 
companies,  for  the  protection  of  these 
combustible  edifices.  The  Birman  nobles 
are  distinguished  fit>m  the  lower  classes 
by  their  dress,  houses  and  furniture,  and 
are  divided  into  several  ranks.  The  prince 
is  absolute,  but  custom  obliges  him  to  ask 
the  opinion  of  the  nobility  in  important 
state  matters:  he  is  not  bound,  however, 
by  theur  counsel.  The  Birmans  are  all 
fond  of  painting  both  their  fiu^es  and 
hands,  xhey  slau^ter  no  tame  animals, 
and  live  simply:  for  the  most  part,  on 
vegetables.  No  Birman  can  have  more 
than  oae  wife ;  but  he  may  have  as  many 
mistresses  as  he  will.  The  latter  live  in 
the  same  house  with  the  wife,  and  are 
her  servants.  A  foreigner  and  an  adult 
male  Birman  may,  at  any  time,  leave  tbe 
empire ;  but  females  and  children  are  not 
allowed  this  privilege.  Females  cannot 
appear  before  a  couit  of  justice.  The 
chief  amusement  of  the  Birmans  is  their 
theatre,  where  declamation,  dancing  and 
music  alternate:  the  higher  classes  are 
fond  of  dramatic  spectacles.  The  new 
year  is  celebrated  with  all  sorts  of  purifi- 
cation. At  this  time,  young  women  ap- 
pear in  public  with  water,  and  sprinkle 
every  one  they  please.  It  is  considered 
improper,  however,  to  sprinkle  females 
first,  or  those  in  a  state  of  pregnancy^  at 
all.  Among  the  Birmans,  the  distinguish- 
ed dead  are  burned ;  the  poor  are  interred ; 
the  richest  are  embalmed,  commonly  in 
the  ancient  simple  mode,  in  honey.  Ev- 
er^ Birman  learns  arithmetic,  reading  and 
writing.    The  common  people  write  on 

galm-^ves,  with  an  iron  style :  the  rich 
ave  libraries,  with  books  the  leaves  of 
which  are  thm  pieces  of  iv(»y,  with  gilt 
edges.  The  Birmans,  in  genenJ,  are  fond 
of  fielding  every  thing.  Their  materia 
medica  is  conmied  to  herbs,  spioes  and 
mercury :  with  vaccination  they  nave  long 
been  acquainted.  The  English  mission- 
aries are  tolerated,  and  serve  the  East 
India  company  as  the  outposts  of  their 
diplomatic  system.  The  literary  Birmans 
translate  from  the  En^tish  aH  important 
works  of  science,  particulariy  on  astron* 
omy  and  law.  The  religion  of  the  coun- 
tiy  is  that  of  Buddha,  whom  the  people 

Digitized  by 




can  Gmtdamom  Iteojoins  no  bloody  sacri- 
ficoB,  and  is  extremely  tolerant  The 
JKrmans  have  no  secular  clergy,  but  only 
a  kind  of  monks  dwelling  in  convents. 
All  the  cleivy  practise  ceUbacy,  and  eat 
but  once  a  £iy.  Every  eamal  indulgence 
18  punished  by  a  cKsgraceful  and  public 
removal  from  office.  The  clergy  are  lit- 
erary metif  and  highly  esteemed  for  their 
piety  and  knowledge.  They  aie  permit- 
tedf  however,  to  gild  and  paint  Former- 
ly, there  were  priestesses ;  but  this  order 
has  been  abolistied,  because  it  was  found 
injurious  to  the  increase  of  population. 
The  government  has  long  been  struggling 
to  maintain  its  independence  between 
the  British  dominions  on  the  Ganges  and 
the  Chinese  empire.  No  part  of  Eastern 
Asia  seems  to  apprehend  an  excess  of 
population,  and  hence  no  female  in  China 
18  suffered  to  emigrate.  The  Birmans  are 
skilful  weavers,  smiths,  sculptors,  workers 
in  gold  and  silver,  joiners,  &c.  Of  this 
'  the  citizens  of  London  have  hai  ocular 
evidence,  in  the  great  state  carriage,  de- 
voted to  the  service  of  the  gods,  19  feet 
high,  14  lonff,  and  7  wide,  whjch  was 
taken  by  the  British  troqM^  in  the  war  of 
1825.  In  Birmah  there  are  no  hereditary 
offices.  Its  civil  and  criminal  code  is  very 
judicious;  general  principles  are  first  laid 
down,  and  then  applied  to  distinct  cases. 
Bobberv  is  punished  with  death  only 
when  toe  property  stolen  is  very  great, 
or  the  offence  is  aggravated  by  particular 
circumstances.  Capital  punishment  is 
commonly  inflicted  tjy  decapitation,  and 
extends  to  those  who  eat  opium  fieely, 
and  to  drunkards  in  general.  The  magis- 
trates have  a  great  ducretionaxy  power  to 
mitigate  the  punishments  of  the  law,  and 
few  penal  laws  are  executed  in  all  their 
severity.  The  standing  army  is  small 
Levies  are  made,  in  case  of  war,  by  way 
of  conscription ;  and  a  specified  number  of 
houses  is  required  to  furnish  a  soldier 
completely  equipped,  or  pay  a  considera* 
ble  Ime.  For  the  crime  of  insubordina- 
tion, the  conscribed  are  either  punished 
])er9onally,  or  their  &miiies  are  made  to 
suffer,  however  innocent  they  may  be. 
The  principal  part  of  the  militia  are  em- 
ployed in  the  war-boats  of  the  crown, 
which  siuk  about  three  feet  deq),  and  are 
provided  with  ordnance.  The  revenue 
18  a  tenth  part  of  the  productions  of  the 
soil  and  of  all  impoked  goods.  The 
treasury  is  rich,  and  the  sovereign  regards 
an  active  trade  among  his  subjects  as  the 
surest  basis  of  national  revenue:  he  calls 
his  great  income  fiom  customs  the  iribuU 
i^tSrangerMf,    The  empire  at  present  con* 

sists  of  seven  provinces.  The  capital, 
Ummerapoora,  contains  175,000  inhabit- 
ants. Rangoon,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Irravniddy  (pop.  90,000|,  is  an  important 
trading  city,  and  many  Europeans  reside 
in  it  The  Voyage  du  Capjt,  Hiram  Cox, 
dans  VEmpirt  dea  Birmana  is  better  in  this 
French  coition,  by  Chalons  d'Anee  (Paris, 
1834,  3  volsOthanin  the  ori^nal  English 
(London,  1831).  (See,  also,  JSTarrative 
of  the  Birmese  War,  by  major  Snodgrass 
London,  18S^ ;  and  Mis.  Ann  H.  Jud- 
son's  BdaHon  of  ike  American  Baptigt  Mis" 
turn  to  the  Birman  Empire,  Wash.,  1823). 
Birmingham  ;  a  town  in  Warwickshire, 
En^.,  on  a  declivity,  on  the  river  Rea, 
which  joins  the  Tame ;  63  miles  N.  W. 
Oxford,  87  N.  Bristol,  109  N.  N.  W.  Lon- 
don; popuktion,  m  1831, 85,753;  families, 
18,165;  houses,  16,65a  Of  the  inhabit- 
ants, 81,643  consist  of  femilies  connected 
with  trade  and  manufactures.  B.  has  long 
been  distinguished  for  the  variety,  extent 
and  excellence  of  its  manufactures,  par- 
ticularly in  hardware.  Witli  perhaps  the 
exception  of  Manchester,  it  is  the  greatest 
manu&eturing  town  in  England.  Among 
the  principal  manufactures  are  buttons,  in 
immense  variety,  buckles  and  snuff-boxes ; 
toys,  trinkets  and  jewellery ;  polished  steel 
watch-chains,  cork-screws,  &c.;  plated 
goods  for  the  dinins  and  tea-table ;  japan- 
ned and  enamelled  articles;  brass  worK 
of  eveiy  description ;  swoids  and  fire- 
arms ;  medals  and  coins  of  various  kinds; 
copying  machines  and  pneumatic  appara- 
tuses ;  the  more  ponderous  productions  of 
the  casting-furnace  and  rolhng-mill ;  and, 
indeed,  every  hardware  commodity  that 
can  be  considered  as  curious,  useful  or 
ornamental.  The  manufactories  are  es- 
tablished upon  the  largest  scale,  and  with 
the  most  astonishing  ingenuity.  A  coin- 
ing-mill was  erected  in  1788,  which  is 
now  capable  of  striking  between  30 
and  40,000  pieces  of  money  in  an  hour. 
Before  the  close  of  the  last  war.  no  less 
than  14,500  stands  of  arms  were  aelivered 
))er  week  to  the  ordnance  ofl!ice.  At  tiie 
]Nn-works,  it  is  said,  13,000  pins  can  be 
cut  and  pointed,  and  50,000  pin-beads 
can  be  made  from  the  wire,  in  an  hour. — > 
B.  is  about  two  miles  in  length.  The 
lower  part  of  tlie  town  consists  chiefly  of 
old  buildings,  is  crowded  with  workshops 
and  warehouses,  and  is  inhabited  princi- 
pally by  manufacturers;  but  the  upper 
part  has  a  superior  appearance,  consisting 
of  new  and  regular  streets,  and  containing 
a  number  of  elesont  buildings.  It  con- 
tains three  churches  and  five  chapels  of 
^«se,  and  mttoy  places  of  worship  belong^f 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



ing  to  Diflsenters.  St  Martin's  church 
has  a  fine  lofty  spire,  with  a  peal  of  12 
bells,  and  a  set  of  chimes.  B.  is  disdn* 
ffuished  fbr  its  chariiable  institutions,  and 
has  various  schools,  and  several  libraries, 
one  of  which  contains  10,000  volumes. 
The  town  has  the  benefit  of  several  canals, 
which  enable  it  to  carry  on  an  easy  inter- 
course with  foreign  countries.  It  has  three 
weekly  markets,  and  two  annual  fairs. 
The  soil  about  the  town  is  diy,  and  the 
clirnate  is  considered  remarkably  healthy. 
The  average  mortaUty  of  B.,  for  six  years, 
ending  1801,  was  only  1  to  59 ;  of  Man- 
chester, 1  to  37;  and  of  London,  1  to  31. 
BiRON,  Charles  de  Gontaut,  duke  of; 
son  of  marshal  Armand  de  Gontaut,  baron 
Biron,  bom  about  1562.  Educated  as  a 
Csdvinist,  he  had  twice  changed  his  reli- 
gion before  he  reached  the  16th  year  of 
his  age.  In  his  14th  year,  B.  was  made 
colonel  of  tlie  Swiss  regiment,  and  served 
Henrv  IV  with  much  zeal  and  courage. 
By  the  king's  &vor,  he  was,  in  1592, 
raised  to  the  rank  of  admiral  of  France. 
Though  distinguished  at  court  as  well  as 
in  the  field,  always  feared  and  praised, 
he  was  violent,  obstinate  and  presumptu- 
ous. At  the  retaking  of  Amiens,  in  1598, 
B.  served  under  Henry  IV,  and,  in  the 
same  year,  was  made  a  peer  and  duke. 
He  tliought  himself,  however,  not  suffi- 
ciently rewarded.  The  Spanish  par^, 
wliich,  after  the  peace  of  Vervijis,  could 
injure  Heniy  onW  by  secret  intrigues, 
took  advantage  of  the  duke's  discontent 
Henry  appointed  him  his  ambassador  at 
the  court  of  Brussels,  to  receive  the  oath 
of  the  archduke  to  the  peace  of  Vervins. 
The  Spanish  court  seized  this  oppor- 
tunity to  dazzle  him  with  festivals,  spec- 
tacles and  honors;  the  female  arts  of 
seduction  were  put  in  practice,  and  the 
weak  B.  promised  to  join  the  Catholics, 
whenever  they  should  rise  again.  In 
1599,  he  concluded  an  agreement  with 
the  duke  of  Savoy  and  the  count  of  Fuen- 
tes,  by  which  he  pledged  himself  to  take 
up  arms  against  his  Mnefactor.  Mean- 
while, war  beinff  declared  against  the 
duke  of  Savoy  (1600),  B.  saw  himself 
reduced  to  the  necessity  of  attacking  him. 
For  fear  that  his  understanding  vrith  the 
duke  should  become  visible,  he  possessed 
himself  of  almost  all  the  towns  in  the 
duchy,  which  was  the  easier  because 
Emanuel  had  expected  some  forbearance 
on  his  part  Fuentes  and  the  duke  ven- 
tured to  propose  to  B.,  that  he  should 
deliver  the  pecsoii-pf  the  king  into  their 
hands ;  but  he  retiified.  Their  suggestions, 
however,  were  not  without  effect  upon 

him,  and,  while  engaged  in  die  lifige  of 
the  fort  St  Catherine,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Genoa,  having  reason  to  believe  that  the 
king  would  come  to  inspect  the  trenches, 
he  sent  word  to  the  governor  to  dispose 
harquebussiers  so  as  to  fire  on  him  at  a 
certain  signal.  At  the  decisive  moment, 
however,  he  prevented  the  king  from 
gomg  to  the  fatal  spot  In  1601,  peace 
was  made  vrith  Savoy.  So  many  nego- 
tiations had  not,  however,  escaped  the  eye 
of  the  kin^,  nor  could  he  remain  ignorant 
of  their  object  He  therefore  interrogated 
the  marshal  as  to  his  designs,  with  prom- 
ises of  pardon.  B.  made  a  partial  confbs- 
non,  and  continued  his  intrigues  as  before. 
Notwithstanding  this,  Heniy  tn&at  him,  in 
the  same  year,  to  queen  Elizabeth  of 
Enffland,  to  inform  her  of  his  marriage 
with  Maria  of  Medici.  In  the  mean  time, 
B.'s  confidant  Lafin,  having  become  sus- 
pected by  the  count  of  Fueiites,  and  begin- 
ning to  fear  for  himself^  discovered  the 
whole  plot  A  frank  confesnon  and 
repentance  would  have  saved  B.,  since 
Henry  was  inchned  to  forgive  him.  He, 
however,  persevered  in  his  denial,  rejected 
the  ofifers  of  pardon,  and  was,  therefore, 
at  the  urgent  entreaties  of  the  aueen,  at 
last  surrendered  to  the  rigor  of  tne  laws. 
Upon  leaving  the  king's  room,  he  was 
arrested,  earned  to  the  Bastile,  tried  be- 
fore the  parliament,  and  beheaded,  July 

Bi&TH.    (See  Labor.] 

Biscay  ;  a  province  in  Spain,  bounded 
N.  by  the  bay  of  Biscay,  E.  by  France  and 
Navarre,  S.  by  Bur^^  includin||^  the 
three  following  subdivisions  or  provmces: 

Sq.M.    Pop.     Capitals. 
B.  Proper,   .  1375  112,731  Bilboa. 
Guipuscoa, .    653  104,479  St  Sebastian. 
Alava, ....  1138    71,396  Vittoria. 
3166  288,606 

B.  is  a  mountainous  country,  containing 
much  wood,  and  has  mines  of  lead  and 
iron.  It  abounds  in  apples,  pears,  lemons, 
oranges,  figs,  nuts  ana  currants,  but  pro- 
duces little  wine.  The  air  is  miki  and 
more  temperate  than  the  rest  of  Spain. 
The  country  is  well  cultivated,  and  the 
houses  clean  and  convenient  The  in- 
habitants call  themselves  Euicaldunac, 
boast  of  their  descent  fit>m  the  ancient 
Cantabri,  and  preserve  strong  traces  of 
the  character  or  that  high-siHrited  and  in- 
dependent people.  They  are  robust,  biiive, 
active,  industrious;  at  the  same  time, 
haughty  and  irritable;  have  open,  ani- 
mated countenances,  and  handsome  per- 
sons.   Their  language  ii  suppoeed  to  be 

Digitized  by 




a  dialect  of  the  Celtie,  and  nmriy  allied 
to  the  Armorican,  (See  JB^if9iief.)---B. 
forms  a  kind  of  aeparate  state,  distinct 
firom  the  rest  of  Spain,  governed  accord- 
ing to  its  ancient  laws  and  usages.  The 
king  of  Spain,  who  is  simply  styled  IM 
ilfBiKay^  has  no  right  to  impose  taxes; 
ind  no  custom-houses  were  allowed,  till 
lately,  within  the  povince. 

Biicm  Proper  is  bounded  N.  by  the 
hjay  of  Biscay,  £.  by  Guipuscoa,  d.  by 
Alava,  and  W.  by  Santander.  The  coast 
is  inhabited  by  seafaring  people  and  fish- 
ermen; in  ths  interior,  great  quantities 
of  iron  are  extracted  from  the  ore,  and 
wrought  into  different  articles.  The  rich- 
est nunes  are  in  the  vicinity  of  Bilboa  and 

Bisaa/f  bay  of;  that  part  of  the  Atlantic 
which  ues  N.  of  the  province  of  Biscay, 
between  the  prmeotin^  coasts  of  France 
and  Spain,  extending  m>m  Ushant  to  cape 

Biscay^  bay  of;  a  large  bay  on  the  south 
coast  of  Newfoundland,  between  cape 
Race  and  cape  Pine;  Ion.  53°  6^  W.;  laL 

Bisa^f  «A/h0,  or  Dunmgo ;  a  province 
in  Mexico,  bounded  N.  by  New  Mexico, 
E.  by  New  Leon,  S.  by  Zacatecas,  and 
W.  bv  Culiacan ;  600  miles  long,  and  400 
broad ;  pop.  159,000.  The  country  is,  in 
general,  mountainous,  and  watered  bv  a 
great  number  of  rivers  and  brooks:  it  has 
'  some  mines  of  silver  and  lead.  Durango 
is  the  capiudi 

BiscHOFSWERDBR,  John  Rudolph  von, 
a  Prussian  general  and  minister,  Dom  in 
Saxony,  in  1756,  entered  the  university  of 
Halle,  was  admitted  into  the  Prussian 
service  in  1760,  and  appointed  major  in 
1779.  Under  Frederic  William  II,  he 
exercised  an  unlimited  influence  at  the 
court  of  Berlin.  The  attachment  which 
he  had  shown  Frederic  William,  while 
yet  crown-prince,  procured  him  the  lasting 
affection  of  this  snort-sighted  and  prodi- 
gal monareh.  As  plenipotentiary,  he  took 
a  great  part  in  the  congress  at  Sistova. 
He  afterwards  effected  the  interview  with 
lord  Elgin,  at  Pihiitz.  After  the  king's 
death,  he  was  dismissed,  and  died  at  his 
countiy-8eat,in  the  neighborhood  of  Ber- 
lin, 1803.  His  views,  as  a  statesman  and 
a  man,  were  very  limited.  His  propensity 
to  mysticism  had  consequences  in  the 
highest  degree  injurious.  R  bebnged  to 
tlie  society  of  the  llluminati. 

Bishop,  in  the  New  Testament,  is  the 
instructer  and  spiritual  superior  of  a  Chris- 
tian congregation.  The  bishops  who  were 
installed  by  the  apostles  themselves,  or, 

aeoording  to  the  apoBtolic  idea  of  th^ 
office,  chosen  by  the  oongregations,  weva 
the  assistants  and  successors  of  the  apos- 
tles in  their  labors  lor  the  propagation  of 
Christianity.  They  had  tiie  supervision 
of  the  whole  congregation,  and  its  offieen, 
the  presbsrters  and  deacons,  but  without 
claiming,  in  the  first  century,  anv  preem- 
inence or  rights  of  diocesans,  which  they 
afterwards  acquired,  as  the  chuich^v- 
emmentWBS  gradually  established.  \^eB 
the  cnrstem  of  ecclesiaatical  rule  was  ma- 
tured, the  almost  absolute  authority  which 
they  exercised  over  the  clergy  of  their 
dioceses ;  their  interierence  in  the  secular 
concerns  of  governments,  to  which  they 
soon  rendered  themselves  necessary,  by 
their  superior  information  and  their  ele- 
vated rank;  the  administration  of  the 
chureh-revenues ;  the  maintenance  of  their 
ecclesiastical  prerogatives,  and  their  ex- 
tensive ecclesiastical  as  well  as  criminal 
i'urisdiction,  occupied  them  too  much  to 
eave  them  any  time  or  inclination  ibrthe 
clischarge  of  their  duties  as  teachers  and 
spiritual  fathers.  They  therefore  reserv^^ 
ed  to  themselves  onljr  the  most  important 
functions  of  their  spiritual  office,  as  the 
ordination  of  the  clergy,  the  confhmatioa 
of  youth,  and  the  preparation  of  the  holy 
oil  In  the  middle  ages,  they  attached  to 
themselves  particular  vicars,  called  miffiu" 
gansy  bishops  inparttbua,  or  coadjutors, 
ft>r  the  performance  even  of  these  ftmc- 
tions,  which  they  had  reserved  to  them- 
selves, and  for  the  inspection  of  all  that 
concerned  the  chureh.  Bishops  who  have 
preached  themselves,  and  attended  to  the 
spiritual  welfare  of  their  concregations^ 
have  been  rare  once  the  seventh  century. 
The  episcopal  office  beuif^  such  as  we 
have  described  it,  the  nobility,  and  even 
the  sons  of  princes  and  kmgs,  strove  to 
obtain  a  dignity  which  was  as  honorable 
as  it  was  profitable ;  and  which,  moreovw, 
pennitted  festivals  and  sensual  enjoynients 
of  every  description.  These  apjuications, 
which  were  aioed  by  rich  donations  made 
to  the  churches,  and,  in  the  case  of , the 
German  bishops,  by  the  influence  of 
the  emperor,  gave  to  the  bishops  of 
Germany,  jparticulariy,  a  high  degree  of 
dimity.  The  German  bisbops  became 
pnnces  of  the  empire,  and  their  influence 
upon  all  public  amrs  was  important  The 
reformation,  however,  lessened  their  num- 
ber, and  akhouffh,  in  some  of  the  Protest- 
ant countries  of  the  north  of  Europe,  the 
higher  clersy  have  retained  the  utle  of 
bishop,  yet  tiiey  have  lost  the  greater  part 
of  their  former  revenues  and  privileges. 
The  Swedish  bishops  constitute  one  of 

Digitized  by 




the  estates  of  the  kingdom,  Vke  the  Eng- 
Ksb,  but  have  little  influence.  The  Eng- 
liah  church  has  left  to  its  bishops  more 
authority  than  the  rest,  and,  for  mis  rea- 
son, has  received  the  name  of  the  ^co- 
paL  In  Protestant  Germany,  bishoprics 
were  abolished  by  the  refoimation,  but 
they  have  been  restored,  in  Prussia,  with- 
in the  last  10  years.  The  church  of 
Rome  early  lost  manv  bishoprics  by  the 
conquests  of  the  Mobammeaans;  hence 
the  great  number  of  titular  bishops,  whose 
bishoprics  lie  in  partibus  xnfidditan,  that 
IS,  in  countries  in  possession  of  the  infi- 
dels. The  Roman  see,  however,  honors 
with  this  title  only  ecclesiastics  of  a  high 
Tank.  In  consequence  of  the  cession  of 
several  German  countries  to  France,  23 
bishoprics  were  abolished ;  but,  by  partic- 
ular agreements  witli  the  Roman  court, 
they  have  been  reestablished  in  several 
Gennan  states.  (See  Coneordai,  and  Crtr- 
man  Ckureh.\  The  former  subjects  of  the 
German  bisnops  remember  their  mild 
government  with  gratitude,  and  the  prov- 
erb **  It  is  good  to  dwell  under  the  cro- 
sier^ proves  that  the  episcopid  power  was 
not  prejudicial  to  the  prosperity  and  hap- 
piness of  those  subject  to  it  (See  CUrgif, 
and  Church  of  England.) 
Bishop's  Hood.  (See  JifUre») 
Bishop's  Staff.  (See  Crosier.) 
Bi SHARK,  Frederic  William,  count  ; 
seneml  of  cavalry  in  the  service  of  the 
king  of  Wtoemberg,  and,  since  July 
18SS,  his  ambassador  in  Dresden,  Berlin, 
Hanover;  bom  at  Windheiin,  in  West- 
phalia, in  1783.  He  is  distinguished  as  a 
writer  on  cavaliy,  and  also  as  a  practical 
officer.  He  was  esteemed  by  Napoleon. 
The  reigning  king  of  WCirtemberg,  on  his 
accession  to  the  throne,  purposing  an  en- 
tirely new  organization  of  his  army,  com- 
mitted to  count  B.  that  of  tlie  cavalry. 
Here  he  established  a  new  system.  It 
must  be  confessed  that  tlie  Wiirtemberg 
cavalry  acquired,  from  his  rules,  much 
facility  in  manoeuvring.  The  objections 
which  have  been  made  against  his  system 
are  refuted  by  the  practical  demonstration 
which  B.  has  given  of  its  utility  in  his 
regiment  His  views  on  cavalry  are  ex- 
plained at  large  in  his  Vbrlesungen  iiber 
die  Taktik  der  ReUerei  (Lectures  on  Cav- 
alry Tactics),  1818,  which  is  considered  a 
standard  work,  and  has  been  translated 
into  French.  Of  his  Fdddienstingtruction 
/&r  SchiUzentmd  Reiler  (Itistruction  in  the 
Field-service  of  Riflemen  and  Cavahy), 
four  editions  have  been  pubhshed  within 
the  space  of  two  years.  He  has  published, 
also,  several  other  military  works. 

Bismuth  is  a  metal  caUed,  by  vtu/tBf 
tin  glass,  a  name  obviously  derived  from 
the  French  Hain  de  ghee.  It  is  found 
both  pure  and  mineralized  by  sulphur, 
oxygen  and  arsenic. — ^Native  bismtitn  oe- 
curs  in  tlie  veins  of  primitive  mountains, 
and  is  accompanied  W  ores  of  lead,  sil- 
ver, and  sometimes  of"^  cobalt  and  nickeL 
It  exists  in  reticulated,  lamellar,  or  amor- 
phous masses;  is  soft,  and  of  a  white 
color,  occasionally  tinged  with  red.  Spe- 
cific gravity,  9.  It  is  found  in  many 
countries,— in  France,  England,  Sweden, 
Bohemia  and  the  U.  States, — but  its  chief 
locaUty  is  at  Schneeberg,  in  Saxony,  from 
whence  the  supply  of  bismuth,  in  com- 
merce, is  principally  derived.  To  procure 
the  metal,  the  ore  requires  merely  to  be 
reduced  to  convenient  fragments,  and 
heated  in  furnaces,  when  the  bismuth 
separates  from  the  earthy  matter  in  which 
it  IS  engaged,  and  flows  out  into  cast-iron 
moulds  prepared  for  its  reception.^^Bis- 
muth,  when  pure,  has  a  radish-white 
color,  is  harder  than  lead,  and  is  easily 
broken  under  the  hammer,  by  which  it 
may  even  be  reduced  to  powder.  It 
melts  at  470°  or  480°,  and  ciystallizes,  on 
cooling,  with  ffreat  regularity,  in  the  form 
of  cutes.  When  kept  in  a  state  of  fusion, 
nt  a  moderate  heat,  it  is  covered  with  an 
oxyde  of  a  greenish-gray  or  brown  color ; 
at  a  higher  temperature,  it  enters  into  a 
feeble  combustion,  forming  a  yellow 
powder,  called  Jlowers  of  bismtdh. — It 
combines,  by  fusion,  with  a  great  num- 
ber of  metals,  communicating  to  them 
brittleness  and  fusibility.  The  mixture 
discovered  by  Newton,  and  produced  by 
melting  together  8  oz.  bismuth,  5  oz.  lead 
and  3  oz.  tin,  fuses  at  203°.  From  it  are 
made  toy  s|K)ons,  which  melt  on  beine 
employed  to  stir  veiy  hot  tea.  A  still 
more  fusible  compound  was  invented  by 
Mr.  Dalton,  composed  of  3  parts  tin,  5 
lead  and  lOi  bismuth,  which  melts  at 
197°.  The  addition  of  a  little  mercury 
renders  it  even  more  fusible,  and  fits  it  to 
be  used  as  a  coating  to  the  inside  of  glass 
globes.  An  alloy  of  equal  parts  of  tin 
and  bismuth  melts  at  280° ;  a  less  pro- 
portion of  bismuth  adds  to  the  hardness 
of  tin,  and  hence  its  use  in  the  formation 
of  pewter.  Equal  parts  of  tin,  bismuth 
and  mercury  form  tne  mosaic  gold^  used 
for  various  ornamental  purposes.  1  part 
of  bismuth,  with  5  of  lead  and  3  of  tin, 
forms  plumbers^  solder,  a  compound  of 
great  importance  in  the  arts.  Bismuth  is 
also  usea  by  letter-founders  in  their  best 
type-metal,  to  obtain  a  sharp  and  clear 
face  for  their  letters.    Bismuth  combines 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



witb  sulphur,  and  fonns  a  bluisb-flnray 
Buli^uret,  having  a  metallic  lustre.  The 
flame  compound  is  found  native  in  small 
quantity,  and  is  caUed,  in  mineralo^, 
KmuflTi  jflc^ance. — ^Nitric  acid  dissolves  bis- 
muth with  great  readiness.  The  solution 
Is  decomposed  on  the  addition  of  water, 
and  a  white  substance,  called  magegtens 
of  hismuihj  is  precipitated,  which  consists 
of  a  hydrated  oxyde,  united  to  a  small 
proportion  of  nitric  acid.  This  precipita- 
tion, by  the  addition  of  water,  being  a 
peculiarit^r  of  bismuth,  serves  as  an  excel- 
lent criterion  of  this  metal.  The  mages- 
tens  of  bismuth,  fiom  its  whiteness,  is 
sometimes  employed  to  improve  the  com- 
plexion, as  well  as  the  pearl  powder^  a 
similar  preparation,  differing  only  by  the 
mixture  of  a  little  muriatic  acid  with  the 
nitric  acid  in  effecting  the  solution  of  the 
bismuth.  The  libertu  use  of  either,  how- 
ever, is  highly  prejudicial  to  the  skin. 
They  are,  besides,  liable  to  be  turned 
black  by  the  vapors  evolved  ftom  nearly 
all  putrefying  substances. — ^The  chloride 
of  bismuth,  formerly  termed  buUer  of  his- 
mtdkj  is  formed  by  pouring  bismuth,  in 
fine  powder,  into  chlorine  faSj  or  by  de- 
priving the  muriate  of  bismuth  of  its 
water  of  crystallization  by  heat 

Bison  (}>o8  AmerieanuSf  GmeL) ;  a  spe- 
cies of  ox  found  only  in  North  Amenca, 
peculiarly  distinguished  by  a  great  hump 
or  projection  over  its  fore  shoulders,  and 
by  the  length  and  fineness  of  its  woolly 
hair.  The  hump  is  oblong,  diminishing 
in  height  posterioriy,  and  gives  a  consid- 
erable obliquity  to  the  outline  of  the  back. 
The  hair  over  the  head,  neck  and  fore 
part  of  the  body  is  lonff  and  shaggy,  form- 
ing a  beard  beneath  me  lower  jaw,  and 
descending  below  the  knee  (wrist)  in  a 
tufl.  The  hair  on  the  summit  of  the 
head  rises  in  a  dense  mass  nearly  to  the 
tips  of  the  horns,  and,  directly  on  the 
fit>nt,  is  curled  and  matted  stronj^ly. — The 
numbers  of  this  species  still  existing  are 
surprisingly  great,  when  we  consider  the 
immense  destruction  annually  occurring 
since  European  weapons  have  been  em- 
ployed against  them*  They  were  once 
extensively  difiiised  over  what  is  now  the 
territory  of  the  U.  States,  except  that  part 
lying  east  of  Hudson's  river  and  lake 
Ohamplain,  and  nairow  strips  of  coast  on 
the  Atlantic  and  Pacific.  At  the  present 
day,  their  ranffe  is  very  different.  They 
are  no  longer  found  except  m  the  remote, 
unsettled  regions  of  the  north  and  west, 
being  rarely  seen  east  of  the  Missisaippi 
or  south  of  the  St  Lawrence.  West  of 
lake  Winnipeg,  they  are  found  as  &r 

north  as  G3P ;  west  of  the  Rocky  mou»- 
tains,  it  is  probable  they  do  not  extend 
north  of  the  Columbia  river. — ^The  bison^ 
on  his  native  plains,  is  of  savage  and  for- 
midable appearance,  uni|brmly  insphring 
dread  when  beheld  for  the  firot  time. 
His  ponderous  head,  rendered  terrific  bv 
its  thick,  shaggy  hair  and  streaming  beard, 
is  supported  upon  a  massive  neck  and 
shoulders,  whose  apparent  strength  is 
more  imposing  from  die  aunnentation 

Eroduced  by  the  hump  and  thelong  fell  of 
air  covering  the  antierior  parts  of  th« 
body.  Nevertlieless,  the  bison  is  not 
known  to  attack  man,  unless  when 
wounded  aiid  at  bay.  The  difference 
between  tlie  summer  and  winter  dress  of 
the  bison  consists  rather  in  die  length 
than  in  other  oualities  of  the  hair.  In 
summer,  from  tne  shoulders  backwards, 
the  sur&ce  is  covered  with  a  very  short, 
fine  hair,  smooth  and  sofl  as  velvet 
The  taU  is  short,  and  tufled  at  the  end* 
Except  the  long  hair  on  the  fore  parts, 
which  are,  to  a  certain  extent,  of  a  rust 
color,  .or  vellowish  tin|p»,  tlie  color  is  a 
uniform  dun.  Varieties  of  color  are  so 
rare  among  this  species,  that  the  hunters 
and  Indians  always  regard  them  as  mat" 
ters  of  special  wonder.— The  bison  bull  is 
poor,  and  his  flesh  disagreeable  in  the 
months  of  August  and  September.  They 
are  much  more  easUy  approached  and 
killed  than  the  cows,  not  bemg  so  vigilant, 
though  the  cows  -are  prefeEred  both  on 
account  of  theur  finer  skuis  and  mora 
tender  flesh.  The  cow  is  much  less  than 
the  bull,  ^nd  has  not  so  much  of  the  long 
hair  on  tlie  shoulders,  &c ;  her  horns  are 
not  so  large,  nor  so  much  covered  by.  the 
hair.  The  sexual  season  begins  towards 
the  end  of  July,  and  lasts  till  near  the  be- 
^ning  of  September;  after  this  time, 
uie  cows  separate  from  the  bulls  in  dis- 
tinct herds.  They  calve  in  April ;  the 
calves  seldom  leave  the  mother  until  a 
year  old ;  cows  are  sometimes  seen  with 
calves  of  three  seasons  following  thern^ — 
Bison  beef  is  rather  coarser  j^ramed  than 
that  of  the  domesdo  ox,  but  is  considered 
by  huntera  and  travellers  as  superior  is 
tenderness  and  flavor.  The  hump,  whieli 
is  highly  celebrated  for  its  richness  and 
delicacy,  is  said,  when  properly  cooked, 
to  resemble  marrow.  The  Indian  method 
of  prerariug  this  delicacy  is  the  foUow^ 
ing :— The  hump  is  cut  off  the  shoulders, 
the  bones  removed,  and  a  piece  of  skin  is 
sewed  over  the  denuded  part  The  hair 
is  then  sinsed  off,  and  the  whole  is  now 
ready  for  the  oven.  This  is  a  hole  in  the 
earth,  in  and  over  which  a  fire  hi 

Digitized  by 




bturned,  and  into  this  heated  receptacle 
the  hump  is  conveyed,  and  covered,  about 
a  foot  deep,  with  earth  and  ashes.  A 
strong  fire  is  again  built  over  the  spot, 
and,  supposing  these  preparations  to  be 
begun  on  the  evening  of  one  day,  the 
hump  will  be  ready  for  eating  by  the  next 
day  at  noon.  The  tongues  and  marrow 
bones  are  regarded,  by  the  connoisseurs, 
as  next  in  excellence. — Herds,  consisting 
of  thousands  of  these  fine  animals,  stiU 
roam  over  the  fer  western  prairies,  led  by 
the  fiercest  and  most  powerful  of  the 
bulls.  During  the  sexual  season,  the 
noise  of  their  roaring  resembles  thunder, 
and  the  males  often  fi^ht  desperate  battles 
■with  each  other.  While  feeding,  they  are 
often  scattered  over  a  vast  sunace ;  but, 
when  they  move  forward  in  mass,  they 
form  a  dense,  impenetrable  column, 
which,  once  fairly  in  motion,  is  scarcely 
to  be  turned.  They  swim  large  rivers 
nearly  in  the  same  order  in  which  they 
traverse  the  plains;  and,  when  flying firom 

Eursuit,  it  is  in  vain  for  those  in  fi^nt  to 
alt  suddenly,  as  the  rearward  *^^brong 
dash  madly  forward,  and  force  their  lead- 
ers on.  The  Indians  sometimes  profit  by 
this  habit :  they  lure  a  herd  to  the  vicin- 
ity of  a  precipice,  and,  setting  the  whole 
in  rapid  motion,  they  terrify  them,  by 
shouting  and  other  artifices,  to  rush  on  to 
then-  inevitable  destruction.  Numerous 
tribes  of  Indians  are  almost  wholly  de- 
pendent  on  these  animals  for  food,  cloth- 
mg,  tents,  utensils,  &c.  Vast  multitudes 
of  bisons  are  slaughtered  annually ;  but  it 
is  to  be  deeply  regretted,  that  the  white 
hunters  and  traders  are  in  the  habit  of 
destroying  these  valuable  beasts  in  the 
most  wanton  and  unnecessary  manner. 
It  is  common  for  such  persons  to  shoot 
bisons,  even  when  they  have  abundance 
of  food,  for  the  sake  of  the  tongue  or 
hump  alone,  or  even  because  the  animals 
come  so  near  as  to  present  a  fair  aim.  It 
is,  therefore,  not  to  be  wondered,  that, 
fit>m  all  causes  of  diminution,  the  bison 
should  become  less  numerous  every  year, 
and  remove  farther  and  farther  from  the 
haunts  of  men.  The  preference  always 
given  to  the  cows,  which  are  too  often 
shot  while  gravid,  operates  powerfully  in 
thinning  the  herds. — ^The  skms  of  bisons, 
especially  that  of  the  cow,  dressed  in  the 
Indian  mshion,  with  the  hair  on,  make 
admirable  defences  against  the  cold,  and 
may  be  used  for  blankets,  &c.  They  are 
called  buffalo  robes ;  the  term  buffalo  being 
generally,  but  inaccurately,  applied  to  the 
bison.  The  wool  of  the  bison  has  been 
manufactured  into  hats,  and  has  also  been 

employed  in  making  coarse  cloth.  The 
time  cannot  be  veiy  fer  distant,  when  this 
species,  like  the  Indian  tribes  which  hover 
near  them,  will  have  passed  away,  and 
the  places  which  know  them  now  shall 
know  them  no  more. 

BissAoo,  or  BissAux,  or  Bissao;  an 
island  in  the  Atlantic  ocean,  near  the 
western  coast  of  Africa,  and  tlie  principal 
of  the  cluster  called  Bissagos,  100  miles 
in  circumference ;  Ion.  14°  IQf  W. ;  lat. 
11°  24'  N.  The  ground  rises  impercepti- 
bly to  the  middle  of  the  island.  The  soil 
is  cultivated  and  fertile,  abounding  with 
several  sorts  of  trees,  particularly  fine 
large  orange  and  mangit)ves  near  the 
shore.  The  inhabitants  are  Portuguese 
and  Ne^Oes  intermLxed.  The  island  is 
divided  into  9  provinces,  8  of  which  are 
governed  by  ofiicers  appointed  by  the 
sovereign,  each  bearing  the  title  of'^king. 
— ^There  is  another  cluster  of  islands  of 
the  same  name,  Ion.  15°  W.,  lat.  11°  30* 
N.,  255  miles  south  of  cape  Verd. 

BissET,  Robert ;  a  native  of  Scotland, 
educated  at  Edinburgh,  for  the  clerical 
profession.  He  took  the  degree  of  LL.  D., 
and  became  a  schoolmaster  at  Chelsea; 
but,  not  succeeding  in  that  occupation,  he 
employed  himself  in  writing  for  the  press. 
His  chief  productions  are,  a  History  of 
the  Reign  of  George  IH,  6  vols.  ovo. ; 
the  Life  of  Edmund  Burke,  2  vols.  8vo. ; 
and  an  edition  of  the  Spectator,  with 
lives  of  the  authors,  6  vols.  He  died  in 
1805,  aged  46. 

BiTAUBE,  Paul  Jeremiah ;  born  in  K6- 
nigsberg,  in  Prussia,  1732,  of  French  i>a- 
rents.  He  translated  Homer  into  French. 
In  consequence  of  this  translation,  and 
tlie  recommendation  of  d'Alembert,  he 
was  elected  a  member  of  tlie  academy  at 
Berlin.  Frederic  II,  king  of  Prussia,  fa- 
vored him  much,  and  allowed  him  to  stay 
a  long  time  in  France,  to  finish  several 
translations  from  the  German  into  French. 
Among  bis  translations  is  one  of  Gothe's 
Hermann  and  Dorothea.  Napoleon  con- 
ferred marks  of  favor  on  him.  He  died 
in  1808.  His  works  appeared  in  9  vols., 
Paris,  1804. 

Bithyivia;  a  country  in  Asia  Minor, 
lying  on  the  Pontus  Euxinus,  the  Tbra- 
cian  Bosphorus  and  the  Propontis,  and 
bounded  on  the  south  by  Phry^ia.  In 
early  times,  it  was  called  Bebiycuij  from 
the  Bebrycians,  who  inhabited  it.  Before 
the  time  of  Crcesus,  B.  was  an  independ- 
ent state,  under  its  own  princes.  After 
the  death  of  Prusias  I,  in  Uie  war  against 
CrcBsus,  it  fell  into  the  power  of  the  Lyd<> 
ians,  B.  C.  560 ;  mto  that  of  the  Persians, 

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B.  C.  555 ;  and  into  that  of  Alexander,  B. 

C.  334.  The  restorer  of  the  Bithynian 
throne  was  Bias  or  Bas,  a  native  prince, 
at  the  court  of  one  of  whose  successors, 
Prusias  II,  Hannibal  took  refuge,  and 
where  he  ended  his  life  by  poison,  183  B. 
C.  Nicomedes,  the  last  kmg  of  this  race, 
bequeathed  his  kingdom  to  the  Romans, 
75  B.  C.  The  famous  cities  of  Nicorae- 
dia,  Nic«ea  and  Heraclea  were  in  B.  In 
the  11th  century,  B.  was  conquered  by 
the  Seljuks.  In  1298,  a  new  kir^dom 
was  founded  there  by  the  Ottoman  Turks, 
of  which,  m  1307,  Prusa  was  the  capital. 

BiTscH ;  a  city  in  the  department  of 
the  Moselle,  with  2500  inhabitants,  and  a 
citadel  on  a  hill ;  by  its  situation  and  the 
art  of  Carmontaigne,  one  of  the  strongest 
places  in  France. 

Bittern.  A  name  commonly  applied 
to  several  species  of  heron ;  ardea,  L.  ( See 

Bitumen;  the  name  of  a  species  in 
mineralogy,  the  individuals  composing 
which  have  acquired  several  distinct 
names,  from  their  diversity  in  appearance. 
This  depends  chiefly  upon  their  state  of 
aggregation,  which  forms  an  uninterrupt- 
ed series  from  the  perfectly  fluid  to  the 
solid  condition. — Miphtha,  the  most  fluid 
variety,  is  nearly  colorlee,  or  of  a  yellow- 
ish tinge,  transparent,  and  emits  a  peculiar 
odor.  It  swims  on  water,  its  specific 
gravity  bein^  firom  0.71  to  0.84.  It  bums 
with  a  bluish-white  flame  and  thick 
smoke,  and  leaves  no  residue.  It  con- 
sists of  carbon,  82.20,  and  hydrogen,  14.80 ; 
and,  being  the  only  fluid  destitute  of  oxy- 
gen, it  is  used  to  preserve  those  new 
metals  in,  which  were  discovered  by  sir 
H.  Davy.  It  is  found  in  Persia,  in  the 
peninsula  of  Apcheron,  upon  the  western 
shore  of  the  Caspian  sea,  where  it  rises 
through  a  marly  soil  in  tlie  form  of  vauor, 
and,  being  made  to  flow  through  earthen 
tubes,  is  inflamed  for  the  purpose  of  as- 
sisting in  the  preparation  of  food.  It  is 
collected  by  sinking  pits  several  yards  in 
depth,  into  which  5ie  naphtha  flows.  It 
is  burned  in  lamps,  by  the  Persians,  m- 
stead  of  oil.  Near  die  village  of  Amiano, 
in  the  state  of  Parma,  there  exists  a  spring 
which  yields  this  substance  in  sufficient 
quantity  to  illuminate  the  city  of  Genoa, 
for  which  purpose  it  is  employed.  With 
certain  vegetable  oils,  naphtha  is  said  to 
form  a  good  varnish. — ^The  variety  petro- 
leum is  much  thicker  than  naphtha,  re- 
sembling, in  consistence,  common  tar.  It 
has  a  strong,  disagreeable  odor,  and  a* 
blackish  or  r&ddish-brown  color.  During 
combustion,  it  emits  a  thick,  black  smoke, 

and  leaves  a  little  residue  in  the  fbrm  of 
a  black  coaL  It  is  more  abundant  than 
the  first  mentioned  variety,  from  which  it 
does  not  appear  to  difier,  except  in  being 
more  inspissated.  It  occurs,  oozing  out 
of  rocks,  in  the  vicinity  of  beds  of  coal,  or 
floating  upon  the  sur&ce  of  springs.  In 
the  Birman  empire,  near  Rainanghong,  is 
a  hill  containuig  coal,  into  which  520  pits 
have  been  sunk  for  the  collection  of  pe- 
troleum ;  and  the  annual  product  of  this 
mine  is  400,000  hogsheads.  It  is  used, 
by  the  inhabitants  of  that  country,  as  a 
lamp-oil,  and,  when  mingled  with  earth 
or  ashes,  as  fuel.  In  the  U.  States,  it  is 
found  abundandy  in  Kentucky,  Ohio  and 
New  York,  where  it  is  known  under  the 
name  of  Seneca  or  Genesee  oil.  It  is  used 
as  a  substitute  fi)r  tar,  and  as  an  external 
application  for  the  remedy  qf  rheumatism 
and  chilblains. — MaUha  is  a  bitumen,  still 
less  fluid  than  petroleum,  firom  which  it 
differs  in  no  other  respect  Its  principal 
locality  is  at  Puy  de  la  P^ge,  in  France, 
where  it  renders  the  soil  so  viscous,  that 
it  adheres  strongly  to  the  foot  of  the  trav- 
eller. It  is  also  found  in  Persia  and  in 
the  Hartz.  It  is  employed,  like  tar  and 
pitch,  on  cables  and  in  calking  vessels :  it 
IS  Used,  as  well  as  the  petroleum,  to  pro- 
tect iron  fit>ni  rusting,  and  sometimes 
forms  an  ingredient  in  black  sealing-wax. 
— ELadic  bSumen  yields  easily  to  pressure, 
is  flexible  and  elastic.  It  emits  a  strong, 
bituminous  odor,  and  is  about  the  weight 
of  water.  On  exposure  to  the  air,  it  be- 
comes hard,  and  loses  its  elasticity.  It 
takes  up  the  traces  of  crayons  in  the  same 
manner  as  tlie  caoutchouc,  or  Indian  rub- 
ber, whence  it  has  obtained  the  name  of 
the  nUneral  cttoutchmic.  It  has  hitherto 
been  found  only  in  the  lead  mines  of 
Derbyshire. — Compact  bitumeTi^  or  asphat- 
turn,  IS  of  a  shining  black  color,  solid  and 
brittle,  with  a  conchoidal  fracture.  Its 
specific  gravity  is  fit)m  1  to  1.6.  Like 
tne  former  varieties,  it  bums  finely,  and 
leaves  but  little  residue.  It  is  found  in 
Judea,  in  the  Palatinate,  in  France,  in 
Switzerland,  and  in  large  deposits  in 
sandstone  in  Albania;  but  no  where  so 
largely  as  in  the  island  of  Trinidad,  where 
it  forms  a  lake  three  miles  in  circumfer- 
ence, and  of  a  thickness  unknown.  A 
gentie  heat  renders  it  ductile,  and,  when 
mixed  with  grease  or  common  pitch,  it  is 
used  for  paying  the  bottoms  of  ships,  and 
is  supposed  to  protect  them  firom  the  te- 
redo of  the  West  Indian  seas.  The  an- 
cients employed  bitumen  in  the  construc- 
tion of  their  buildinffs.  The  bricks  of 
which  the  walls  of  Babylon  were  built 

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were,  according  to  lustorians,  cemented 
with  hot  bitamen,  which  imparted  to 
them  great  solidity. 

BivQUACK  (from  the  German  hitoaekt) ; 
the  name  given  to  the  modem  eystem,  by 
which  the  soldiers  in  service  lie  in  the 
open  air,  without  tents,  in  opposition  to 
tlie  old  system  of  cam^  and  cantonments. 
They  remain  dressed,  m  order  to  be  ready, 
at  a  moment's  warning,  to  take  their  places 
in  order  of  battle.  Tents  beinff  laid  aside, 
on  the  continent  of  Europe,  ror  the  sake 
of  diminishing  the  baggage  of  an  army, 
large  masses  ^troops  are  always  obliged 
to  bivouack,  even  if  they  are  not  near  the 
enemy.  The  soldier,  however,  is  per- 
mitted to  build  himself  a  hut  of  straw  or 
branches,  if  circumstances  allow  it.    Fre- 

3uent  bivouacking  is  very  injurious  to 
le  health,  and  is  also  a  great  disadvan- 
tage to  the  countries  in  which  it  takes 

Blacas,  count ;  bom  at  Aulpe,  in  Pl^ov- 
ence  (1770) ;  serveld  in  La  Vendue ;  accom- 
panied Louis  XVIII  to  Russia,  and  after- 
wards to  England.  On  the  restoration 
of  the  Bourti^ns,  he  was  made  minister 
of  the  king's  household.  After  the  second 
restoration,  he  was  sent  to  Naples  to  ne- 

S^tiate  the  marriage  Of  the  duke  de  Benri. 
e  was  afterwaros  ambassador  to  Rome, 
where  he  concluded  the  l^ous  <y)ncor- 
dat  of  1815,  so  unpopular  in  France,  that 
the  government  did  not  venture  to  pro- 
pose it  to  the  chambers.  On  the  fall  of 
the  ultras  and  the  elevation  of  Decazes, 
he  retired  to  Rome,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  secretly  employed  at  the  congress 
of  Laybach.  He  has  since  been  ambas- 
sador to  Naples,  where,  as  well  as  at 
Rome,  he  has  declared  himself  the  pro- 
tector of  the  ultramontanists.  B.  is  a  thor- 
ough ultra-royalist 

Black,  Joseph,  a  distinguished  chem- 
ist, bom  at  Boideaux,  of  Scottish  parents, 
in  1728,  studied  medicine  at  Glasgow. 
Doctor  CuUen,  his  instmcter,  inspired  him 
with  a  taste  for  chemical  studies.  In 
1754,  he  was  made  doctor  of  medicine,  at 
Edinburgh,  and  delivered  an  inaugural 
dissertation,  De  Humore  acido  a  CUns  orto 
€t  Magnesia  oUmIj  which  exhibits  the  out- 
line of  his  discoveries  relative  to  caibonic 
acid  and  the  alkalies.  In  1756,  he  pub- 
lished his  Experiments  on  White  Mag- 
nesia, Quicklime,  and  several  other  Alka- 
line Substances,  in  the  2d  volume  of  the 
Essays,  Physical  and  Literary,  of  the  Ed- 
inburgh Society.  He  demonstrates  the 
existence  of  an  aerial  fluid  in  these  sub- 
gtances,  which  he  calls  Jixed  air,  the 
presence  of  which  dunlmshes  the  corro- 

sive power  of  the  alkalies  and  the  calca- 
rious  earths.  This  discoveir  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  basis  of  all  those  which 
have  immortalized  the  names  of  Caven- 
dish, Priestley,  Lavoisier,  &c.,  and  given 
a  new  fonn  to  chemistry.  In  1757,  B. 
enriched  this  science  with  his  doctrine  of 
latent  heat,  which  has  led  to  such  im- 
portant results.  In  1756,  he  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  medicine  and  lecturer 
on  chemistry  in  the  university  at  Glasgow, 
in  the  place  of  doctor  CuUen,  and,  in 
1765,  when  CuUen  left  the  professor's 
chair  in  Edinburgh,  he  was  there,  also, 
succeeded  by  B.  No  teacher  inspired  his 
disciples  with  such  a  zeal  for  study ;  his 
lectures,  therefore,  contributed  much  to 
make  the  taste  for  chemical  science  gen- 
eral in  England.  He  died  in  1799,  at  the 
age  of  71.  Upon  Lavoisier's  proposal, 
the  academy  of  sciences,  in  Paris,  had 
appointed  him  one  of  its  eight  foreign 
members.  His  habits  were  simple,  &s 
character  cold  and  reserved.  Though  of 
eminent  ability  as  a  chemist,  he  injured 
himself  by  his  long  opposition  to  the  re- 
ception of  the  new  chemical  theory.  At 
length,  however,  he  was  convinced  of  its 
superior  accuracy,  and  did  justice  to  its 
merits.  There  is  a  paper  of  his  in  the 
Philosophical  Transactions  of  1774,  and 
another  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Edinburgh,  m  1791.  Two  of 
his  letters  on  chemical  subjects  were 
published  by  Crell  and  Lavoisier,  and  his 
Lectures  on  Chemistry,  in  1803,  in  2  vols, 
by  Robison. 

Black  Art.    (See  Magic,) 

Blackbird  ;  a  trivial  name,  applied  to 
birds  of  different  species^  and  distinct  gen- 
era, but  properly  belonging  to  a  species 
of  the  genus  quiscaluSf  as  restricted  by 

I)rince  C.  L.  Bonaparte,  di  Musignano,  the 
atest  and  most  accurate  writer  on  orai- 
tholo^cal  nomenclature.  The  trae  black- 
birds are  either  of  a  rich,  glossy  black, 
showing  metallic  reflections,  purple,  or 
femiginous;  being  alto^ther  free  from 
macmation.  The  Kinds  improperly  caUed 
blackbird,  such  as  the  teamng,  couibirdy 
&C.,  have  bright  colors,  and  are  species 
of  icterus  or  trwqnal. — All  the  nlack- 
birds  are  gregarious  and  migratory,  diflus- 
ing  themselves  in  vast  flocKs  from  south 
to  north;  returning  thence  as  the  cold 
season  approaches.  They  build  their 
nests  in  trees,  socially,  and  lay  about  Are 
efgB,  The  young  are  unlike  the  adult 
biras. — ^Three  species  of  blackbird  are 
known  m  the  Umted  States ;  ^unong  these, 
the  great  croW'blackbM  (<l,  tiuyor,  VieL), 
is  the  largest,  and,  as  its  name  implies^ 

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ttroDgly  resemblesy  in  all  respects,  the 
mischievous  plunderer  of  our  cornfields. 
Tbe  male  is  16  inches  long,  having  a  most 
clossy  black  plumage;  the  tail  is  cunei- 
form, and,  when  the  wings  are  folded,  they 
extend  nearly  &ve  inches  beyond  it  The 
female  is  of  a  light  brown  color,  whitish 
beneathy  and  twelve  and  a  half  inches 
long.  This  species  is  found  in  the  South- 
em  States,  pnncipaHy  alonff  the  sea-coast: 
it  also  inhabits  Mexico,  and  is  said  to  be 
common  in  the  West  Indies. — ^The  rusty 
grakU,  or  Uacfthirdy  is  nine  inches  long. 
Its  migrations  extend  from  the  south, 
where  it  winters,  to  as  &r  north  as  within 
tlie  arctic  circle,  where  it  breeds.  Accord- 
ing to  Pennant,  they  arrive  in  the  vicinity 
or  Hudson's  bav  about  the  beginning  of 
June,  when  the  ground  is  sufficiently 
thawed  to  allow  them  access  to  the  grubs 
and  worms,  upon  which  they  chiefly  feed. 
They  sing  finely  until  they  have  ceased 
laying,  an4  when  the  young  are  fledged, 
they  again  resume  their  song.  Their 
nests  are  formed  of  moss  and  grass,  and 
placed  in  trees  about  eight  feet  from  the 
ground.  They  pass  through  the  Middle 
States,  on  their  northern  tour,  early  in 
April :  in  September,  they  collect  in  vast 
flocks,  to  seek  their  winter-quarters  in  the 
south. — The  niarpU  grakle,  lesser  or  comr 
ffum  crow-Uackbird,  ( Q.  versicolor,  VieL),  is 
the  most  notorious  of  these  sable  plunder- 
ers. On  their  first  arrival  in  the  Middle 
States  from  the  soutli,  which  is  in  the 
latter  part  of  March,  they  come  in  scatter- 
ed flocks,  and  are  most  frequent  in 
swamps,  meadows,  and  recently  plough- 
ed ^und.  At  this  season,  they  consume 
an  mimense  number  of  destructive  in- 
sects, and,  if  they  continued  to  fe^d  on 
such  food,  they  would  be  among  the 
fiirmer's  chief  benefactors.  Towards  the 
beginning  or  middle  of  April,  they  begin 
to  build  upon  ,the  tall  pines  or  cedars 
nearest  to  tne  fields  whence  they  obtain 
their  food.  As  many  as  10  or  15  nesj^ 
have  been  found  on  the  same  tree.  T^ 
nests  are  about  &ve  inches  in  dianaeter, 
composed,  externally,  of  long  stales  and 
knotty  grass-roots,  and  are  lin<)d  with 
horse-hair,  &c.  The  eggs  are  <»f  a  bluish- 
olive  hue,  with  large  spots,  «ad  irregular 
streaks  of  dark  brown.  TJ*  period  when 
the  green  blade  of  they<^ng  Indian  com 
begins  to  sprout  above  the  surface  of  the 
ground  is  that  in  which  the  common 
crow-blackbird  commences  its  ravages. 
Vast  flocks,  chattering  and  screaming,  as 
if  anticipating  the  pleasures  of  the  feast, 
descend  upon  the  soil^  and  pluck  the 
swelling  grain  firom  its  recess.  In  a  few 
VOL.  ij.  11 

hours,  the  careflil  bnsbandnian  beholds 
his  &ir  prospect  of  an  ample  harvest  al- 
most destsoyed,  and  that,  too,  with  but 
little  chance  of  his  being  able  to  rem^y 
the  evik  It  is  tme  that  the  guns  are 
commonly  put  in  requisition,  and  a  few 
volleys,  fired  among  these  insolent  thieves, 
destroy  a  small  part  of  their  nunobers. 
But  tliey  only  change  their  place  to  other 
parts  of  the  field,  and  return  ere  long  to 
renew  the  assault  with  increased  activity. 
It  is  not  until  the  month  of  November 
that  they  begin  to  collect  their  forces, 
now  renovated  and  au^ented  by  their 
young,  to  seek  the  gemal  cUmate  of  the 
south  for  the  winter.  When  we  consider 
that  a  very  ample  quantity  of  com  is  pro- 
duced, notwithstanding  the  depredations 
of  these  and  other  birds,  and  recollect  the 
vast  number  of  insects  they  consume  be- 
fore their  attacks  unon  the  com  begin, 
we  shall  be  inclined  to  agree  with  our 
great  ornithologist,  Wilson,  that  the  ser- 
vice they  render  the  cultivator  by  devour- 
ing the  insects  is  quite  an  adequate  com- 
pensation for  the  tax  they  levy  upon  the 
grain.  If  we  extend  our  observation  a 
little  further,  and  remark  that  these  birds 
destroy  the  insects  before  they  have  at- 
tained their  perfect  or  breeding  state,  and 
that  a  single  fly  or  bug  is  capable  of  lay- 
ing thousands  of  eggs,  the  magnitude  of 
the  benefit  they  confer  upon  mankind 
may  be  more  accurately  appreciated. 
Nevertheless,  it  is  perfectly  right,  that, 
during  their  rava^  upon  the  grain-field, 
they  sriould  be  duvf^  oflT  and  destroyed. 
The  extermination  of  the  species  is  as 
impossible  as  tlie  wish  to  effect  it  would 
be  ridiculous-  If  such  an  event  could  be 
brought  al^^ut,  we  should  speedily  be 
convmc^f  that  the  supreme  Author  of 
nature  ^ftd  devised  all  things  in  wisdom, 
by  ^discovering,  that,  without  the  aid  of 
tbc:se  seemingly  useless  creatures,  the 
/arth  would  lie  deepoiled  of  its  vegeta- 
'  tion,  and  the  habitations  of  man  become 
loathsome  from  the  multiplication' of  vo- 
racious and  disgusting  worms. 

Blackfish  ;  a  species  of  lahruSf  caught 
on  various  parts  or  the  American  coast, 

Xcially  in  the  vicinity  of  Long  Island, 
nee  large  supplies  are  obtain^  for  the 
New  York  market  For  the  following  par- 
ticulars concerning  this,  valuable  article  of 
food,  we  are  indebted  to  doctor  Mitchell's 
excellent  ptaper  on  the  fishes  of  New  York, 
published  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Lit- 
erary and  Philosophical  Society.  The 
spedfic  name  given  by  the  learned  de- 
scriber  i»  L,  toutog,  in  which  he  has  pre- 
served the  designation  used  by  the  Mmi^ 

Digitized  by 




gan  Indiaiis  for  this  fish.  The  common 
name,  UaM^  is  bestowed  on  account  of 
the  color  of  its  back  and  sides,  which  are 
of  a  bluish  or  crow-black ;  the  lips,  lower 
jaw,  neck  and  belly,  especially  in  the 
males,  are  white.  The  mouth  is  rather 
small,  the  lips  skinny  or  fleshy,  and  tlie 
teeth  are  about  twelve  in  number  in  each 
jaw,  the  two  front  teeth  being  largest,  and 
the  rest  of  the  respective  rows  gradually 
decreasing  in  size.  Within  the  external 
ranges  are  the  points  of  smaller  teeth,  in- 
serted with  rather  less  regufauity:  they 
are  sharp,  distinct,  and  covered  by  the 
lips.  The  tongue  is  white,  smooth,  lying 
close,  but  dis^yverable  by  raisirig;  tail 
entire,  and  somewliat  convex,  the  middle 
rays  being  somewhat  more  prominent 
than  the  upper  and  lower  ones ;  gill  cov- 
ers smooth,  neither  scaly,  serrated  nor 
rough;  extremities  of  tlie  pectoral  fins 
whitish;  eyes  rather  small  The  black- 
fish  is  plump  in  appearance,  and  is  much 
esteemed  for  the  taole.  It  varies  in  size, 
from  2  or  3  to  10  or  12  pounds.  Rocks, 
reefi  and  rough  bottoms  of  the  sea,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  coasts,  are  the  situa- 
tions most  frequented  by  tlie  blackfish, 
which  appear  to  be  stationary  inhabitants 
of  the  salt  water,,  as  tliey  do  not,  like  the 
salmon,  herring,  &c.,  desert  their  haunts 
to  visit  the  ^b-water  rivera.  These 
fish  are  caught  in  abundance,  along  the 
whole  of  Long  Island  sound,  Fisher's 
Island  sound,  atid  in  Narragansett  bay. 
They  are  also  fouisd  in  the  southern  bavs 
of  Long  Island,  and  on  the  ocean  banks 
off  Sandy  Hook.  Th%y  were  formerly 
carried  over  land  from  Newport  and 
Providence  to  Boston  miirket,  but  are 
now  caught  in  Massachusetts  bay  in  suf- 
ficient numbers  to  render  such  importa- 
tion unnecessary. — In  catching  b'lickfish, 
the  hand  line  is  generally  used,  though 
the  angle  rod  may  often  be  advantageous, 
ly  employed :  diey  seize  the  bait  greedilj, 
at  proper  seasons,  and  pull  strongly,  in 
proportion  to  their  size  and  weight.  They 
are  occasionally  taken  in  seines.  The 
bah  commonly  employed  is  the  sofl  clam 
(na/a\  the  soldier-crab  or  fiddler  {ocypo- 
lb),  or  the  large  finny  worm  of  the  salt- 
water beaches,  called  ntreU.  As  the 
warmth  of  spring  comes  on,  the  blackfish 
begin  to  acquive  their  appetite,  which  is 
suspended  during  the  cold  of  winter,  at 
which  time  a  membrane  is  found  to  form 
over  and  close  up  the  vent.  They  may 
be  caught,  as  above  stated,  until  the  warm 
weather  becomes  well  advanced,  when 
sach  an  abundance  of  food  is  to  be  pro- 
cured as  to  render  the  bait  of  the  fisner- 

man  no  k>nger  a  teinptation.  The  floir* 
erin^  of  the  common  dog-wood  (carmts 
Jltmda)  is  considered  an  indication  of  the 
beginning  of  the  fishing  season  ;  and 
where  this  tree  is  not  to  be  seen,  the 
vegetation  of  the  chestnut-tree  is  regard^ 
ed  as  a  similar  indication.  These  fish 
are  broueht  to  Philadelphia  market  in 
wagons,  m>m  Long  Branch,  &c.,  being 
packed  in  ice,  and  fix>zen  as  soon  as 

Black  Forest  (in  German,  Schwarz- 
wdd) ;  a  chain  of  mountains  in  the  grand- 
duchy  of  Baden  and  the  kingdom  of 
Wurtember^^.  It  runs  almost  parallel  - 
with  the  Rhme,  fix)m  south  to  north,  often 
onlyfiY)m  15  to  20  miles  distant  fivm  this 
river ;  is  about  85  miles  long,  and,  from 
east  to  west,  in  the  southern  part,  about 
30  miles  wide ;  in  the  northern,  about  18. 
The  Danube  rises  in  these  mountains,  as 
well  as  many  other  rivers.  Those  on  the 
west  side  run  into  the  Rhine,  those  on  the 
east  side  into  the  Danube.  The  Black 
Forest  is  rather  a  chain  of  elevated  plains, 
than  of  isolated  peaks.  The  highest  sum- 
mit, the  Feldberg,  measures  4610  German 
feet  Except  from  June  to  September, 
these  mountains  are  generally  covered 
with  snow,  and  even  during  this  period, 
are  not  entirely  free  fit>m  it.  Among  the 
many  valleys  of  this  chain,  the  Murgthal 
is  particularlv  celebrated  for  its  beautiful 
scenery.  T^e  whole  chain  consists  of 
primitive  mountains :  its  skeleton,  through- 
out, is  granite ;  its  higher  points  are  cov- 
ered wnh  sand-stone,  and  other  layers  of 
less  consequence,  and  are  surrounded  by 
heights  composed  of  flpetz  rocks.  On 
the  western  side,  at  the  foot,  appears 
gneiss.  Porphyry  and  clay-slate  are 
found  on  several  heights,  as,  likewise,  sil- 
ver, lead,  copper,  iron,  cobalt  and  miner- 
al waters.  Tne  woods  are  abundant,  and 
consist  mostly  of  pines  and  similar  spe- 
cies. The  raising  of  cattle  is  the  princi- 
pal branch  of  husbandry  carried  on  in  this 
uEitrict  The  ground  is  not  fertile,  and 
the  Vrihabitants,  scattefed  over  the  moun- 
tains, live  extremely  frugally,  but  are  very 
industricus.  Their  manner  oflivin^,  build- 
ing their  hvuseS)  and  cultivating  their  lands, 
is  very  pecinUar.  Till  the  17th  century, 
there  was  no  whit  of  trade  or  industry 
among  them ;  ha\  ihe  wars  of  that  period 
daveloped  it,  and  tjie  manufactures  of 
glass,  straw  hats,  wooden  clocks,  and  oth- 
er wooden  ware,  are  now  very  important 
They  make,  annually,  more  than  180,000 
wooden  clocks,  the  value  of  which 
amounts  to  over  half  a  million  of  guilders. 
Neufltadt  aad  Furtwangen  axe  the  central 

Digitized  by 




pcuots  of  this  singular  commerce,  which 
embraces  all  Europe,  and  extends  even  to 
America.  Large  numbers  of  these  clocks 
aie  sent  to  Spain  and  Portugal,  from 
whence  they  go  to  South  America.  From 
the  north  of  Germany,  and  from  Havre, 
they  are  exported  to  the  U.  States.  Of 
late,  the  clocks  have  been  much  improved, 
and  the  correctness  of  some  ot  them, 
made  of  different  woods,  in  order  to 
counteract  the  influence  of  the  weather,  is 
surprising. — ^Two  passes  of  the  Black 
Forest  became  particularly  noted  in  the 
time  of  the  French  revolutJo;i — ^the  Knie- 
bis  and  the  HoUe  passes.  The  fonner,  at 
the  foot  of  the  Murg,  was  taken  in  1796 
and  1797 ;  the  latter  is  famous  for  Mo- 
rcau's  skilful  retreat  through  it  in  1796. 

Blackfriars'  Bridoe  ;  one  of  the  six 
fine  bridges  of  London,  over  the  Thames, 
built  between  1760  and  1768,  afler  a  de- 
slffu  of  Mr.  Robert  Mylne,  at  an  expense 
of  £152,840.  There  are  9  arches,  the 
centre  one  being  100  feet  wide.  The 
whole  length  is  ^5  feet  Over  each  pier 
is  a  recess,  supported  by  Ionic  pUiars. 
The  bridge  is  situated  at  about  an  equal 
distance  from  those  of  Southwai'k  and 
Waterloo.  It  commands  a  venr  fine 
view  of  St  PauPs  cathedral,  as  weU  as  of 
both  sides  of  the  river,  including  the  tow* 
er,  the  monument,  Somerset  nouse,  West- 
minster abbey,  and  about  30  churches. 
The  constant  bustle  on  this  and  the  Lon- 
don bridge  is  enonnous,  and  beyond  any 
thing  of  the  kind  to  be  met  with  in  other 
Black  Lead.  (See  Plumbago,) 
Black  Rock.  (See  Buffalo,) 
Black  Sea  ;  with  the  ancients,  known 
by  the  name  of  Pontus  Euxinus  (4' v.)  j  a 
sea  which  Is  situated  between  Europe 
and  Asia,  bounded  on  the  west  by  Roma- 
nia and  Bulgaria,  on  the  north  by  the 
Russian  dominions,  on  the  east  by  Min- 
grelia  and  Guriel,  on  the  south  by  Nato- 
lia,  being  connected  with  the  Mediter- 
ranean by  the  Bosphorus,  and,  by  the 
Cimmerian  Bosphorus,  with  tlie  sea  of 
Azoph  {q.  v.),  which  is,  in  fact,  only  a  bay 
of  tlie  BladL  sea.  The  area  of  the  Black 
sea  and  the  sea  of  Azoph  amounts  to 
about  297,000  square  miles.  The  water 
is  not  so  dear  as  that  of  the  Mediterrane- 
an, and,  on  account  of  the  many  large 
rivers  which  fall  into  it, — ^the  Danube, 
Dniester,  Dnieper,  Don  and  Cuban,— beuig 
less  salt,  Sneezes  more  I'eadily.  The  tem- 
pests on  this  sea  ore  tremendous,  as  the 
land,  which  confines  its  agitated  waters, 
giyes  to  them  a  kind  of  whiriing.  motion. 
In  the  winter,  it  is  so  boisterous^imrticiilar- 

ly  near  the  coast  firom  the  Danube  to  the 
Crimea,  that  it  is  scarcely  navieable,  even 
bv  the  most  experienoed  sauors.  The 
chief  current  runs  fipom  the  shallow  seA 
of  Azoph,  from  north  to  south,  to  the 
Thracian  Bosphorus  and  the  Hellespont 
The  Black  sea  contains  no  islands ;  there 
is  one,  however,  in  the  Cimmerian  Bos- 
phorus. The  iisfaeries  in  the  sea  of 
Azoph  and  the  Black  sea  are  not  unim- 
portant, various  kinds  of  valuable  fish, 
l>oth  large  and  small,  being  taken ;  among 
others,  several  species  of  stureeon.  Seines 
are  used,  in  which  60,000  fishes  are  some- 
times caught  within  six  hours ;  but  there 
are  never  many  lar^e  ones  among  them. 
Caviare  (q.  v.)  is  also  made  on  the  eoast, 
as  well  as  fish-glue,  fish-oil,  and,  from  the 
spawn  of  the  sea  mullet,  botargo;  the 
latter,  however,  only  in  small  quantity. 
The  salt  and  smoked  mackerel  fonn  an 
important  article  of  the  commerce  of  the 
Crimea.  Raoul-RocheUe  has  published, 
in  Paris,  1822,  a  work  on  tlie  remarkable 
Grecian  antiquities  on  the  northern  shore 
of  the  Pontus,  which  has  been  corrected 
and  completed  by  the  Russian  counsellor 
Peter  von  Koppen,  Vienna,  1823.  Quite 
recently,  Mr.  von  Blaramberg,  director  of 
the  museum  established  at  Odessa  and  at 
Kertch,  has  discovered  many  interesting 
remains  in  this  quarter.    (See  CrimeaJ) 

Blackguard.  This  name  tvas  origin- 
ally given  to  the  scullions  and  coal-carri- 
ers in  great  houses  and  palaces,  who,  in 
the  journeys  of  the  families  to  which  they 
belonged,  usually  rode  in  tlie  carts  with 
the  pots  and  kettles. 

Blacklock,  Thomas,  a  poet,  remarka^- 
blo  for  his  hterary  attainments  under  the 
misfortune  of  a  deprivation  of  sight,  was 
bom  at  Annan,  in  the  county  (3*  Dum- 
fries, in  1721.  His  parents,  who  were 
natives  of  Cumberland,  although  poor 
were  industrious  and  well-informed.  At 
the  age  of  six  months,  he  lost  his  sight  fay 
the  small-pox ;  and,  as  he  grew  up,  his 
fatlier,  with  exemplary  industry  and  af- 
fection, endeavored  to  lessen  his  calamity 
by  readmg  to  him  such  books  as  instruct- 
ed or  entertained  hkn,  when  he  always 
appeared  to  be  particularly  pleased  with 
the  Vvorks  of  Spenser,  Milton,  Prior,  Pope 
and  Addison.  Such  was  the  kindness 
his  pecuUar  situation  and  gentle  temper 
excited,  that  he  was  seldom  without  some 
companion,  who  aided  in  his  singular 
course 'of  education,  until  he  had  even 
acquired  some  knowledge  <of  the  Latin 
tongue.  At  the  age  of  12,  he  besan  to 
versify,  and  his  performances  at  length 
became  the  subject  of  discourse  in  his 

Digitized  by 




ueHghborhood.  At  the  age  of  20,  he  lost 
his  father,  on  which  he  was  invited  by 
doctor  Stephenson,  a  physician  in  Edin- 
burgh, to  visit  that  metropolis,  in  order  to 
pursue  his  studies  at  the  tmiversity.  He 
soon  became  a  proficient  in  Latin,  as  also 
in  French,  which  he  chiefly  acquired  by 
conversation  with  a  French  lady,  the 
wife  of  provost  Alesomder.  He  also,  in 
the  course  of  nearly  10  years'  study  at 
the  university,  made  a  considerable  prog- 
ress in  the  sciences.  In  1754,  he  publish- 
ed a  second  edition  of  his  poems,  which 
gained  him  the  patronage  of  Mr.  Spence, 
who  published  an  account  of  his  life, 
character  and  productions,  which  brought 
him  into  general  notice ;  and  a  quarto  edi- 
tion of  his  poems  being  soon  afterwards 
published  by  subscription,  a  considerable 
sum  was  thereby  raised  for  his  benefit 
He  now  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of 
theology,  and,  having  passed  through  the 
usual  course,  was  licensed,  in  1759,  by 
tlie  presbytery  of  Dumfries.  In  1762,  he 
married  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Johnson,  sur- 
geon, of  Dumfries ;  a  connexion  which 
proved  to  him  a  source  of  comfort  and 
felicity  for  tlie  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
was  soon  after  appointed  minister  of 
Kirkcudbright,  on  the  presentation  of  the 
earl  of  Selkirk ;  but,  being  opposed  by  his 
parishioners,  after  two  years'  contention, 
lie  resigned  his  hving,  upon  a  moderate 
annuity,  and  retired  to  Edinburgh,  where 
he  adopted  the  plan  of  receiving  a  few 
students  of  the  imiveiBity  as  bo^irders, 
and  of  assisting  them  in  their  studies 
when  desirable.  In  1766,  he  was  created 
D.  D. ;  and,  having  now  taken  a  respecta- 
ble Station  among  the  literati  of  Scotland, 
he  maintained  it  by  various  pubtications, 
until  his  death,  July,  1791,  at  the  age  of 
70.  His  private  character,  according  to 
the  testimony  of  Hume  and  others,  was 
sin^larly  amiable.  Letters  and  conver- 
ntion  were  his  solaCe,  to  which  he  joined 
the  practice  of  music.  His  poetry  is  easy, 
polished  and  harmonious;  and  he  com- 
posed with  considerable  rapidity.  The 
number  of  his  images  from  visual  objects 
will  surprise  those  who  ore  not  aware  of 
the  uniform  strain  of  imitation  in  com- 
mon-place poetiy.  B.  wrote,  besides  his 
poems,  several  prose  works. 

Blackhore,  sir  Richard,  a  physician 
and  poet  of  notoriety,  if  not  of  eminence, 
was  the  son  of  an  attorney  in  the  county 
of  Wilts.  In  1668,  he  entered  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford.  There  he  remained 
13  years,  and,  for  some  time  afterwards, 
appears  to  have  fottowed  the  profession 
of  a  schoohnaster.    At  length  he  turned 

his  attention  to  physic.  In  1697,  he  fafld 
risen  to  so  much  eminence  in  his  profes- 
sion, as  to  be  appointed  physician  to  king 
William,  who  knighted  him.  The  pre- 
ceding year,  he  hod  made  himself  known^ 
as  a  iK>et,  by  the  publication  of  his  heroic 
poem  of  Pnnce  Arthur,  which  was  soon 
followed  by  King  Arthur ;  and,  in  1700, 
he  published  a  paraphrase  of  the  book 
of  Job,  in  folio ;  as  also  a  poem  entitled  a 
Satii^  on  Wit,  being  an  attempt  to  retort 
on  the  wits  by  whom  he  had  been  very 
successfully  assailed.  By  the  sdictness 
of  his  whiggish  principles,  he  had  incur- 
red the  resentment  of  the  tory  jmito, 
composed  of  Swift,  Pope,  Ari)uthnot  and 
others;  while  something  solemn  in  the 
complexion  of  his  religion  and  morality, 
added  to  the  real  absurdity  of  starting 
epic  after  epic  in  quick  succession,  in- 
sured the  raillery  of  all  those  to  whom 
his  gravity,  perseverance  and  mediocrity 
afforded  so  much  subject  for  ridicule. 
This  worthy  man  and  middling  poet  be- 
came the  common  butt  of  his  day,  and 
for  almost  two  senemtions,  for  Pope  took 
up  the  quarrel  which  Dryden  b^an. 
The  woric  which  produced  him  the 
greatest  reputation  was  the  Creation,  a 
poem  in  seven  books,  which  went  through 
several  editions,  and  was  ^reatiy  applaud- 
ed, but  is,  generally  speaking,  very  tamely 
elaborate.  In  1721,  B.  published  a  New 
Version  of  the  Psalms  of  David,  which, 
although  recommended  by  authority,  has 
never  been  adopted.  He  died^  at  an  ad- 
vanced age,  in  1729,  leaving  behind  him 
the  character  of  a  pious,  well-meaning 
and  respectable  man,  of  limited  genius 
and  little  taste.  Besides  the  epics  already 
mentioned,  he  wrote  Eliza,  in  10  books ; 
the  Redeemer,  in  6  books ;  King  Alfred, 
in  12  books,  &c.  He  also  composed  a 
History  of  the  Conspiracy  against  Kine 
William  III,  and  several  medical  and 
theological  treatises,  especially  against  the 
Arians,  all  of  which  have  quietiy  reached 
oblivion.  As  a  physician,  ne  was  a  stren- 
uous opposer  of  the  new  system  of  inocu- 
lation for  the  small-pox. 

Blackstone,  ^ir  William,  knight  and 
LL.  D.,  a  celebrated  English  lawyer,  and 
the  most  popular  vniter  on  the  laws  and 
constitution  of  his  country,  was  bom  in 
London,  m  1723.  He  was  the  third  son 
of  Mr.  Charles  Blackstone,  a  silk-mercer, 
but,  being  left  an  orphan,  was  brought  up 
by  his  maternal  uncle,  Mr.  Thomas  Bigg, 
surgeon,  from  whose  kindness  he  re- 
ceived an  education,  which  the  narrow 
circumstances  of  his  father  could  scarcely 
have  supplied.    He  was  educated  on  the 

Digitized  by 




IbuBdation  of  the  charter-house,  whence, 
ju  1738y  he  was  remoYed  to  Pembroke 
college,  Oxford.  He  wee  much  distin- 
guished, both  at  schod^ADd  at  the  univer- 
sity, and  at  an  early,  a^e  compiled  a  work 
for  his  own  use,  entitled  the  Elements 
of  Architecture,  which  has  been  much 
praised.  Having  chosen  the  profession 
of  the  law,  he  was  in  due  time  entered  at 
the  Middle  Temple,  and  on  this  occasion 
published  the  admired  vesKS,  called  the 
Lawyer's  Farewell  to  bis  Muse,  which 
appeared  in  Dodaley's  Miscellany.  In 
1743,  he  was  elected  fellow  of  All  Souls' 
college,  Oxon^  and,  in  1746,  was  called  to 
the  Mr,  and  commenced  the  practice  of 
Jaw.  Being  deficient  in  elocution^  and 
not  possessed  of  the  popular  talents  of  an 
iidvocate,  bi^  progress  was  slow.  Having 
attended  the  courts  of  law  at  Westminster 
lor  seven  yeais,  without  success,  he  de- 
termined to  quit  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession, and  retire  to  his  fellowship  at 
Oxford.  The  system  of  educatiim  in  the 
English  univerBities  supplying  no  provis- 
ion for  teaching  the  laws  and  constitution 
of  tfie  country,  B.  undertook  to  remedy 
this  defect,  by'a  course  of  lectures  on  that 
iiufiortant  subjest;  and  the  manner  in 
which  he  executed  the  task  has  conferred 
a  lasting  distinction  on  Oxford.  His  first 
course  was  delivered  in  1753,  and  was 
repeated  for  a  series  of  years  with  in- 
creasing effect  and  reputation.  These 
lectures  doubtless  suggested  to  Mr.  Viner 
the  idea  of  founding,  by  his  will,  a  liberal 
establishment  in  the  university  of  Oxford 
for  the  study  of  the  common  kw;  and  B. 
was,  with  great  propriety,  chosen  the  first 
Vinerian  professor.  His  en^;agements  at 
^Oxford  did  not  prevent  his  occasional' 
'  practice  as  a  provincial  barrister,  and,  in 
1754,  being  engaged  as  counsel  in  a  con- 
tested election  for  the  county  of  Oxford, 
he  was  led  into  considerations  on  the 
elective  fi^anchise,  which  produced  his 
work  entitled  Considerations  on  Copy- 
holds. In  this  treatise  he  denied  the 
right  of  copyholders  to  vote  as  fi'eehold- 
ers;  which  led  to  a  dedaimtory  act  of 
parliament  in  establishment  of  ibat  nar- 
row doctrine.  In  1759,  he  published  a 
new  edition  of  the  Great  Charter  and 
Charter  of  die  Forest,  with  a  historical 
pieiace ;  and,  during  the  same  year,  the 
reputation  which  he  had  obtained  by  his 
lectures  induced  him  to  resume  his  atp 
tendance  at  Westminster  hall,  when  busi- 
ness and  the  honors  of  his  profession  soon 
crowded  in  upon  him.  In  1761,  he  was 
elected  M.  P.  for  Hindon,  made  king's 
counsel  and  solicitor-geneFal  to  the  queen, 

About  this  time,  he  also  married,  and, 
thereby  losing  his  feUowship,  was  ap- 
pointed principal  of  New  Inn  hall  \  which 
ofiice,  with  the  Vinerian  professorship,  he 
resigned  the  next  year.  In  1765,  he  also 
pukuish'ed  the  first  volume  of  bis  Com-» 
mentaries  on  the  Laws  of  England;  a 
wodc  of  greater  merit  than  any  which 
had- yet  appeared  on  the  subject  In  this 
celebratea  production,  the  author  does 
not  confine  himself  to  the  humble  duty 
of  an  expositor,  but  aspires  to  the  higher 
character  of  a  philosophical  writer  on 
iurisprudence ;  and,  having  been  preceded 
by  no  authors  in  the  same  line^  his  man-' 
ner  of  accomplishing  his  task  is  entitled 
to  great  praise.  It  must  not,  however,  be 
re^uded  as  a  philosophical  investigation 
into  the  grounds  and  merits  of  the  Eng- 
lish laws  and  constitution,  so  much  as  an 
elegant  expositioa  and  defence  of  an  ex- 
isting system.  Whatever  he  found  insti- 
tuted, it  was  his  purpose  to  support  and 
eulogise ;  and  consequently  we  are  rather 
made  acquainted  with  the  ^  legal  reasons" 
of  what  is  established,  than  instructed  in 
the  general  principles  of  national  legisla- 
tion.. This  mode  of  treating  the  suoject 
may  be,  in  some  degree,  usefiil,  by  con- 
veying a  due  notion  of  the  grounds  on 
which  government  and  usage  have  pro* 
ceeded,  but,  of  course,  will  do  little  to  «id» 
vance  the  mind  of  a  nation,  and  often 
a  great  deal  to  nurture  prejudices  and 
impede  amelioration.  Notwithstanding 
some  passagee  against  standing  amnes, 
and  in  exposition  of  the  progress  of  the 
influence  of  the  crown,  B.  is  uniformly 
the  advocate  of  prerogative,  and  very 
confined  in  his  notions  of  toleration.  On 
the  latter  ground,  he  was  involved,  on  the 
publication  of  his  Commentaries,  in  a  con- 
troversy with  Priestley ;  and,  some  years 
afterwards,  his  political  principles  were 
assailed,  with  much  aouteness,  in  a  pub* 
lication  entided  a  Fragment  on  Crovem- 
meut,  now  known  to  be  the  work  of  Mr. 
Jeremy  Bentham.  In  the  debates  which 
took  place  on  the  Middlesex  election,  in 
relation  to  the  re«>eliffibility  of  an  expelled 
member,  he  was  led  to  language  in  par. 
liament,  against  tiie  tenor  of  which  Mr. 
James  OrenviUe,  witii  great  adroitness, 
quoted  bis  own  book,  and  he  vvm  also 
wamdy  atuicked  for  tiie  saiv*^*?<M»«»- 
tency  by  Junius.  The  v^.  "J^wt  and 
talents  of  B.,  backed  j^lyliUcid  tenden. 
cies,  which  are  ga^"?.  »v<>"«^  ^  ad* 
vancement,  ti^V'^^J^fL^^^  ?^ 
ministerial  finror,  and  ^%r^^^  ^e 
post  of  •oticitor^genej;;*  IS-.u  .» ™*'»  <*^ 
&g  it,  was  n^  *^  ^^^e  jttsticestrf 

Digitized  by 




honored  with  a  magnificent  public  funer- 
al, and  intened  in  Henry  VlFs  chapel, 
whence  it  wae  pitifully  removed  at  the 
restoration,  and  buried  in  St  Mar^ret's 
church-yard. — ^The  foregoing  detail  euf- 
^ciently  evinces  the  bravery  and  talents 
of  this  able  commander,  who  first  deviat- 
ed from  the  old  practice  6f  keeping  ships 
and  men  as  much  out  of  danger  as  possi- 
ble, and  gave  the  example  of  bold  and 
spirited  achievement.  So  disinterested 
was  he,  that^  afierall  his  rich  captures  and 
high  posts,  he  scarcely  left  behind  him 
XSOO  of  accjuired  property,  freely  sharing 
all  with  his  friends  and  seamen,  into 
whom  he  infiised  that  intrepidity  and 
spirit  of  enterprise,  by  which  the  British 
navy  has  been  ever  since  so  highly  dta* 

Blakelet,  Johnston,  a  captain  in  the 
U.  States  navy  during  the  late  war,  was 
bom  in  Ireland,  in  October,  1781.  Two 
years  after,  his  ftither,  Mr.  John  Blakeley, 
emigrated  to  the  U.  States,  and  settled  in 
Wilmington,  North  Carolina.  Young  B. 
was  placed,  in  1796,  at  the  university  of 
North  Carolina,  being  intended  fi>r  the 
law.  His  father  died  the  year  after.  In 
the  year  1799,  circumstances  having  de- 
prived B.  of  the  means  of  support,  he  left 
college,  and,  the  next  year,  obtained  a 
midshipman^s  warrant.  In  1813,  he  was 
made  a  master-commandant,  and  soon 
after  ikppointed  to  the  command  of  the 
Wasp.  In  this  vessel,  he  fell  in  with  his 
Britannic  majesty's  ship  Reindeer,  in  lat. 
48«  36^.  This  sliip  he  took,  after  an 
action  of  19  minutes.  The  loss  of  the 
Americans  was  21  killed  and  wounded ; 
that  of  tlie  enemy,  67.  The  Reindeer 
was  cut  to  pieces  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
render  it  impossible  to  save  her ;  and  she 
was  accordingly  set  on  fire.  After  this, 
the  Wasp  put  into  L'Orient ;  from  which 
port  she  sailed  August  27,  and,  four  days 
afterwards,  ialling  in  with  10  sail  of  mer- 
chantmen, under  convoy  of  a  ship  of  the 
line,  she  succeeded  in  cuttine  oft"  one  of 
tlie  vessels. — The  eveninff  of  the  first  of 
September,  1814,  she  feU  in  with  four 
sail,  two  on  each  bow,  but  at  considerable 
distances  from  each  other.  The  first  was 
the  brig-of-war  Avon,  which  struck  after 
a  severe  action ;  but  captain  B.  could  not 
take  possession,  as  anotlier  enemy  was 
approaching.  This  enemy,  it  seems,  how- 
ever, was  called  off  to  the  assistance  of 
the  Avon,  which  was  now  sinking.  The 
enemy  reported  that  they  had  sunk  the 
Wasp  by  the  first  broadside ;  but  she  was 
afterwards  spoken  by  a  vessel  off  the 
Western  Isles.    After  this,  we  hear  of 

her  no  more.-^In  hie  peiiOD,  captain  B. 
was  rather  below  the  middle  stature ;  his 
eyes  black  and  ezpraaaive,  his  manners 
mild,  manly  and  unassuming.  Among 
his  brother  officers,  he  was  cODflidered  as 
a  man  of  uncommon  intellect,  courage, 
and  profesaonal  skUL  He  was  married, 
in  December,  1813,  to  a  lady  of  New 
York ;  and  left  an  only  daughter,  who 
received  one  of  the  most  affectmg  tributes 
of  pubhc  gratimde,  which  have  occurred 
in  the  history  of  the  U.  States.  The  legia- 
lature  of  North  Carolina,  December  27, 
1816,  after  prescribmg  the  destmation  of 
the  sword  they  had  voted  to  captain  B., 
"Resolved,  unanimously,  that  captain 
Blakeley's  child  beeducated  at  the  expense 
of  this  state ;  and  that  Mrs.  Blakelev  be 
requested  to  draw  on  the  treasurer  of  thia 
state,  from  time  to  time,  fi>r  such  sums  of 
money  as  shall  be  required  for  the  edu-> 
cation  of  the  said  child." 
Blakc,  Mont.  (See  Mont  EUsnc^ 
Blamchard,  Francois,  one  of  the  first 
aeronauts,  bom  at  Andelys,  in  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Eure,  in  1738,  was  fond  of 
mechanics  fi:ofti  his  youth,  and,  in  his  16th 
year,  invented  a  self-moving  carriage, 
m  which  he  rode  a  distance  of  18  miks. 
This  invention,  which  he  improved  in 
1778,  recommended  him  to  the  court  of 
Versailles.  He  displayed  equal  ingenuity, 
by  the  invention  of  a  hydraulic  machine, 
in  the  19lh  year  of  his  age,  and,  after- 
wards, in  the  construction  of  a  flying 
ship,  which,  by  means  of  a  counterpoise 
of  six  pounds,  was  raised  to  more  than  20 
feet  from  the  ground.  He  eagerly  availed 
himself  of  the  discoveries  of  the  brothers 
Montgolfier,  and  the  improvements  of  the 
same  hy  professor  Charles  and  Robert  in 
Paris.  After  having  made  his  first  aeros- 
tatic voyage,  March  4,  1784,  he  crossed 
the  channel  from  Dover  to  Calais,  1785, 
with  doctor  Jeffiries,  a  gentleman  of  Bos- 
ton, in  the  U.  States,  For  this  exploit,  he 
was  rewarded,  by  the  king  of  France,  \vith 
a  present  of  12,000  fiancs,  and  a  pension 
of  1200.  In  the  same  year,  at  London, 
he  first  made  use  of  a  parachute,  invent- 
ed by  liim,  or,  according  to  others,  by 
Etieune  Montgolfier.  After  having  per- 
formed many  aerostatic  voyages  in  for- 
eign countries  also,  he  was  accused  K>f 
propagating  revolutionary  principles,  and 
imprisoned,  1793,  in  the  fortress  of  Kuf- 
Btem,  in  the  Tyrol.  Having  obtained  his 
liberty,  he  made  his  46th  ascent  in  the 
city  of  New  Yoric,  1796.  In  1798,  he 
ascended,  with  16  persons,  in  a  laiige  bal- 
loon, at  Rouen,  ana  descended  at  a  place 
15  miles  distant    In  1807,  his  aerostatic 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



voyages  amounted  to  more  than  66.  He 
died  in  180$.  Madame  Blanchard  con- 
tinued to  make  aerial  voyages.  In  1811, 
she  ascended  in  Rome,  and,  after  going  a 
distance  of  60  miles,  she  rose  again  to 
proceed  to  Naples.  In  June,  1819,  hav- 
mg  ascended  from  Tivoli,  in  Paris,  her 
balloon  took  fire,  at  a  considerable  height, 
owing  to  some  fire-works  which  she  car- 
ried with  her.  The  gondola  fell  down  in 
the  rue  de  Provence,  and  the  hapless  aer- 
onaut was  dashed  to  pieces. 

Blanco^  Ci^ie  (literally,  WkUe  cope) ;  a 
name  given  to  a  great  number  of  capes 
by  the  Spaniards,  Portuguese  and  Ital- 
ians. It  corresponds  to  the  French  cap 
Bkmc,  The  name  is  as  common  and  as 
unphilosophical  as  that  of  White  hill. 
Black  river,  &c. 

Blank  Verse,  in  modem  poetry ;  verses 
without  riiyme ;  e.  g.,  Milton's  Paradise 
Lost  Only  those  languages  which  dis- 
tinguish long  and  short  syUables  can  em- 
ploy it.    (See  Verse,) 

Blanoini,  Giuseppe  Marco  Maria  Fe- 
lice, bom  at  Turin,  1781,  studied  under 
the  abbot  Ottani,  chapel-master  in  the 
cathedral  there.  In  his  12th  or  13th  year, 
he  accompanied  the  choir  of  this  church 
on  the  organ.  At  the  age  of  14  years,  he 
executed  a  mass,  with  a  complete  orches- 
tnL  In  1799,  he  went  to  Paris,  gave  les- 
sons in  singing,  and  nras  soon  employed 
as  a  composer.  The  completion  of  the 
False  Duenna,  an  opera,  left  unfinished 
by  Delia  Maria,  was  intnirted  to  him; 
and  soon  after  appeared  his  Zdie  and 
TervUle,  MiphthaU,  and  other  operas.  His 
concerts,  in  which  be  accompanied  his 
own,  singing  with  much  taste  and  expres- 
sion, were  Sie  resort  of  ail  musical  con- 
noisseurs and  amateurs.  Having,  in  1805, 
been  invited  to  Munich,  he  executed  an 
opera  there,  in  consequence  of  which  the 
king  of  Bavaria  appointed  him  his  chapel- 
master.  In  180d,  the  princess  Borghese 
appointed  him  her  director  of  music  and 
master  of  concerts ;  and,  in  1809,  after  the 
departure  of  Reichardt,the  king  of  West- 
phalia invited  him,  in  the  same  capacity, 
to  Cassel.  After  the  expulsion  of  the 
Westphalian  court,  he  lived  in  Miinich, 
where  he  composed  and  performed  his 
l^an  in  Daeia,  Some  time  after,  he  went 
to  Paris,  where  he  is  sttU  living.  Besides 
many  comic  and  heroic  operas,  we  have 
a  collection  of  pleasing  ballads,  noUtamos^ 
Italian  alia,  and  charmmg  duets,  composed 
IrfT  him.  In  Italy,  hfr  is  called  the  .^ta- 
crton  ofmune* 

Blasphemy  la  aomewhat  variously  de- 
fined. According  to  the  more  general  defi- 

nition, it  meaAa  the  denying  the  existence 
of  God ;  assigning  to  him  false  attributes,  or 
denying  his  tme  attributes ;  speaking  irrev- 
erently of  the  mysteries  of  religion ;  and, 
fi)rmerly,  in  Catholic  countries,  it  also  in- 
eluded  the  speaking  contemptuously  or 
disrespectfiiUy  of  the  Holy  Virgin  or  the 
saints.  Public  blaapliemy  has  been  consid- 
ered, by  the  church  of  Rome,  as  an  unpar- 
donable sin ;  and  it  was,  formeriy,  punish- 
ed with  death  by  the  nnjnici]>al  laws.  The 
77th  novel  of  Justinian  assigned  this  pun- 
ishment to  it ;  and  the  capitularies  inflict- 
ed the  same  punishment  upon  such  as, 
knowing  of  an  act  of  blasphemy,  did  not 
denounce  the  offender.  The  former  laws 
of  France  punished  this  crime  with  fine, 
corporeal  punishment,  the  gallows  and 
deatli,  according  to  the  degree  and  agpa- 
vation  of  the  offence.  The  records  ofthe 
parliaments  supply  numerous  instances  of 
condemnation  for  this  crime,  and  many 
of  punishment  by  death ;  others  of  brand- 
ing and  mutilation.  A  man  was,  for  this 
offence,  condemned  to  be  hanged,  and 
to  have  his  tongue  afterwards  cut  out, 
and  the  sentence  was  executed  at  Orleans, 
as  late  as  1748.  But  it  is  very  justly  re- 
marked by  a  writer  in  the  French  En- 
cychpedie  ModemCj  that  we  should  form 
an  erroneous  opinion,  firom  the  pres- 
ent state  of  society,  of  the  effect  of  this 
offence,  and  the  disorders  it  might  intro- 
duce in  former  times*,  fi>r  religion  was 
once  so  intimately  L  tended  with  the  gov-, 
emment  and  laws,  that  to  treat  the  re- 
ceived articles  of  faith  or  religious  cere- 
monies with  disrespect,  ^vas,  in  effect,  to 
attack  civil  institutions.  The  French  coda 
provides  no  punishment  for  blasphemy; 
but  a  law  has  been  enacted,  since  the  res- 
toration of  the  Bourbons,  which  places  it 
again^on  the  list  of  criminal  offences.  By 
the  common  law  of  England,  blasphemies 
of  God,  as  denying  his  being  and  provi- 
denee,  all  contumelious  reproaches  of 
Jesus  Christ,  &c.,  are  punishable  by  fine, 
imprisonment,  pillory,  &c.;  and,  bv  the 
statute  of  9  and  10  William  HI,  ch.  32, 
if  any  one  shall  deny  ^Uker  of  the  Penons 
of  the  Trinity  to  be  God,  or  assert  that 
there  are  more  sods  tlian  one,  he  siiall  be 
incapable  of  holding  any  ofiice ;  and,  for 
a  second  offence,  to  disabled  firom  suine 
any  action,-  or  being  an  executor,  and  suf- 
fer three  years'  imprisonment.  By  the 
statute  of  53  Geo.  Ill,  ch.  160,  the  words 
in  Italics  were  omitted.  This  law*  was 
an  infringement  of  the  liberty  of  eon^ 
science,  and  certainly  could  not  now  be 
practically  enibrced  in  England,  since 
some  of  the  doctrines  of  some  sects  of 

Digitized  by 




Christians,  openly  and  habitually  incul- 
cated in  their  public  assemblies,  would  be 
violations  of  it.    This  was,  no  doubt,  the 
reason  of  omitting  the  part  of  the  statute 
above  referred  to.    The  early  leffislation 
of  tlie  American  colonies  followed  that  of 
the  mother  countiy,  and,  in  some  of  them, 
tiie  crime  of  blasphemy  was  punished 
with  death;  but  the  penalty  was  mitigated 
before  the  establishment  of  the  indepen- 
dence of  the  states,  and  imprisonment, 
whipping,  setting  on  the  gallows,  or  in 
the  pillory,  having  the  tongue  bored  with 
a  red-hot  iron,  &c.  were  substituted.    The 
statutory  provisions  of  the  different  states 
on  this  subject  are  very  various.    In  some 
of  them,  the  offence  of  blasphemy  is  dis- 
tinguished from  that  of  profane  sweariug; 
in  others,  blasphemy  is  not  mentioned  as 
a   distinct    offence.      Several   penalties 
against  blasphemy  are  to  be  found  in  the 
laws  of  some  of  the  New  England  States ; 
according  to  which  it  is  provided  that^  if 
any  persons  shall  blaspheme,  by  denying, 
cursing,  or  contumeliously  reproaching 
God,  his  creation,  government,  or  find 
judging  of  the  world,  or  by  cursing  or  re- 
proaching Jesus  Christ  or  the  Holy  Ghost, 
or  contumeUousIy  reproaching  the  word  of 
God,  consisting  oif  the  conmionly  received 
books  of  the  Did  and  New  Testament,  he 
is  liable  to  imprisonment  for  a  term  not 
exceeding  five  years.   But  the  most  direct 
and  pubUc  violations  of  these  laws  are 
passed  over  without  famishment  or  pros- 
ecution.   In  many,  and,  we  believe,  the 
greater  number  of  the  states,  the  ofience 
of  blasphemy,  not  being  a  subject  of  spe- 
cial statutory  provision,  is  Only  punishable 
either  as  an  oftence  at  common  law,  or  a 
violadon  of  the  statute  laws  against  pro- 
fane swearing.    The  ofience,  considered 
only  as  a  violation  of  positive  statutes, 
would  be  liable  to  a  great  diversity  of 
punishment  in  the  different  states,  from  a 
fine  of  two  shillings  and  six  pence,  in 
some,  to  an  imprisonment  not  exceeding 
a  period  of  five  years  in  others.    Viewing 
this  subject  in  a  philosophical,  religious  or 
political  view,  it  would  be  difficult  to  lay 
down  any  general  principles  applicable 
to  different  slates  of  society ;  but  die  pre- 
vailhig  principle  on  this  subject  in  the  U. 
States,  and  that  to  which  the  laws  and 
opinions  of  other  countries  are  strongly 
tending,  is,  that  any  one  may  profess  or  op- 
pose any  doctrine,  provided  he  inculcates 
Ills  principles,  whether  orally  or  in  writing, 
in  such  manner  as  not  to  commit  a  flagrant 
violation  of  decorum ;  what  acts  or  words 
will  constitute  such  an  outrase  must  evi- 
dently depend  upon  the  state  ofthe  society. 

Blastiito  ;  the  tecfanieai  term  for  spfit^ 
ting  any  object  by  means  of  gunpowder* 

Blazoivino^  or  BiiAZONRt,  in  heraldiy; 
the  deciphering  of  coats  of  arms,  front 
the  German  Uaten,  to  blow,  because  the 
herald  blew  a  trumpet,  and  called  out  the 
arms  of  a  knight,  when  he  entered  the 
lists  at  a  tournament    (See  Heraldry,) 

Bleaching  is  the  art  of  lyhitening  lin« 
en,  wool,  cotton,  silk,  wax,  also  the  mate- 
rials of  which  paper  is  made,  and  other 
things.    It  is  shown,  by  experience,  that 
organic  bodies,  after  being  deprived  of 
life,  and  becoming  solid  and  dry,  lose 
their  color,  and  become  white  by  the  influ- 
ence of  the  air  and  the  sun-beams.  Upon 
this  fact,  the  manner  of  bleaching,  which 
Was  formerly  in  use,  is  grounded :  since, 
however,  the  bleaching  in  the  sun  com- 
monly requires  a  whole  summer,  Berthol- 
let,  in  the  year  1786,  first  proposed  the  use 
of  chlorine.    This,  it  is  known,  has  so  Ut- 
tie  corrosive  power,  that,  if  diluted,  it  may 
be  taken  inwardly  in  a  considerable  quan- 
tity.   This  method  has  since  been  much 
improved,  principally  by  Watt     It  lias 
been  found,  however,  that  linen  certainly 
may  suffer,  if  too  much  acid  is  applied. 
In  England,   this   acid,  when  used   ta 
bleach  linen,  is  maed  with  one  half  of 
muriate  of  lime  dissolved  in  water.    The 
quantity  of  Uiis  salt  requisite  for  bleach- 
ing is  very  different,  according  to  the  dif- 
ferent quality  of  linen.    Conmionly,  the 
12th  or  SOth  part  of  the  weight  of  the  lin- 
en is  employed,    tn  manufiiictoriee  of  lin- 
en and  cotton  goods,  the  yam  or  cloth 
passes  through  a  number  of  successive 
processes,  the  principal  of  which  are  the 
steeping,  in  which  the  ffoods  are  ferment- 
ed in  an  acescent  liquid,  at  a  temperature 
of  about  100  degrees  Fahr. ;  the  bucking 
and  boiling,  in  which  a  hot  alkaline  lie  is 
made  to  percolate  through  them  for  some 
time ;  the  souring,  performed  with  diluted 
sulphuric  acid ;  the  bleaching  with  chlo- 
rine, in  which  the  stuff  is  exposed  to  tlie 
action  of  some  compound  of  that  sub- 
stance, usually  chloride  of  hme,  called 
bleaching  salt.    Various  mechanical  ope- 
rations, washings  and  repetitions  of  the 
processes  are  commonly  practised  to  com- 
plete the  discharge  of  the  color.     The 
fibres  of  wool  and  silk  are  not  bleached 
by  chlorine,  but,  after  bemg  deprived  of 
the  saponaceous  or  gummy  matter  which 
adheres  to  them,  are  exposed  to  the  fumes 
of  burning  sulphur  to  discha^^  their  colon 
Blemhtes,  or  Blbmtes  ;  a  fabulous 
people  of  Ethiopia,  without  heads,  their 
eyes,  mouths,  &c.  hein^  placed  in  their 
breasts.    A  baiiMunous  tnbe  of  this  namo 

Digitized  by 



ttppeared  in  the  Sd  oentuiy  as  the  ally  of 
w  Egyptians  a^aiDflt  Diocletian.  With 
«  view  of  oppostng  to  the  B.  a  suitable 
edversary,  Diocletian  persuaded  the  No- 
batie,  a  people  of  Nubm,  to  remove  from 
their  ancient  habitations  in  the  deserts  of 
Libya,  and  resigned  to  them  an  extensive 
but  unprofitable  territory,  above  Syene 
and  the  cataracts  of  the  NUe. 

Blende.    (See  Zinc.) 

Blenheim,  or  Bliitdhcim  ;  a  village  sit- 
uated in  the  circle  of  the  Upper  Danube, 
in  Bavaria,  on  the  Danube.  -Here  was 
fought,  Aug.  13,  1704,  the  famous  battle 
of  Blenheim,  or,  as  it  i»more  commonly 
called  on  the  Euronean  continent,  the 
haUie  of  Hochstadty  from  another  village 
of  this  name  in  the  vicinity.  Louis  XI V, 
in  the  war  of  the  Spanish  succession,  had 
to  contend  with  Holland,  England,  Ausr 
tria.  Savoy,  Portugal  and  the  German 
empire.  T^e  elector  of  Bavaria  was  his 
only  ally ;  but,  as  the  territories  of  this 
prince  were  contiguous  to  Austria,  which, 
on  that  ade,  was  unprotected^  he  was  the 
more  to  be  feared,  especially  as  he  was 
an  active  and  vrarlike  prince,  who  took 
the  field  himsehj  and,  in  ease  of  success^ 
could  open  the  way  to  Vienna  for  the 
French  armies.  Se^t  20,  1703,  he  de- 
feated, near  Hochstadt,  a.  village  in  the 
vicinity  of  Donawert,  tlie  imperial  gen- 
eral Styrum,  and  took  the  fortress  of 
Passau.  But  his  dissensions  with  the 
and  unyielding  French  marshal 

Villfuv  prevented  him  fi:om  reaping,  in 
the  same  year,  all  the  fruits  which  this 
victory  might  otherwise  have  afforded 
faim.  Villars  was  ordered  to  cede  the 
chief  conunand  to  marshal  Tallard,  who 
overcame,  on  the  Rhine,  near  Spire,  tjie 
margrave  Louis  of  Baden,  and  rendered 
the  situation  of  the  hereditary  states  of 
Austria  very  dangerous.  Marlborough, 
however,  the  soul  of  this  whole  war,  in 
the  field  and  in  the  cabinet,  formed  the 
plan  of  deciding  the  fate  of  the  contest 
on  the  Danube.  Italy,  Flanders  and  the 
Lower  Rhine  were  to  be  defended  only ; 
but  the  decisive  blow  was  to  be  struck  In 
the  south  of  Grermanv,  whither  the  best 
imperial  troops  marched,  under  Eugene, 
from  the  Rhme.  Mariborouffh  attacked 
the  Bavarian  intrenchments,  July  2,  after 
a  violent  combat  on  the  Schellenberg,and 
made  his  way  over  the  Danube,  in  order 
to  be  able  to  occupy  the  territory  of  the 
elector  of  Bavaria,  if  circumstances  re- 
quired it  But,  fer  this  latter  purpose,  the 
gaining  of  a  decisive  batde  was  indis- 
pensable, since,  without  it,  the  invasion  of 
Bavaria  would  have  been  a  hazardous 

enterprise,  and  a  long  delay,  after  the 
manner  of  carrying  on  war  in  those 
times,  required  well-filled  and  secure 
ma§^nes.  The  French  and  Bavarian 
armies  were  drawn  into  an  engagement^ 
Aug.  13, 1704,  under  the  most  unfiivora- 
ble  circumstances.  Both  these  armies 
were  posted,  under  the  command  of  Tal- 
lard, Marsin,  and  the  elector  of  Bavaria 
himself,  between  the  village  of  B.  and 
that  of  Kinzingen,  behind  the  Nebelbach, 
a  small  stream  emptying  into  the  Dan- 
ube, which  was  on  their  right  flank. 
They  amounted  to  56,000  men,  whilst 
the  forces  of  Marlborough  and  Eugene 
were  about  52,000.  The  fii«t  had  thrown 
their  troops  chiefly  into  the  two  villages, 
which  tbey  considered  as  points  of  sup- 
port for  their  wings,  though  they  were  at 
too  great  a  distance  in  front  of  their  main 
position.  A  large  proportion  of  cavalry 
WBS  in  the  centre,  since  each  army,  the 
Bavarian  as  well  as  the  French,  had  their 
horse  on  theur  wings,  and  in  this  way 
those  of  two  wings  must  necessarily  join 
each  other.  Both  the  commanders  would 
undoubtedly  h&ve  perceived  and  correct- 
ed this  mistake,  as  Tallard  had  in  B. 
alone,  27  battalions  of  in&ntry ;  but  they 
expected  so  little  to  be  attacked,  that 
when  the  line  of  the  allies  began  to 
move,  Aug.  13,  at  2  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing, they  supposed  them  to  be  marching 
o£  The  greatest  part  of  their  cavalry 
was  sent  to  forage.  Even  at  7  o'Gk>ck, 
when  the  heads  of  the  ei^t  columns, 
with  which  Eugene  and  Marlborough 
advanced  towards  the  Nebelbach,  were 
to  be  seen,  Tallard  thought  the  whole 
a  stratagem  intended  to  cover  the  re- 
treat ;  but  he  soon  saw  his  error.  The 
dispersed  troops  were  recalled  in  the 
greatest  hurry,  and  the  cannon  were 
drawn  up  in  line.  The  French  and  Ba- 
vaiians  made  every  exertion  to  prevent 
the  passage  of  the  enemy  over  the  Nebel- 
bach, and  the^  capture  of  the  two  villages, 
the  conquest  of  which  was  considered,  by 
Marlborough  and  Eugene,  as  decisive. 
Their  line  of  attack  was  uncommonly 
long,  about  4i  miles.  Marlborough,  in 
order  to  secure  his  right  wing,  attacked 
B.,  but  without  success :  he  then  changed 
his  plan,  and  threw  himself,  with  his 
principal  forces,  into  the  wide  interval 
between  the  right  wing  and  the  centre  of 
the  enemy,  leaving  only  as  many  troops 
before  B.  as  were  necessary  to  check  the 
body  which  occupied  this  position.  At 
5  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  he  succeeded, 
after  great  eftbrts,  in  pessmg  the  Nebel- 
bacb,  by  which  his  victoiy  was  decided* 

Digitized  by 




The  Frencby  in  the  centre, 'were  obliged 
to  retreat:  Uieir  examine  was  followed 
by  the  Bavarians  on  the  left  wing,  who, 
for  a  long  time,  had  resisted  the  impetu- 
ous attacks  of  prince  Eugene.  Marlbor- 
ough, instead  of  pursuing  the  retreating 
enemy,  placed  himself  between  the  line 
of  retreat  and  the  position  of  B.,  guarded 
by  18,000  men,  who  were  thus  cut  off 
from  assistance,  and  forced  to  surrender. 
The  cavalry  was  routed  by  the  fire  of  the 
English  cannon  and  .musketry ;  and  a 
large  part  of  the  defeated  army  remained 
dead  on  the  field  of  battle  (which  was 
covered  with  more  than  IJ, 000  corpses), 
or  were  made  prisoners.  Tallard  him- 
self was  aniong  the  prisoners ;  his  son 
was  killed.  The  consequences  of  the 
battle  were  decisive.  Bavaria,  as  Mari- 
borough  had  anticipated,  fell  into  the 
power  of  Austria.  Fortune  deserted 
Louis  XIV,  as  it  did  Napoleon  after  the 
batde  of  Leipsic,  and,  though  be  was  able 
to  continue  the  war  fi>r  almost  10  years 
longer,  it  was  owing  to  the  dissensions 
among  the  allies  themselves,  who  con- 
tended about  the  best  use  of  the  victory 
till  the  opportunity  to  use  it  was  lost 
(See  Mariborough,) 

Blessing,  or  Benediction.  The  ex- 
pression of  wishing  one  well  soon  gave 
rise,  in  early  ages,  to  a  solemn  act,  accom- 
panied, like  other  solemnities  of  those  pe- 
riods, by  svmbolic  signs;  this  v^s  the 
bksnng  or  bentdictum.  In  the  patriarchal 
times,  when  the  authority  of  the  head  of 
a  fiimUy  included  that  of  the  priest  and 
the  civil  ruler,  the  blessing  of  course  ap- 
pertained chiefly  to  him,  on  account  of 
his  veDeiable  character,  and,  when  the 
priests  began  to  form  a  separate  class,  be- 
came, in  certain,  cases,  a  prerogative  of 
theirs.  As  the  authority  or  the  father,  in 
the  infancy  of  every  nation,  is  extremely 
great,  the  idea  soon  sprung  up,  that  his 
pmyeiB,  invoking  the  lavor  of  the  Deity, 
were  more  effectual  than  those  of  others, 
and  that  whatever  he  blessed  would  be 
likely  to  receive  the  fiivor  of  God.  The 
same  importance  was  soon  attributed  to 
blessings  conferred  by  a  priest.  The 
heathens,  the  Jews,  and  many  Chris- 
tian sects,  have  cherished  this  idea.  By 
the  Jewish  institutions,  certain  benedic- 
tions were  reserved  to  tiie  priest :  the  same 
is  the  case  in  the  Catholic  church,  in 
which  difierent  benedictions  are  appro- 
priated to  differeDt  degrees  of  the  clergy. 
We  shall  mention  only  a  few  of  them. 
The  Catholic  bishops  alone  can  confer 
those  benedictions  which  are  connected 
with-  unction,  and  are  called  consecrations, 

as,  for  instance,  the  contecratkm  of  kingg 
and  oueens,  of  the  cup  and  paterOf  the 
church  and  altar.  To  them,  also,  is  con- 
fined the  benediction  of  abbots  and  ab* 
besses,  of  knights,  and  the  holy  oiL  For 
the  benedicdon  of  the  holy  vestments, 
&c.,  they  may  employ  a  substitute.  Every 
Catholic  cler^man  may  confer  the  bene- 
diction fian^udt  (that  of  betrothment) ; 
also,  the  marriage  oenediction ;  may  bless 
the  firuits  of  the  earth,  and  the  holy  water. 
The  benediction  of  a  bishop  is  eageriy 
sought  for  by  a  faithful  Catholic,  as  con- 
tributing peculiarly  to  his  spiritual  wel- 
fare ;  and  the  Cadiolic  clerey,  in  generaJ, 
use  the  benediction  as  a  sahitation,  or  re- 
ward for  a  service,  &c.  When  the  pope 
rides  or  walks  out,  the  Catholics  kneel 
to  receive  his  blessing,  which  he  gives  by 
a  motion  of  his  hand.  In  his  antecham- 
ber are  often  seen  things  of  different 
kinds,  rosaries,  &e.yin  large  quantities, 
which  he  blesses  in  passing  by.  The 
Cathohc  church  blesses  things  animate 
and  inanimate,  and  this  is  believed  by 
many  to  preserve  them  fit>m  sickness,  in- 
juiT,&c.  (QeeAgneSySt,)  Among  sever- 
al Protestant  sects,  the  benediction,  at  the 
close  of  the  sermon,  is  in  the  form  givea 
by  Moses.  This  is  the  case  with  the  Lu- 
therans. Catholics,  in  many  cases,  use 
the  consecrated  water  in  giving  the  bene- 

'  Blioht;  a  general  name  for  various 
distempeis  incident  to  com  and  firuit- 
treea  The  term  has  been  used  in  a  very 
vague  and  indefinite  manner.  The  origin 
of  the  disease  has  been  variously  account- 
ed for.  There  appear  to  be  at  least  three 
distinct  species  of  it.  The  first  originates 
in  cold  and  fitisty  winds,  in  spring,  which 
nip  and  destroy  the  tender  snoots  of  the 
plant,  by  stopping  the  current  of  the 
juices.  The  leaves  wither  and  fidl ;  the 
juices  burst  the  vessels,  and  become  the 
fpod  of  numerous  insects,  which  are  often 
mistaken  for  the  cause  of  the  disease, 
while  diey  are  really  an  effect  of  it  The 
second  species  originates  in  a  sultry  and 
pestilential  vapor,  and  happens  in  sum- 
mer, when  the  grain  has  attained  its  full 
growth.  The  third  originates  in  /tcngft) 
which  attack  tlie  leaves  or  stem  of  herba- 
ceous and  woody  plants ;  but  more  gen- 
erally grasses,  and  particularly  the  most 
useful  grains.  It  generally  assumes  the 
appearance  of  a  rusty-looking  powder, 
which  soils  the  finger  when  touched. 
There  are  several  sorts  of  these  fimgi, 
known  to  farmers  under  the  names  of 
rtd  ru$t,  redgwHf  &c.  The  only  means 
of  preventing  the  eftect  of  blight  is  proper 

Digitized  by 



ddtore.  PalUodveB  are  to  be  ibund  in 
topical  applicatioD& 

^BwwD,  the;  such  as  are  deprived  of 
tlieir  aight  The  loss  of  the  noblest 
sense,  by  means  of  which  man  receives 
an  idea  of  the  world  that  surrounds  him, 
clothed  in  Ught  and  color,  is  an  event  as 
melancholy  as  it  is  frequent  Blindness 
is  different,  1.  in  its  decrees,  some  per- 
sons being  partially  bhnd,  retaining  a 
slight  perception  of  light,  with  the  power 
of  disunguishin^  very  brilliant  colors,  and 
the  general  outlines  of  bodies ;  others  be- 
ing entirely  deprived  of  the  (acuity  of 
see'uig;  2.  in  its  causes:  some  men  are 
blind  fit>m  their  birth ;  others  have  be- 
come blhid  by  local  diseases  of  the  eyes, 
for  instance,  by  inflammation,  suppura- 
tion, cancer  of  the  eye-ball,  spots,  films, 
tumors  on  the  cornea  (bv  which  its  trans- 
parency is  destroyed^  also  by  closure  of 
the  pupU,  by  a  turbid  state  of  the  hu- 
mors, by  a  debility  of  the  optic  nerve,  or 
by  general  diseases  of  the  body,  violent 
fevers,  nervous  fevers,  plethora  and  ten- 
dency of  the  blood  to  the  head,  erysipelas 
in  the  face,  small-pox,  scarlet  fever,  &c^ 
or  by  excessive  exertion  of  the  eyes,  by 
which  the  optic  nerve  is  enfeebled ;  for 
which  reason,  some  classes  of  mechanics 
and  artists,  as  blacksmiths,  laborers  in 
fflass  and  smelting-houses,  watch-makers, 
2&C  not  unfirequendy  lose  their  sight,  and, 
in  northern  countries,  which  are  covered 
with  snow  for  a  long  time,  and  which 
dazzle  the  eyes  by  the  reflection  of  the 
aunbeams,  as  well  as  in  the  sandy  deserts 
of  Afiica,  blindness  is  a  frequent  com- 
plaint Old  age  is  sonketimes  accompar 
nied  with  blindness,  occasioned  by  the 
drying  up  of  the  humors  of  the  eye,  or  by 
the  opacity  of  the  cornea,  the  crystalline 
lens,  &c.  There  are  several  causes 
which  produce  blindness  from  the  birth. 
Sometimes  the  eyctids  adhere  to  each 
other  or  to  the  e^e-ball  itself,  or  a  mem- 
brane covers  the  eyes;  sometimes  the 
pupil  of  the  eve  is  closed,  or  adheres  to 
the  cornea,  or  is  not  situated  in  the  ri^^ht 
place,  so  that  the  rays  of  light  do  not  lall 
m  the  middle  of  the  eye ;  besides  other 
defects.  Those  who  are  bom  blind  have 
no  idea  of  vision,  and  are  entirely  desti- 
tute of  all  tlie  ideas  derived  fit>m  the 
sense  of  sight  They  cannot,  therefore, 
be  sensible  of  their  misfortune  in  the 
same  degree  as  those  who  have  lost  their 
sight  at  a  later  period.  Experience  has 
shown,  that  those  who  acquure  the  power 
of  seeing  after  being  bom  blind,  or  having 
k)8t  their  sight  in  their  childhood,  form 
yery  different  ideas  of  visible  objects  from 

VOL.  II.  12 

other  penons.  A  young  man,  whom 
Cheselden  couched  for  a  cataract,  at  the 
moment  he  received  sight,  imagined  that- 
all  the  objects  which  he  saw  were  in 
contact  with  his  eyes:  he  could  not  dis- 
tinguidi  objects,  although  of  very  differ* 
ent  fbnus.  Those  witn  which  he  waa 
already  &miliar  l^  the  touch,  he  exam- 
ined with  great  attention,  in  order  to 
recognise  them  another  time ;  but,  having 
too  many  things  to  notice  at  once,  he 
soon  forgot  all  mat  he  had  observed.  He 
wondered  that  those  persons  whom  he 
loved  most  were  not  handsomer  than 
others.  Before  he  received  his  sight,  he 
had  expressed  a  great  desire  to  obtain 
this  sense.  The  ouier  senses  of  persons, 
who  have  been  blind  for  a  long  tune,  be- 
come more  exquisite,  perhaps,  because 
they  are  not  subject  to  the  distraction 
produced  by  the  siffht  of  so  many  objects. 
The  blind,  therefore,  are  often  distin- 
guished for  a  remaricable  mental  activity, 
and  a  wonderful  developement  of  the  in- 
tellectual powers.  Their  touch  and  hear- 
ing, pamcularly,  become  veiy  acute. 
Thus  it  is  related  of  a  blind  man,  who 
lived  at  Puisaux,  in  France,  and  was  a 
chemist  and  musician,  that  he  could  ac- 
curately estimate  the  proportions  of  ob- 
{'ects,  could  judge  of  tne  distance  of  fire 
)y  die  degree  of  heat,  determine  the 
quantity  of  fluid  in  vessels  by  the  sound 
it  produced  while  running  fix>m  one  ves- 
sel into  another,  and  the  proximity  of 
objects  by  the  effect  of  the  air  upon  his 
face.  He  determined  very  accurately  the 
wdghts  of  bodies  and  the  capacities  of 
vessels.  The  celebrated  Saunderson,  pro- 
fessor of  mathematics  at  Cambridge^  lost 
his  sight  in  his  eariy  youth.  He  invented 
several  processes  to  f^ilitate  his  studies 
in  arithmetic  and  geometiy.  His  sense 
of  touch  was  so  acute,  that  he  distin- 
guished spurious  coins  merely  by  letting 
tiiem  paas  through  his  finffers,  though 
they  were  so  well  executed,  that  even 
skilful  judges  were  deceived  by  them. 

Blind,  Lvstitotions  for  the.  In  the 
case  of  persons  destitute  of  sight,  it  is 
necessaiy  to  have  recourse  to  die  other 
senses  to  supply  the  want  of  the  eye.  I( 
for  instance,  we  wish  to  teach  them  the 
arts  of  reading  and  writing,  lettera  must 
be  prepared,  which  will  be  palpable  to 
the  touch,  and  the  hand  guided  until  they 
are  able  to  copy  them.  If  we  wish  to 
communicate  to  them  a  knowledge  of  the 
surface  of  the  earth,  globes  and  maps 
must  be  prepared  with  the  divisions,  &c., 
in  relief  Knowledge  obtained  in  this 
way  must,  of  course,  be  acquired  much 

Digitized  by 




more  slowly  than  that  received  by  the 
siffht.  The  senses  of  touch  and  of  sight 
diner  in  this  reiqpect,  that  the  former  as- 
cends by  degrees  from  the  perception  of 
parts  to  die  perception  or  the  whole, 
whilst  the  latter  views  the  whole  at  a 
single  glance.  It  isy  therefore,  evident, 
that  the  blind  cannot  be  instructed  in 
the  common  schools  destined  for  those 
who  see :  in  the  first  place,  because  the 
means  of  instruction  by  the  touch  are 
wantinff ;  and  secondlv,  because  the  prog- 
ress orthe  other  children  would  be  re- 
tarded by  the  slow  apprehension  of  the 
blind  pupils.  For  these  reasons,  and  as 
the  blind  form  no  small  part  of  the  popu- 
lation of  eveiy  country,  particular  institu- 
tions have,  in  many  places,  been  establish- 
ed for  their  instruction.  In  Prussia,  they 
amount  to  more  than  13,000  souls.  Zeune, 
in  his  BeUsar  (1821,  p.  12  et  seqA  has 
laid  down,  as  a  general  law,  deduced  fix>m 
observation,  that  the  proportion  of  blind 
persons  decreases  fit>m  the  equator  to- 
wards the  poles.  In  Egypt,  he  says,  it  is 
as  1  to  100,  while  in  Norway  the  proportion 
is  1  to  1000.>-The  instruction  given  in 
the  schools  for  the  blind  aims,  first,  at  a 
general  cultivation  of  their  intellectual  fiic- 
ulties.  They  are  afterwards  taught  some 
an  which  may  enable  them  to  provide 
for  their  own  subsistence.  These  arts 
are  of  two  kinds— mechanical  employ- 
ments and  music.  The  instruction  of  the 
blind,  therefore,  embraces  three  branches 
— 1.  mechanical  labois;  2.  the  fine  arts; 
3.  science;  because  it  is  impossible  to 
determine,  without  trial,  the  peculiar 
genius  of  die  pupils,  whether,  ibr  instance, 
they  should  he  instructed  as  mechanics, 
musicians,  or  mathematicians.  The  Ger- 
man institutions  for  the  blind,  as  well  as 
those  in  Paris,  have  this  comprehensive 
character,  whilst  the  Engli^  aim,  more 
exclusively,  to  impart  instruction  in  me- 
chanical trades.  Tlie  first  idea  of  such 
an  institution  fi>r  blind  peisons  was  con- 
ceived by  Valentin  HaQy,  brother  of  the 
celebrated  mineralogist:  it  wassuggeeted 
to  him  by  his  acquaintance  with  a  blind 
German  lady,  the  baroness  von  Paradis, 
of  Vienna,  who  visited  Paris  in  1780,  and 
performed  on  the  organ  with  general  ap- 
plause. HaOy  repeatedly  visitsd  this  In- 
n'ous  lady,  ana  was  much  surprised  to 
in  her  apartments  several  contrivances 
for  the  instruction  of  the  blind ;  for  in- 
stance, embroidered  maps  and  a  pocket 
printing-apparatus,  by  means  of  which 
she  corre^ionded  with  von  Kempelen,  in 
Vienna  (the  inventor  of  the  chess-player 
and  speaking  automaton),  and  with  a 

learned  blmd  gentleman,  named  IFniKn 
Imrgf  at  Manheim.  HaQy  compared  the 
hi^h  cultivation  of  these  two  Germans 
vntb  the  degraded  state  of  the  Uind  in 
France,  where,  at  the  annual  fiiir  of  St. 
Ovide,  an  innkeeper  had  collected  10  poor 
blind  persons,  attired  in  a  ridiculous  man- 
ner, and  decorated  with  asses'  ears,  pea- 
cocks' tails,  and  spectacles  without  glasses, 
to  perform  a  burlesque  concert.  Nor  did 
the  fpreax  institution  for  the  blind,  or  the 
hospital  of  the  300  (commonlv  called  ks 
qumze-vingt,  founded,  in  1260,  by  Sl  Louis, 
after  his  crusade  to  Egypt,  during  which 
so  many  soldiers  became  olind  by  uie  oph- 
thalmia, prevailing  in  that  country),  pre- 
sent to  the  philanUifopic  HaOy  a  pleasing 
picture  of  intellectual  cultivation ;  rather 
a  scene  of  dulness  and  moral  corruption. 
He,  therefore,  resolved  to  do  for  the 
blind  in  France  what  the  abb6  de  I'Ep^e 
had  done  for  the  deaf  and  dumb.  In 
1784,  he  opened  an  institution,  in  which 
they  were  instructed,  not  only  in  appro- 
priate mechanical  employments,  as  ap\nr 
nine,  knitting,  making  ropes  or  fiinges, 
and  working  in  paste-board,  but  also  in 
music,  in  reading,  writing,  ciphering, 
geography  and  the  sciences.  For  this 
purpose,  he  invented  particular  means  of 
instruction,  resembling  those  with  which 
he  had  become  acquainted  by  his  inter- 
course with  the  two  blmd  Germans 
Paradis  and  Weissenburg.  For  instruc- 
tion in  reading,  he  procured  raised  letters 
of  metal,  fit>m  which,  also,  impressions 
may  be  taken  on  paper :  for  writing,  he 
used  particular  wntmg-cases,  in  which  a 
firame,  with  wires  to  separate  the  lines, 
could  be  festened  upon  the  paper:  for 
ciphering,  there  were  movable  figures  of 
metal  and  ciphering-bMffds,  in  which  the 
figures  could  be  fixed :  for  teaching  geog- 
raphy, maps  were  prepared,  npon  which 
mountuns,  rivers,  cities,  and  me  borders 
of  countries,  were  embroidered  in  various 
ways,  &c.  In  the  beginning,  the  phi- 
lanthropic society  paid  the  expenses  of 
12  blind  persons ;  afterwards,  in  1791,  the 
institution  was  taken  undw  the  protection 
of  the  state^  and  united  to  that  for  the 
deaf  and  dumb ;  but,  as  this  was  found 
inconvenient^  it  was,  in  1795,  separated 
fix>m  the  latter,  and,  in^  1801,  united  to 
the  hospital  of  the  qmnze-^fingL  The 
minglmg  of  young  blind  persons  here  with 
old  solmers  being  founa  very  prejodicial 
to  the  former,  may,  full  or  indignation, 
went  to  Peteraburg,  in  1806,  in  order  to 
'  establish  a  dmilar  institution  there.  After 
the  restoration,  in  1815,  the  eiErtablishment 
was  put  upon  its  original  fixiting,  and  the 

Digitized  by 




physician  doctor  Guilli^  appointed  its 
director. — ^Nezt  to  France,  the  first  insti- 
tmioDS  for  the  blind  were  eetablisbed  in 
Great  ftitain,  where,  howeyer,  they  are 
■uppoited  onlv  by  the  contributions  of 
pnyate  individuals.  In  1790,  an  institu- 
tion of  this  sort  was  established  at  Liver- 
pool, in  which  both  males  and  females  are 
mstructed  in  manual  labors,  in  singing 
hymns,  and  playing  on  the  ornm.  In 
1/91,  a  second  one  was  established  in 
Edioburgb,  in  which  the  making  of  bas- 
kets and  ropes  is  the jprincijNd  occupation. 
Similar  institutions  have  since  amen  in 
other  places ;  one  at  London,  in  1800 ;  also 
at  Dublin,  Bristol  and  Norwich.->-In  Ger- 
many, the  first  public  institution  for  the 
blind  was  established  by  the  king  of  Prus- 
sia at  Berlin,  in  1806,  when  HaQy  passed 
through  this  ci^.  Zeune  was  appointed 
director  of  it  He  invented  many  instru- 
ments more  simple  than  those  which  had 
formerly  been  used,  and  which  answered 
the  puipose  veiy  welL  Among  other 
things,  he  brou^t  to  great  perfection 
maps  and  globes,  destmed  for  the  use  of 
the  blind ;  which,  in  many  parts  of  Eu- 
rope, are  used  for  the  instruction  of  others 
also,  since  they  present,  by  means  of 
elevations  and  depressions  of  the  sur- 
face, proportional  elevations  and  pictures, 
which  strike  the  mind  forcibly.  In  arith- 
metic, he  directed  his  attention  almost 
exclusively  to  mental  calculations.  The 
first  institutions  for  the  blind  in  Germany, 
after  that  in  Berlin,  were  established  m 
Vienna  and  Praoue,  both  in  1808,  and,  in 
Che  same  year,  that  in  Amsterdam,  found- 
ed by  free-masons.  In  1809,  the  institu- 
tion m  Dresden  sprang  up-Hi  branch  of 
that  in  Berlin.  In  1810,  the  institudon 
in  Zurich  was  founded  by  the  auxiliary 
socie^.  In  1811,  a  similar  establishment 
was  instituted  in  Copenhagen,  after  the 
plan  of  professor  Brorson,  by  die  soeUiy 
of  Ae  cAotn,  as  it  is  called,  (Verein  der 
KetU).  After  the  great  war  for  liberty, 
firom  1813  to  15,  when  the  Egyptian  oph- 
thalmia raged  so  dreadfiilly  among  the 
European  armies^  several  mstitutions  for 
blind  soldiers  were  estid>liBhed,  on  Zeune's 
plan,  in  Prussia.  Thev  object  was  to 
instruct  soldiers  who  had  become  blind, 
and  unable  to  exercise  their  former  busi- 
ness, in  useful  labors.  These  schools 
were,  at  first,  intended  to  continue  only  till 
all  the  soldiers  received  in  them  had 
thoroughly  learned  some  trade:  two  of 
them,  however,  those  at  Breslau  and  K6- 
nigsberig,  have  been  put  upon  a  perma^ 
bent  footing.  The  institution  for  the 
JMJ04  in  Peii?BM9>  which  was  establu^ 

by  Hafly,  but  was  never  in  a  veiy  pros- 
perous state,  seems  to  have  declined 
gready,  after  its  founder^s  return  to 
France,  in  1816.  The  name  of  its  present 
director  is  Martin  PilazkL  Whether  the 
institudon  projected  at  Barcelona,  in 
1820,  has  been  established,  or  whether  it 
survived  the  political  storms  of  that  year, 
or  the  yellow  fever  of  the  succeeding, 
we  do  not  know.  Institutions  for  the 
blind  are  confined  ahnost  entirely  to  Eu- 
rope, and  they  appear  to  be  peculiar  to 
Germany,  Switzenand,  Holland,  Den- 
niaik,  France,  England  and  Russia.  Fa- 
ther Charlevoix,  indeed,  says,  that,  in  Ja- 
pan, the  records  of  the  empire  are  com* 
mitted  to  the  memory  of  the  blind ;  and 
Golovnun  estimates  theur  number  in  the 
gigantic  city  of  Jeddo,  alone,  at  36,000 ; 
but  neither  of  them  mentions  that  there 
is  any  institution  established  for  them. 
The  director  of  the  institution  in  Vienna, 
F.  W.  Klein,  has  published  a  ^d  Liehr^ 
buck  zum  UnkmchU  der  Bhnden,  &c. 
tim  ^  zu  h&rgerlicher  Brauchbarkeit  zu 
hOden  (Elementary  Work  for  the  Insu-uc- 
tion  of  the  Blind,  &C.,  to  render  them 
useftil  Citizens)^— The  first,  and,  as  yet, 
the  only  institution  of  the  kind  in  Ameri- 
ca, was  commenced  in  Boston,  in  the 
year  1829.  In  the  beginning  of  that  yeai^ 
an  act  of  incorporation  v^as  granted,  by 
the  legislature  or  Massachusetts,  to  several 

Sintiemen,  authorizmg  them  to  establish 
e  New  England  Asylum  for  the  Blind^ 
for  the  purpose  of  educating  blind  pert 
sons.  This  institution  will  go  into  opera- 
tion as  soon  as  the  necessary  funds  shall 
be  obtained. 

Bliivds,  in  operations  agamst  fortresses ; 
the  name  of  all  preparations  which  tend  to 
intercept  the  view  of  the  enemy.  There 
are  several  species  :-^l,  A  fiiscme  placed 
across  the  embrasures,  to  prevent  the 
enemy  firom  observing  what  passes  near 
the  cannon.—^.  Blinds  before  port-holes 
are  shuttere  made  of  strong  planks,  which 
are  placed  before  the  port-noles,  as  soon 
as  the  ffuns  are  dischar^,  to  obstruct  the 
enemy^  view. — 3.  Sinj^e  and  double 
blinds.  The  former  consist  of  three  strong, 
perpendicular  posts,  5  foet  in  height,  b^ 
tween  which  are  planks  covered  with 
iron  plates  cm  the  outside,  and  thus  made 
shot-proof  This  screen  is  fiirnished  vrith 
rollers,  to  enable  the  laborers  in  the 
trenches  to  push  it  before  them.  The  latter 
conast  of  large  wooden  chests,  on  four 
block-wheels,  which  are  filled  with  earth, 
or  bass  of  sand,  and  serve  likewise  in  the 
trenches,  &C.,  to  cover  the  soldiere  firom 
the  fire  of  the  enemy^— 4  Another  kind 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



of  bfinds  used  to  protect  the  workmen  in 
the  trenches,  are  the  chandeliers.  Two 
sauare  beams  of  timber  are  placed  paral- 
lel and  at  a  distance  of  six  feet,  on  the 
ffround,  and  fiustened  by  two  cross  beams. 
Upon  the  ends,  perpendicular  posts  are 
erected,  and  the  interval  is  filled  up  with 
fascines,  at  least  to  a  height  of  five  feet — 
5.  Blind  is  also  the  name  given  to  cov- 
erings placed  over  the  most  exposed 
parts  in  tlie  saps  or  the  fortress.  These 
are  made  of  beams,  over  which  hurdles 
or  fescines  are  spread,  that  finally  receive 
a  sufficiently  thick  layer  of  earth  as  a 

Buster;  a  topical  appfication,  which, 
when  applied  to  the  skm,  raises  the  cuti- 
cle in  tbe  form  of  a  vesicle,  filled  with 
serous  fluid.  The  powder  of  tiie  earUhor 
ris,  or  Spanish  fiy,  operates  with  most 
certainty  and  expedition,  and  is  now  in- 
variably used  for  this  purpose.  Morbid 
action  may  often  be  removed  fiiom  tbe 
system  by  inducing  an  action  of  a  differ- 
ent kind  in  the  same  or  a  neighboring 
part ;  hence  the  utility  of  blisters  in  lo- 
cal inflammation  and  spasmodic  action. 
£xciting  one  pain  often  relieves  another ; 
hence  the  use  of  blisters  in  tooth-ache,  and 
some  other  painfiil  affections.  Lastly,  blis- 
ters communicate  a  stimulus  to  the  whole 
system,  and  raise  the  vi^or  of  the  circula- 
tion ;  hence,  in  part,  their  utility  in  fevers 
of  the  typhoid  kmd,  though,  in  such  cases, 
they  are  used  with  still  more  advantage 
to  obviate  or  remove  local  inflammation. 

Block,  Blarcus  Elieser;  a  naturalist 
of  Jewi^  descent,  bom  at  Anspach, 
in  1723,  of  poor  parents.  In  the  19th 
year  of  his  age,  he  understood  neither  Ger- 
man nor  Latin,  nor  had  he,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  some  rabbinical  writings^  read 
any  thing.  Nevertheless,  he  becune  tu- 
tor in  the  house  of  a  Jewish  surgeon  in 
Hamburg.  Here  he  learned  Uerman 
and  Latin,  and,  besides,  acquired  some 
knowledge  of  anatomy.  His  principal 
work  is  the  MUtavesckichU  der  IHsehe 
(Natural  History  of  Fishes),  fbl.,  1785— 
1799,  which  is  adorned  wnh  many  col- 
ored plates.  He  enioyed  a  weU-deaerved 
reputation,  and  died  in  1799. 

jBlockade  is  the  interception  by  one 
belligerent  of  commonication  with  a  place 
occupied  by  another.  National  sovereign- 
tv  confera  the  right  of  declaring  war,  and 
the  right  which  nations  at  war  have  of 
destroying  or  capturing  each  other's  sub- 
jects or  goodS|  imposes  on  neutral  nations 
the  obligation  not  to  interfere  with  the 
exercise  of  this  riffht  within  the  rules  and 
limits  prescribed  by  the  kw  of  nations. 

In  order  to  render  the  communication 
with  a  place  unlawfiil  to  a  neutral,  a 
blockading  or  besieging  force  must  be 
actually  present,  investmg  it,  and  suf- 
ficiently powerfiil  to  render  a  communi* 
cation  with  it  dangerous  to  a  neutral,  and 
expose  him  to  seizure  by  the  blockading 
or  besieeing  force.  A  declaration  of 
aege  or  blockade  is  an  act  of  sovereign- 
ty, hut  does  not  require,  in  all  cases,  a  di- 
rect declaration  by  the  sovereign  authori- 
ty of  the  besieging  belligerent;  for  its 
officera  may  be  invested,  either  expressly, 
or  by  implication,  with  authority  to  insti- 
tute such  siege  or  blockade.  It  must, 
however,  in  order  to  be  lawful  and  obli- 
gatory on  neutrals,  be  declared,  or  sanc- 
tioned, either  expressly,  or  by  implication, 
by  the  sovereign  power.  It  must  also  be 
declared  or  made  public,  so  that  neutrals 
may  have  notice  of  iL  If  a  blockade  is 
instituted  by  a  sufficient  authority,  and 
maintained  by  a  sufficient  force,  a  neu- 
tral is  so  far  affocted  by  it,  that,  if  he  at- 
tempts to  trade  with  the  place  invested, 
either  by  carrying  goods  to  it  or  bringing 
them  away,  the  property  so  attempted  to 
be  carried  to,  or  from  the  place,  is  liable 
to  be  seized  by  the  invesnnff  party,  and, 
in  case  of  being  seized,  is  foneited. 

Blockhouse,  in  foitification;  a  house 
made  of  beams,  ioined  together  crosswise, 
and  often  doubled,  with  a  covering  and 
loop-boles,  large  enough  for  25 — 100  men. 
In  addition  to  this,  it  is  commonfV  cover- 
ed vritii  earth,  to  render  it  entirely  bomb 
and  fire-proof.  It  is  usually  sunk  several 
feet  into  the  ground.  Some  forts  of  this 
kind  contain  two  stories;  and  they  are 
often  fitted  up  to  receive  cannon.  Block- 
houses are  generally  built  m  the  form  of 
a  square  or  a  cross.  Their  use  is  to  afford 
a  feeble  garrison  of  an  important  places 
which  is  very  much  exposed,  an  oppor- 
tunity of  holding  out  against  the  cannon- 
ade and  assault  of  the  enemy  till  they  are 
relieved.  They  also  serve  for  bomb-proof 
guard-houses,  and  places  of  last  resort,  iu 
tbe  interior  of  intrenchments,  and  in  the 
covered  passages  of  fortresses,  where  the 
cannon  are  stationed. 

Blocks  are  pieces  of  wood  in  which 
sheaves  or  pulleys  are  pbiced,  for  tiie  pur- 
pose of  fonning  tackle,  purchases,  &C.,  in 
various  operations  in  naval  tactics  and 
architectural  constructien&  The  me- 
chanical power  is  described  hi  the  article 
PuUey.  (q.  v.)  Blocks  are  single,  double, 
treble,  and  fourfold^  according  as  the 
number  of  sheaves  is  one,  two,  three  or 
four.  The  sheaves  are  grooved  to  re- 
ceive the  rope,  and  have  in  their  centre  a 

Digitized  by 




fmsB  huh,  or  trian^tdar  piece  of  braaa,  to 
receive  the  vm  on  which  they  rerolve. 
The  aides  of  the  block  are  caUed  chuks. 
A  nmmng  block  is  attached  to  the  ofoiecf 
lo  be  moved ;  a  Handing  block  is  fixed  to 
some  permanent  support*  Blocks  also 
receive  different  denominations  fit>m  their 
8hape»  purpoM  and  mode  of  application, 
which  cannot  well  be  explained  Withont 
the  use  of  figures.  No  less  than  200  dif- 
ferent sorts  and  sizes  are  made  at  Ports* 
mouth,  England,  for  the  royBl  navy,  be- 
sides which  there  are  various  sorts  used 
only  in  the  merchant-ships.  The  ma- 
ehinery  for  supplying  the  royal  navy  with 
blocks  m  the  mventicm  of  Mr.  Brunei,  an 
American  artist.  It  enables  4  men,  in  a 
given  time,  to  complete  the  aheDs  of  as 
many  blocks  as  50  men  could  do  by  the 
old  method. 

Bloemart,  sometimes  also  Blom,  Abra« 
ham,  a  Dutch  painter,  bom  at  Gorcum, 
m  1565,  died  at  Utrecht,  in  1647.  His 
paintings  are  reproached  with  various 
mults,  yet  he  is  distinguished  by  the  bril- 
liancy of  his  colorinff  and  the  richness  of 
his  invention.  In  the  representation  of 
tiie  ckiartjf  oscuro,  he  may  be  called  great. 
He  painted  all  sorts  of  objects;  but  his 
landscapes  are  the  most  esteemed.  He 
had  four  sons,  of  whom  the  voungest, 
Cornelius,  is  the  most  distinguished.  He 
was  bom  at  Utrecht,  in  1603,  and  died  at 
Rome,  m  1660.  He  was  an  engraver,  and 
his  engravings  are  distinguished  for  puri- 
Dce  and  softness.     He  was  the 

founder  of  A  new  school,  from  which  pro- 
ceeded Baudot,  PoiUy,  Chasteau,  Speier, 
Roullet,  &c. 

Blois  (anciently,  BEeMS,  and  Castrum 
BUsmse) ;  a  city  of  Prance,  and  capital  of 
lioir-ana-Cher ;  36  miles  S.  W.  Orleans ; 
Ion.  I*'  20^  E. ;  kit.  47^  35^  N. ;  pop.,  13,054. 
Before  the  revolution,  it  was  a  bishop's 
see,  the  seat  of  a  lieutenant-general,  a 
grand  bailiwick,  and  capital  of  the  Blai-* 
sois,  once  the  aboide  of  the  kings  of  France, 
B.  has  been  several  times  conspicuous  in 
French  hfatory.  There  are  several  foun-r 
taim  in  different  parts  of  the  town,  sup* 
plied  by  an  aqueduct,  supposed  to  have 
been  erected  by  the  Romans.  * 

BLOMf  liXD,  Charles  James ;  doctor  of 
philology,  bom  at  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  in 
Suffdk,  in  1786.  In  1804,  he  entered 
Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  where  he 
^tinguished  himself,  not  only  in  the 
usual  examinations,  but  also  in  the  public 
disputations.  I'he  university,  therefore, 
granted  him,  in  1806,  one  of  the  scholar- 
ships, founded  by  lord  Craven — a  high 
academical  honoc;     la  1806,  when  he 

received  the  bachelor's  degree,  he  was 
declared  third  wrangUr,  and  obtained  the 
first  medal  for  a  prize  poem.  Not  long 
after,  he  published  a  new  edition  of  the 
PrwM^eus  of  i^ischylus,  and,  in  1809, 
was  chosen  feOow  of  his  coUege.  His 
literary  reputation  soon  spread;  and,  in 
1810,  lord  Bristol  conferred  on  him  the 
living  of  Quarrington,  in  lincolnsbire. 
Lord  Spencer,  one  of  the  first  patrons  of 
literature  in  England,  also  voluntarily 
presented  him  witii  another  at  Dunto«. 
There  he  remained  seven  years,  during 
vrhich  time  he  published  emtions  of  sev- 
eral of  the  plays  of  JBschylus,  amonff 
them  the  Promelheu9  (which  he  had 
printed  once  before^  the  Seven  hejhre 
ThebeSj  the  Persa  and  ,^lgamemnon;  also 
a  new  edition  of  Callimachus,  and,  after- 
wards, in  connexion  with  T.  Rennel,  the 
Musa  Canlabrigienses.  In  1812,  he  edited, 
with  professor  Monk,  the  Posthumous 
Tracts  of  Person.  He  likewise  published, 
in  1814,  the  Advenaria  Por$tmL  These 
works  ^ned  hun  such  a  reputation,  that 
lord  Bristol  confened  on  him  the  livings 
of  Great  and  Little  Chesterfbrd,  in  Essex, 
on  which  account,  with  the  permission  of 
his  patrons,  he  exchanged  his  cure  at  Dun-^ 
ton  for  that  of  Tuddenham,  in  Suffolk, 
To  the  fame  which  his  philological  and 
theological  studies  procured  him,  he  was 
also  indebted,  in  1819,  for  the  office  of 
chaplain  to  the  bishop  of  London — a 
choice  whioh  always  falls  on  a  man  of 
acknowledged  ability,  it  being  his  duty  to 
examine  the  can^Qdates,  previously  to  their 
ordination  in  this  diocese.  Places  of  this 
sort  generally  Imd  to  hi^  promotions  in 
the  church,  and  B.  soon  after  received 
the  living  of  St  Botolph's.  Since  that 
time,  he  has  lived  in  Loadon,  visits  in  the 
firat  circles,  and  supports  an  establiabment 
suitable  to  his  income,  which  is  safd  to 
amount  to  £8000.  Among  his  latest  liter- 
ary labors,  the  continuation  of  his  editioi) 
QtMBchfhu  is  the  most  important, 

Blomfield,  Edward  Valentine,  brother 
of  the  former,  bom  in  1788,  studied  in 
Caius  college,  at  Cambridge,  and  excited 
the  highest  expectationa  Among  several 
prizes  which  he  received,  we  rnay  men* 
tion  the  medal  assigned  him,  in  1809,  for 
his  beautiful  ode,  In  Desidenum  Pononi, 
In  1812,  a  fellowship  in  Emmanuel  coU 
lege  was  conferred  on  him.  In  1813,  he 
visited  Germany,  where  he  acquired  a 
good  knowledge  of  the  German  language, 
and  became  acquainted  with  Wolf  in  Ber- 
lin, and  Schneider  in  Bresku.  After  his 
return,  he  wrote  in  the  Ali»«tiifi  crUicum^ 
0r  Cambridge  Ckiasical  Researches  (Pt  2)| 

Digitized  by 




remaiicB  on  Gemmn  literatare,  which 
were  received  witii  approbation.  The 
imiveraity  of  Cambridge  appointed  him 
one  of  the  preacheis  at  Sl  Manr's  church. 
He  began  a  translation  of  Schneider's 
CrieckUeh'deuUches  Lexicon,  but  did  not 
live  to  finish  iL  Matthiee'a  GneckiBche 
GrammaHk^  howerer,  he  translated  com- 
pletely. His  translation  was  published  by 
his  brother,  and  eveiy  where  well  receiv- 
ed. He  was  in  Switzerland,  in  1816,  with 
lys  pupil,  a  young  nobleman,  and«  in  his 
haste  to  return  to  Cambridge,  on  hearing 
that  he  was  appointed  proctor  for  the  fol- 
lowing year,  the  fiitigue  of  rapid  travellinff 
occasioned  a  sickness,  of  which  he  died 
in  October,  1816. 

Blondel  ;  a  confidential  servant  and  in^ 
structer  in  music  of  ilichard  Coeiur  de  Lion 
of  England,  about  the  year  1 190.  While 
his  master  vras  tlie  prisoner  of  the  duke  of 
Austria,  B.  went  through  Palestine,  and 
all  parts  of  Germany,  in  search  of  him. 
He  underetood,  it  is  said,  that  a  prisoner 
of  rank  was  confined  in  Lowenstein  cas- 
tle, and  hastened  thither.  Placing  him- 
self under  a  grated  tower,  he  be^an  to 
sing  one  of  Sie  French  lays  which  he 
had  formerly  composed  tor  Richard. 
Scarcely  had  he  finished  the  first  stanza, 
when  a  voice  firom  the  dungeon  of  the 
tower  responded.  Thus  he  discovered 
his  king,  deUvered  him,  and  gained  the 
name  of  the  JwU^  BlondeL  Gr^try's 
fine  opera,  Richard  Cceur  de  Lion,  is 
fi>unded  on  this  anecdote. 

B1.00D,  Thomas  (commonly  called  edo-' 
nd  Blood ),  was  a  disbanded  officer  of  Oli- 
ver Cromwell.  He  took  part  in  the  revolu- 
tion in  various  ways,  and  made  an  attempt 
to  steal  the  crovni  and  regalia  from  the 
Tower,  in  which  he  almost  succeeded. 
Being,  however,  taken,  he  confessed  his 
purpose,  without  showing  the  least  fear 
of  death.  Charies  U,  from  idle  curiosity, 
went  to  see  him,  and  B.  persuaded  the 
monarch  to  pardon  him.  Charletf  even 
bestowed  an  estate  vrith  £500  a  vear  upon 
him,  whilst  poor  Edwards,  the  keeper  of 
the  jewel-office,  who  valiantly  defended 
the  crown,  and  was  wounded,  lived  for- 

Blood  is  the  red  fluid  contained  in  the 
blood-vesseb  (q.  v.)  of  animal  bodies.  It 
is  found  in  the  mamraaUa,  in  birds,  in 
reptiles  and  in  fishes.  In  the  last  two 
classes  of  animals,  the  temperature  of  the 
blood  is  much  lower  than  in  the  former, 
for  which  reason  they  are  distinguished 
by  the  name  coldrbiooded,  while  the  others 
are  termed  uNmn-Uooittf  animals.  Insects 
and  worms,  instead  of  red  blood,  have  a 

juice  of  a  whitish  color,  which  is  eaDed 
wldie  hlood.  In  the  blood,  two  different 
subrtances  are  contiuned,  which  are  sepa- 
rated by  coagulation-— the  Aenim,  a  fiuid 
like  the  white  of  an  egg,  and  a  thick  mat- 
ter, to  which  the  red  colw  properiy  be- 
longs, which  is  much  heavier  than  the 
former,  and  is  called  the  coagulum* 
The  last  may  be  divided  again  into  two 
difierent  parts — into  the  cruor,  or  that 
part  of  the  blood  which  is  intrinacatly 
red,  and  coagulable,  and  Ivnmk  orfihrine,  to 
which  the  coagulation  of  tne  blood  must 
be  ascribed.  The  fhrinty  in  young  ani- 
mals, is  much  whiter  than  in  older  and 
stron^r  ones.  The  blood  of  the  latter 
contains  much  more  azote  than  that  of 
the  former.  If  the  nourishment  of  ani- 
mals is  changed,  we  also  find  an  altera- 
tion in  the  constituent  parts  of  their  bkxxL 
It  is  also  changed  bv  diseasea  In  ani- 
mals that  are  hunted  to  death,  or  killed 
bv  lightning,  the  blood  does  not  coagulate. 
The  blood  of  birds  is  more  hij^hfy  col- 
ored, and  warmer,  than  that  of  viviparous 
animals,  and  coagulates  more  easily  in  the 
air.  That  of  reptiles  and  fishes  coagulates 
with  difficulty.  Aided  by  magnifying 
glasses  of  a  strong  power,  one  may  ob- 
serve, in  examining  the  blood  of  the  living 
animal,  or  in  blood  which  is  newly  drawn, 
that  it  consists,  especially  the  cruor,  of 
little  globular  bubbles,  iherlohuUs  of  the 
blood,  as  they  are  called,  the  diameter  of 
which  amounts  to  about  the  three  hun- 
dredth part  of  a  line.  In  blood  that  has 
been  drawn  some  time,  aldiough  this  time 
may  be  very  short,  they  are  not  to  be  dis- 
covered. They  are  the  effect  of  the  life 
that  pervades  the  blood.  The  more  robust 
and  nealthy  an  animal  is,  the  more  glob- 
ules are  perceived.  They  show,  as  it 
were,  the  transition  fix)m  the  formless 
liquid  to  the  original  form  of  the  first 
organized  matter.  The  blood  is  of  the 
greatest  importance  to  the  life  of  an  ani- 
mal, and  may  be  considered  as  the  source 
of  Ufe.  As  bng  as  the  body  is  living, 
the  blood  is  in  perpetual  motion.  When 
it  is  taken  out  of  the  body,  a  remarkable 
change  soon  follows :  it  be^ns  to  coagu- 
late, and  then  undergoes,  first  an  acetous, 
and,  after  a  few  days,  a  putrid  fermenta- 
tion. All  the  blood  takes  its  origin  fix>m 
the  chyle,  and  deposits,  by  degrees,  the 
nourishing  panicles  requisite  to  the  pres- 
ervation and  growth  of  the  body,  by  a 
multitude  of  vessels  adapted  thereto.  This 
is  done  while  it  is  driven  fi^m  the  heart 
into  the  remotest  parts  of  the  body,  and 
from  thence  back.  The  circulation  of  the 
blood  is,  as  it  were,  the  principle  and  first 

Digitized  by 




CQDidiiiQaoflife.  With  it,  except  in  cases 
oT  faintiDgi  euiSbcatioiiy  &c^  me  ceases. 
The  hearty  the  centre  of  the  circulation 
of  the  blood,  has  a  two-fold  motiop,  of 
contraction  and  dilatation,  which  constant- 
ly alternate.  With  the  heart  two  kinds  of 
Teasels  are  connected — ^the  arteries  and  the 
veina  {See  Mood-Vesads.)  The  circula- 
tion of  the  blood  proceeds  with  an  aston- 
ishing ra|»idity :  did  it  flow  at  an  equal 
rate  in  a  straight  line,  it  would  run,  in  the 
amice  of  one  minute,  through  149  foeU 
This  swifhiess,  however,  exists  only  in 
the  larger  vessels  near  the  heart ;  the  far- 
ther the  blood  recedes  from  the  heart,  tlie 
slower  its  motion  becomes.  In  a  grown- 
up person,  in  good  health,  we  may  reek- 
cm  the  mass  of  blood  at  24 — 30  pounds. 
Blood- Vessels  are  the  tubes  or  vessels 
m  which  the  blood  curculatea.  They  are 
divided  into  two  classes, — arteries  and 
veins, — ^which  have  two  points  of  union 
or  connexion — the  first  in  the  heart,  from 
which  they  both  originate,  and  the  other 
in  the  mmute  vessels  or  net-work,  in 
which  they  terminate.  The  arteries  arise 
from  the  heart,  and  convey  the  blood  to 
all  parts  of  the  body ;  the  veins  return  it 
to  the  heart.  The  arteries  distribute 
throughout  the  body  a  pure,  red  blood, 
for  the  purposes  of  nourishment ;  while 
the  veins  return  to  the  heart  a  dark-col- 
ored blood,  more  or  less  loaded  with  im- 
purities, and  deprived  of  some  of  its  valu- 
able properties.  But  this  is  not  returned 
again  to  the  body  in  the  same  state.  For 
the  heart  is  vrisely  divided  into  two  por- 
tions or  sides,  a  right  and  left,  one  of 
which  receives  the  impure  blood  from 
the  veins,  and  sends  it  to  the  lungs  to  be 
defecated  and  freshly  supplied  with  oxy- 
gen or  vital  air,  while  the  other  receives 
the  pure  red  blood  from  the  lungs,  and 
circulates  it  anew  tbrouffh  the  arteries. 
The  arteries  arise  from  me  left  ventricle 
of  the  heart  by  one  large  trunk,  nearly  an 
inch  in  diameter,  which  is  gradually  sub- 
divided into  smaller  OQes,  as  it  proceeds 
towards  the  Umbs,  till  they  terminate,  at 
last,  in  vessels  so  small  as  to  be  almost 
iijviable,  and  in  a  fine  net-work  of  cells, 
extending  through  the  whole  body,  in 
which  tlie  blood  is  poured  out,  and  nutri- 
tion or  the  increase  of  the  body  takes 
place,  and  from  which  the  residue  is 
taken  up  1^  the  small  veins,  to  be  re- 
turned to  the  heart.  The  arteries  and 
veins  are  widely  different  in  their  struct^ 
ure,  as  well  as  their  use&  The  former 
are  composed  of^very  strong,  firm,  elastic 
coats  or  membranes,  wliich  are  four  in 
number.    The  external  covering  and  the 

mtemai  lin^g  of  ^e  arteries,  although 
belonging  to  difiSsrent  classes  of  mem- 
branes, are  both  very  thin  and  soft  The 
second  coat  is  very  thick,  tough  and  elas- 
tic, being  that  which  chiefly  gives  their 
pecuhar  appearance  to  the  arteries.  The 
third  is  formed  of  fibres,  apparently  mus- 
cular, arranged  in  circular  rings  around 
the  tube  of  the  vessels.  It  is  well  known 
that  the  pulse  of  the  heart  is  felt  in  the 
arteries  alone,  although,  in  the  bleecfing 
of  a  vein,  we  sometimes  see  the  blood 
start  as  if  in  unison  with  the  beating  of 
tlie  heart  The  pulse  is  produced  by  the 
wave  or  stream  of  blood,  which  is  driven 
by  the  heart  through  the  arteries,  dis- 
tending and  slightly  elevating  them,  after 
which  they  msumuy  contract  fix>m  their 
elasticity,  and  thus  force  the  blood  into 
the  smaller  vessels.  The  pulse  varies  in 
its  character  with  the  general  state  of  the 
health.  (See  Pulse,)  When  arteries  are 
cut  or  wounded,  the  firmness  of  their 
coats  prevents  tlieir  closing,  and  hence 
arises  the  fetal  nature  of  wounds  of  large 
vessels,  which  will  remain  open  till  they 
are  tied  up,  or  till  death  is  produced. — 
The  veins  commence  in  small  capillary 
tubes  in  eveiy  part  of  the  body,  and,  by 
their  gradual  union,  form  large  trunks, 
till  they  at  last  terminate  in  two  (one 
ascending  fiiom  the  lower  parts  of^the 
body,  the  other  descending  mm  the  head 
and  arms],  which  pour  their  contents  into 
the  heart.  Their  structure  is  much  less 
firm  than  that  of  the  arteries.  They 
are  very  thin  and  soft,  consisting  of  only 
two  thm  coats  or  membranea  The  inner, 
or  lining  membrane^  is  finequently  doubled 
into  folds,  forming  valves,  which  neariy 
close  tlie  passage  in  the  veins,  and  thus 
give  veiy  matenal  support  to  the  blood 
as  it  is  moving  up  in  them  towards  the 
heart  These  valves  are  not  found  in  the 
veins  of  the  bowels,  the  lungs  or  the 
head.  The  number  of  the  veins  is  much 
greater  than  that  of  the  arteries,  an  artery 
being  often  accompanied  by  two  veins. 
They  difter  also  in  this,  that,  while  the 
arteries  are  deeply  seated  in  the  flesh,  to 
guaixl  them  from  injury,  the  veins  are 
very  firequently  superficial,  and  covered 
only  by  the  skin*  Tlie  veins,  it  is  well 
known,  are  the  vessels  commonly  opened 
in  blood-letting,  although,  in  cases  which 
render  ft  necessary,  a  small  artery  is 
sometimes  divided-^There  are  two  por- 
tions of  tlie  venous  system,  which  do  not 
coirespond  exactly  with  our  general  de- 
scription ;  these  are  the  veins  of  the  bow- 
els and  of  the  lungs.  The  former  circu- 
late theur  blood  through  the  liver  before 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



it  returns  to  die  heart,  and  the  latter,  the 
pulmonary  Teins,  convey  red  blood  fiom 
the  lungs  to  the  heart  (For  an  account 
of  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  see  Ifearf.) 
It  should  also  be  mentioned,  that  the 
]arge  vein,  which  bdnffs  back  the  blood' 
fiom  the  lower  part  or  the  body,  receives 
firom  the  lymphatic  and  lacteal  vessels 
the  chyle  m>m  the  bowels,  which  sup- 
plies the  waste  of  the  blood  and  nourishes 
the  body,  and  the  serous  and  other  watery 
fluids  vidiich  are  taken  up  by  the  absorb- 
ents in  all  parts  itf  the  body. 

Bloodhound  ;  •  variety  of  the  com- 
mon dog,  called  C.  aagax  by  LinnsBUs, 
ehien  cawwU  by  Buffon,  remarkable  for 
the  perfection  of  its  sense  of  smelL  Ow- 
ing to  this  circumstance,  these  hounds 
were  formerly  much  employed  in  pursu- 
ing criminals  escaped  fiom  justice,  or  in 
tracing  out  robbers  or  enemies,  whose 
course  was  inevitably  discovered,  when 
once  the  bloodhound  was  placed  upon 
their  trail  In  ihe  border  country  of 
Scotland,  they  were  formerly  much  em- 
ployed for  such  uses,  but  at  present  the 
race  has  become  almost  fbr^tten.  In 
the  countries  of  South  America,  the 
Spaniards  employed  fierce  dogs  to  aid 
them  in  conquering  the  Indians,  but  it  is 
not  certain  that  the  dogs,  trained  by  them 
to  this  cruel  ^business,  belonged  to  the 
present  variety.  All  the  varieties  of 
hound,  however,  have  much  sagacity, 
and  most  of  the  larger  and  stronger 
breeds  have  great  acuteness  of  scent,  and 
might,  without  much  difficulty,  be  trained 
to  aet  as  bloodhounds. 

Bloom  FIELD,  Robert,  an  English  poet, 
bom  at  Honin^on,  in  1766,  the  son  of  a 
tailor,  learned  to  read  at  the  village 
school,  end,  in  1781,  was  sent  to  learn 
the  trade  of  aehoemdcerwith  his  brother 
in  London.  The  visiting  of  several  places 
of  worship,  of  a  debating  society,  of 
Covent  garden  theatre,  and  the  reading 
of  sund^  books,  called  forth  his  Acuities, 
and  he  became,  almost  unconsciously,  a 
poet.  Hearing  him  one  day  repeat  a 
song  which  he  had  composed,  his  aston- 
ished brother  prevailed  on  him  to  offer  it 
to  the  London  Magazine,  and  it  was  ac- 
cepted. The  poem  was  called  the  Milk 
Maid.  A  second,  the  Sailor's  Return, 
likewise  found  a  plaCe  in  that  journal. 
Thomson's  Seasons,  the  Paradise  Lost, 
and  other  works  of  this  kind,  now  be« 
came  the  subjects  of  his  constant  study. 
In  the  country,  where  he  resided  for  a 
short  time,  in  1786,  he  first  conceived 
the  idea  of  his  poem,  the  Farmer's  Boy, 
which  is  characterized  by  a  spirit  of  rural 

simp1k»ty  and  innocence.  It  was  written, 
under  the  most  unfiivorable  circnnntan- 
ces,  by  a  journeyman  shoemaker  in  a 
f^neL  It  was  firot  shown  to  Oapel  Loflly 
m  1798,  who  was  so  much  pleased  with 
it,  that,  in  conjunction  with  his  fiiend 
Hill,  he  had  it  printed  in  1800.  It  de- 
rives its  principal  value  fix>m  its  strict 
adherence  to  truth  and  nature.  The 
writer,  in  fiict,  has  drawn  his  own  por- 
trait in  the  Fanner's  Boy,  and  descnfaed 
the  scenes  and  events  winch  he  actually 
wimeased.  Hence  there  is  a  degree  of 
spirit  and  originality  in  the  poem,  which 
stamps  it  with  the  impress  of  genius,  and 
renders  it  veiy  pleasmg.  The  versifica- 
tion is  uncommonly  smooth  and  correct. 
B.  also  wrote  a  volume  entitled  Wild 
Flowers,  containing  a  collection  of  poeti- 
cal tales,  which  was  well  received,  and 
was  not  unworthy  of  his  reputation.  His 
latest  production  was  Hazelwood  Hall,  a 
village  drama,  which  appeared  shortlv 
before  his  decease,  a  work  of  not  much 
merit  B.  was  patronised  by  the  duke  of 
Graflon,  who  bestowed  on  him  a  small 
annuity,  and  made  him  an  under-sealer 
in  the  seal-office.  This  situation  he  was 
forced  to  resiffri  on  account  of  ill  health. 
He  then  wonred  again  at  his  trade,  as  a 
shoemaker,  and  employed  himself  in  con* 
Btructing  JEohan  harps.  Engaging  in  the 
book  trnde,  he  became  a  bankrupt,  and,  in 
the  latter  part  of  his  life,  was  afilicted 
with  violent  head-aches,  and  became 
nearly  blind.  He  was  graduallv  reduced 
to  such  a  state  of  nervous  irritability,  that 
apprehensions  were  entertained  of  his 
becoming  insane.  These  fears  were  ter- 
minated by  his  death,  which  took  place 
in  August,  1823. 

Blowino-Machiiies  ;  the  hunger  instru- 
ments or  contrivances  fer  producing  a 
strong  and  continued  cuirent  of  air,  such 
OS  is  necessary  in  smelting-houses,  in  large 
smitheries,  &c.    (See  BHhtPa.) 

Blowpipe  is  me  name  applied  to  an 
instrument,  by  means  of  whicn  the  fiame 
of  a  candle  or  lamp  is  made  to  produce 
an  intense  heat,  capable  of  being  applied 
to  a  variety  of  useful  purposes.  Its  most 
simple  form  is  that  of  a  tapering  tube, 
about  eight  hiches  in  length,  and  curved 
neariy  at  right  angles,  within  two  inches 
of  its  smaller  extremity.  At  its  larger 
end,  it  is  nearly  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in 
diameter,  and  at  the  smaller,  only  large 
enough  to  admit  a  common-sized  pin.  It 
is  macle  of  brass  or  white  iron.  In  usmg 
it,  the  flame  of  a  lamp  or  candle  is  turned 
aside  fix>m  its  vertical  to  a  horizontal  dit 
rection,  by  a  stream  of  air  impelled  upon 

Digitized  by 




h,  either  fiom  the  hin^  or  from  a  double 
bellowB,  The  flame,  m  its  new  directioih 
aasumee  a  conical  simpe,  and  consists  of 
two  parts,  visible  by  dieir  different  colors ; 
the  outer  beinff  reddish-brown,  and  the 
inner  blue.  The  heat  at  the  apex  of  the 
inner  cone  is  the  most  intense,  and  is 
equid  to  that  produced  in  the  best  fur- 
naces. It  is  employed  by  the  jeweller 
and  goldsmith  in  the  operation  of  solder- 
ing, and  by  other  artists  who  fiibricate 
small  objects  in  metal ;  by  the  glass- 
blower  in  makinff  thermometers,  barome- 
ters and  other  ^uiss  instruments ;  by  the 
enameller,  and,  mdeed,  wherever  it  is  re- 
quued  to  subject  a  small  body  to  a  strong 
heat — The  conunon  blowpipe  has  under- 
gone a  yariety  of  improyements  in  the 
hands  of  the  chemist,  to  whose  researches 
it  has  proyed  an  excellent  auxiliaiy. 
These  consist,  .principally,  in  providing 
its  stem  with  a  bowl,  or  enlargement, 
where  the  moisture  of  the  breath  may  be 
condensed  and  detained ;  in  fitting  the 
smaller  end  so  as  to  receive  a  variety  of 
little  caps,  or  hollow  cones,  with  orifices 
of  different  diameters,  so  as  to  be  changed 
according  as  a  flame  is  required  more  or 
less  strong ;  and  in  rendering  the  instru- 
ment more  portable,  by  constructing  it  of 
several  pieces,  capable  of  being  taken 
apart  and  packed  up  in  the  space  of  a 
pencil-case.  With  a  part,  or  with  the 
whole  of  these  improvements,  it  is  used 
by  the  chemist  to  make  an  examination 
of  any  doubtful  mineral  substance,  artifi- 
cial alloy,  or  pharmaceutical  preparation* 
This  he  is  capable  of  conducting  (with 
the  aid  of  a  charcoal  support,  and,  occa- 
nonally,  a  little  borax)  ma  moment's 
time,  and  with  the  loss  of  the  smallest 
imaginable  quantity  of  the  substance.  To 
the  analytical  chemist  its  use  is  indis- 
pensable for  enabling  him  to  discover  the 
principal  Ingredients  in  a  substance,  pre- 
vious to  his  subsequent  operations  for  as- 
certaining their  relative  proportion.  (For 
an  account  of  the  blowpipe  in  wnich 
oxygen  and  hydrogen  gases  ara  em- 
ployed, see  Compound  Bhwpipe,) 

Blucher,  Leorecht  von,  of^  the  fiunily 
of   Grossen-Rensow,   in    Mecklenburg, 

Erince  of  Wahlsttidt,  field-marshal  of  the 
ing  of  Prussia,  and  knight  of  almost  all 
the  difiltiniruished  military  orders  of  Eu- 
rope, was  bom  at  Rostock,  Dec.  16, 1742. 
When  he  was  14  years  of  a^je,  his  fiither, 
a  captain  of  hone  in  the  service  of  Hesse- 
Cassel,  sent  him  to  the  island  of  Rtigen. 
Here  the  si^ht  of  some  Swedish  hussars 
excited  in*  him  the  desiro  of  becoming  a 
soldier.    His  parents  and  relations  in  vain 

attempted  to  dissuade  him  ficom  this  step ; 
he  took  service  in  a  Swedish  regiment  of 
hussars  in  the  capacity  of  a  cornet  His 
first  campaign  was  against  the  Prupsians, 
and  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  same 
regiment  of  hussars,  which  he  afterwards 
commanded  with  so  mueh  honor.  The 
commander  of  this  regiment,  colonel  von 
BelUng^  induced  him  to  enter  into  tho 
Prussian  service.  An  exchange  was 
agreed  upon  with  the  Swedes,  and  B. 
was  made  lieutenant  in  Belling^  regi- 
ment Discontented  at  tba  promotion  of 
other  officers  over  his  head,  he  left  the 
army,  devoted  himself  to  agriculture,  and, 
by  industry  and  prudence,  acquired  an 
estate.  After  the  death  of  Frederic  II, 
he  became  a  major  in  his  former  rai- 
ment, which  he  commanded  with  dis* 
tinction  on  the  Rhine,  in  1793  and  1794. 
Orchies,  Luxemburg,  Frankenstein,  Op- 
penheim  (Jan.  16,  1794),  Kirweiler  and 
Edesheim  in  the  Palatinate,  bear  wimess 
to  his  achievements.  After  the  batde  of 
Leystadt,  Sept  18,  1794,  which  added 
greatly  to  his  reputation,  he  was  appoint-* 
ed  major-general  of  the  army  of  observa- 
tion stationed  on  the  Lower  Rhine.  la 
1802,  in  the  name  of  the  king  of  Prussia, 
he  took  possession  of  Erfurt  and  Muehl- 
hausen.  Oct  14, 1806,  he  fought  at  the 
battle  of  Auerst&dt  He  then,  with  the 
greater  part  of  the  cavalry,  followed  the 
retreat  of  the  prince  of  Hohenlohe  to 
Pomerania.  His  squadron,  moving  on 
the  left  of  the  main  army,  became  sepa- 
rated from  it  so  far  that  a  junction  was 
possible  only  by  means  of  forced  marches, 
both  in  the  day  time  and  at  night  The 
latter,  K  thought  himself  not  authorized 
to  venture  upon,  and  the  prince  of  Ho- 
henlohe was  forced  to  surrender  at  Prenz- 
lau.  B.,  cut  off  from  Stettin  by  this  ac- 
cident, threw  himself  into  Mecklenburg, 
where  he  joined,  at  Dambeck,  the  corps 
of  the  duke  of  Weimar,  commanded  by 
prince  William  of  Brunswick-Oels.  AU 
the  troops,  however,  were  too  much  &- 
tigued  to  undertake  any  enterprise.  Hav- 
ing the  grand-duke  of  Berg  on  his  lefl 
flank,  the  prince  of  Ponte-corvo  in  his 
front,  and  marshal  Soult  on  his  right,  B. 
was  obliged  to  take  post  behind  the 
Trave,  in  order  to  draw  off  the  three 
great  divisions  of  the  French  forces  fix>m 
me  Oder  as  long  as  possible.  With  this 
view,  he  entered  into  the  territory  of  the 
free  city  of  Lfibeck.  This  city  was  soon 
stormed  by  the  overwhelming  power  of 
the  French.  Although  B^  with  some 
troops,  escaped  out  of  the  ci^,  yet,  bein^f 
deprived  of  all  means  of  derending  hiok* 

Digitized  by 




ael^  or  continuing  his  flight,  he 
obliged  to  suirender  at  RaUuiu,  on  the 
6th  of  November.  This,  however,  he 
would  not  do,  until  pennission  had  been 
granted  him  to  add  the  following  clause 
to -the  instrument,  that  '^the  capitulation 
was  offered  to  him  by  the  prince  of  Ponte- 
corvo,  and  that  he  accepted  it  only  from 
want  of  ammunition,  ptrovisions  and  for- 
age." B.  was  now  a  prisoner  of  war ;  but 
he  was  soon  exchanged  for  the  French 
general  Victor,  and,  immediately  after  his 
arrival  at  Kdnigsberg,  placed  at  the  head 
of  a  corps,  and  sent  oy  water  to  Swedish 
Pomerania,  to  share  in  the  defence  of 
Stralsund,  and  to  assist  the  efforts  of  the 
Swedes.  Afler  the  peace  of  Tilsit,  he 
labored  in  the  department  of  war  at  K6- 
nigsberg  and  Berlin.  He  then  received 
the  chief  military  command  in  Pomera- 
nia, but,  at  the  mstigation  of  Napoleon, 
was  afterwards,  with  several  other  dis- 
tinguished men,  dismissed  from  the  ser- 
vice. In  tiie  campaign  of  1812,  when 
the  Prussians  assisted  the  French,  he 
took  no  part ;  but  no  sooner  did  Prusna 
rise  against  her  oppressors,  than  B.,  al- 
ready 70  years  old,  en  jpiped  in  the  cause 
with  all  lus  former  activity.  He  was  ap- 
pointed commander  in  chief  of  the  Prus- 
sians and  the  Rusnan  corps  under  general 
Winzingerode,  which,  at  a  later  f^riod, 
was  separated  from  him.  His  heroism  in 
the  battle  of  Lditzen  (May  2, 1813)  was 
rewarded  by  the  emperor  Alexander  with 
the  order  of  St  George.  The  battles  of 
Bautzen  and  Haynau,  those  on  the  Katz- 
bach  (see  WahUktdt)  and  at  Leipsic,  added 
to  his  gloiy.  On  the  Katzbach,  B.  de- 
feated the  armv  of  marshal  Macdcmald, 
and  delivered  all  Silesia.  His,  army  now 
received  the  name  of  the  SiUsian,  Napo- 
leon himself  endeavored  in  vain  to  check 
the  old  general  of  husan,  as  he  called 
him.  Oct  3,  B.  crossed  the  Elbe  at 
Wartenburg.  This  bold  step  compelled 
the  great  Bohemian  army  under  Schwart- 
zenoerg,  and  the  northern  army  under 
the  crown-prince  of  Sweden,  to  act  with 
more  spirit  The  great  battle  of  Leipsic 
approached.  Oct  16,  he  sained  a  sig- 
nal advantage  over  marshal  Marmont,  at 
Mdckem,  forcing  his  wav  as  far  as  the 
suburbs  of  Leipsic  On  the  18th,  in  con- 
nexion with  the  crown-piince  of  Sweden, 
he  contributed  greatly  to  the  defeat  of 
the  enemy,  and,  on  the  19tii,  his  troops 
made  the  first  assault  upon  Leipsic.  His 
promptitude  and  peculiar  manner  of  at- 
tacking had  already,  in  the  beginning  of 
the  campaign,  procured  him  from  the 
RuiwianB  the  name  of  marMl  Ibrward. 

From  that  time  it  became  his  name  of 
honor  throu|^out  the  whole  German  ter- 
ritory. Jan.  1,  1814,  with  the  Siiesian 
army,  which  now  consisted  of  two  Prus- 
sian, two  Russian,  one  Hessian  and  one 
mixed  corps,  he  crossed  the  Rhine  at 
Kaub,  tooK  possession  of  Nancy  on  the 
17th,  gained,  Feb.  1,  the  battie  of  La  Ro- 
thi^re,  and  pushed  forward  towards  Paris. 
His  detached  corps  were,  however,  check- 
ed by  Napoleon ;  yet  B.,  though  with  a 
great  loss,  effedea  his  retreat  towavda 
Chalons.  He  then  crossed  theAisne  at 
Soissons,  joined  the  northern  army,  ob- 
tained, March  9,  a  victory  over  Napoleon 
at  Laon,  and,  in  coimexion  with  Schwart- 
jsenberff,  at  the  close  of  the  month,  pressed 
forward  to  Paris.  The  day  of  Montmar- 
tre  crowned  this  campaign,  and,  March 
31,  B.  entered  the  capital  of  France.  His 
king,  in  remembrance  of  the  victory 
which  he  had  gained  near  Wahlstadt, 
made  him  prince  of  Wahlstadt,  with  a 
suitable  income.  In  England,  whither 
he  foUowed  the  allied  monarchs,  in  June 
of  the  same  year,  he  was  received  by  the 
people  with  enthusiasm.  The  university 
of  Oxford  conferred  on  him  the  decree 
of  doctor  of  laws.  He  afterwards  hved 
on  his  estates  in  Silesia  till  1815,  when 
the  chief  command  was  again  committed 
to  him,  and  he  led  his  army  into  the 
Netherlands.  June  15,  Napoleon  threw 
himself  upon  him,  and  B^  on  the  16thy 
was  defeated  at  Ugnv.  In  this  engage- 
ment! his  horse  was  killed,  and  he  was 
thrown  under  his  body.  After  this  un- 
fortunate, yet  honorable  day,  the  true 
greatness  of  the  field-marshal  and  his 
army  became  apparent  In  the  batde  of 
the  18th,  B.  amved,  at  the  most  decisnve 
moment,  upon  the  ground,  and,  takins 
Napoleon  in  the  rear  and  fiank,  gained, 
in  union  with  Wellington,  the  great  vic- 
tory of  Belle  Alliance^  or  Waterloo,  (q.  v.] 
He  refused  the  proffered  armistice,  ana 
forced  Paris  to  surrender ;  opposing,  with 
energy,  on  this  second  conquest  of  the 
capiud,  the  ^rstem  of  foibearance  prac- 
tised on  the  fermer  occasion.  As  he  was 
already  a  knight  of  all  the  military  orders 
of  Europe,  the  king  of  Prusaa,  to  reward 
his  new  services,  created  a  new  order 
expressly  for  him.  After  the  peace  of 
Paris,  the  prince  retired  to  his  estates. 
Aug.  26, 1819,  the  anniversary  of  the  bat- 
tie  on  the  Katzbach,  the  hero  received  at 
Rostock,  his  native  place,  an  honor  which 
is  seldom  bestowed  in  Germany.  The 
whole  body  of  his  countrymen,  the  in- 
habitants  of  Mecklenburg,  united  to  erect 
a  monument  commemorating  his  glory. 

Digitized  by 




executed  b^rBchadow  in  Beriin.    B.  died, 
after  a  ehort  illnesB,  at  his  estate  of  Krib- 
lowitz,  in  Sileaia,  Sept  152,  1819,  aged 
almoat  77  yean.    June  18, 1826,  a  statue 
of  bronze  was  erected  to  him,  m  Berlin, 
12  feet  in  height,  modelled  hj  Ranch, 
and  cast  by  Le  Quine  and  Reisinger. — 
B.  was  not  so  eminent  for  military  sci- 
ence as  for  abiliw  in  action.    He  himself 
often  acknowledged  this,  when  he  was 
praising  the  merits  of  Gneiaenau,  to  whose 
assistance  he  was  creatlv  indebted.     In 
battle,  however,  he  had  the  eye  of  a  fid- 
con.     His  simplicity,  good-nature  and 
bravery  endeared   him  to  his  soldiers, 
who  loved  him  like  a  &ther.    His  ad- 
dresses  and   proclamations   are   distin- 
gjuished  for  their  brevity,  precision  and 
simplicity,  forming  a  striking  contrast  to 
the  hi|^-soundinff  French  proclamations 
of  the  time.     (See  Bluuka^s  L^k/snabtr 
MchreOnmg  (Bliicher's  life),  by  Vomhagen 
von  Ense,  Berlin,  1827.) 
Bi.UE.    (See  Color.) 
Blue,  Pnuiian ;  a  coloring  matter,  of  a 
pure  daik-blue  color,  a  doll  firacture,  ino* 
doroiis  and  insipid,  insoluUe  in  water, 
spirits  of  wine  or  ether ;  it  is  soluMe  only 
l^  the  action  of  corrosive  alkalies.    The 
discovery  of  this  color  was  accidentally 
made,  in  1704,  bv  Dieebach,  a  manufac- 
turer of  colon,  who,  with  the  intention  of 
precipitatmg  the  coloring  matter   fit>m 
cochmeal,  with' which  alum  and  vitriol  of 
iron  were  dissolved,  procured  some  alkaU 
firom  the  laboratory  of  DippeL    This  al- 
kali, which  Dippel  had  been  heating  with 
some  animal  matter,  produced  a  beautifUl 
blue  precipitate.    Dippel,  discovering  that 
the  alkali  had  acquired  this  power  of 
forming  a  blue  precipitate  of  iron  on  ac- 
count of  its  mixture  with  animal  oil,  soon 
learned  to  prepare  it  in  a  more  simple 
way,   since  all  animal  substances,  and 
even  all  vegetables,  which  contain  much 
azote,  will  give  the  same  result.    It  is, 
however,  necessaiy,  that  tf  1  the  materials 
should  be  perfectly  pure, since  thepurifi- 
cation  would  be  too  expensive.    The  ad- 
dition of  alum  gives  to  this  blue  more 
body  and  a  brighter  color.    This  blue 
substance  is  a  prussiate  of  uon  (52  parts 
red  oxyde  of  iron,  and  48  of  prussic  acid). 
The  alumina  added  amounts  to  from  20  to 
80  per  cent ;  but  the  sreater  the  quantity, 
the  poorer  is  the  quahty  of  the  blue. 

BLUEBiKn  {t^via  $iaU$^  Wils. ;  saxieo- 
la  «uift9,  Bonaparte).  .This  beautiful  little 
bird  is  one  of  the  eaiiiest  messengen  of 
spring,  and  is  occasionally  seen  as  eariy 
as  the  month  of  February,  in  mild  sea- 
The  middle  of  March  is  the  ordi- 

naiy  time  of  mating,  when  the  male  blue- 
bird is  observed  to  be  extremely  devoted 
to  the  female,  and  shows  the  ardor  of  his 
attachment  by  every  attention  in  his  pow- 
er, by  the  rapturous  animation  of  his  song, 
and  the  angiy  jealousy  with  which  he  re- 
pels the  approaches  of  a  rival    The  nest 
of  the  former  jear  is  then  repaired,  and 
the  female  begins  to  lay  her  eggs,  usually 
five,  sometimes  six,  of  a  pale-mue  color. 
Two  or  three  broods  ars  raised  in  a  sea« 
son,  the  younsest  of  which  are  taken  care 
of  by  the  mate,  while  the  mother  is  still 
attending  to  the  nesL    The  principal  food 
of  this  species  is  insects,  especiaUv  large 
beetles,  and  other  hard- wing  or  coleopte- 
rous bugs,  to  be  found  about  dead  or  rot- 
ting trees:  berries,  persnnmon,  and  the 
seeds  of  various  plants,  are  also  discovered 
in  their  stomachs.    Laive  and  numerous 
tape-worms  infest  their  bowels,  and  they 
are  also  exceedingly  annoyed  by  vermin 
externally.    Wilson  says,  that,  in  this  re- 
spect, they  are  more  plagued  than  any 
other  bird,  except  the  woodcock.    The 
spring  and  summer  song  of  the  bluebijrd 
is  a  soft  and  often-repeated  wart)le :  in 
the  month  of  October,  his  song  changes 
to  a  smffle  plaintive  note.    About  the 
middle  of  November,  the  bluebirds  disap- 
pear, though,  occasionally,  one  or  two 
may  be  seen  during  the  winter,  in  mild 
weather.    The  raannen  of  this  species 
are  so  oentle,  and  they  render  so  much 
service  oy  the  destruction  of  insects,  that 
they  are  always  regarded  with  fcvor  by 
the  former.    The  male  bluebird  is  six 
inches  and  three  quarten  long,  with  very 
full  and  htoad  wines.     All  the   upper 
parts  are  of  a  rich  sky-blue,  with  purple 
reflections:  the  bill  and  legs  are  black. 
The  female  is  easily  known  by  the  duller 
cast  of  the  plumage  on  the  back,  and  by 
the  red  on  the  breast  not  descending  so 
low  as  in  the  male,  and  being  much 
fainter.    The  bluebird  inhabits  the  whole 
of  the  U.  States,  also  Mexico,  Brazil,  Gui- 
ana and  ^e  Bahama  islands.— Wilson 
states  that  **  nothing  is  more  common,  in 
Pennsylvania,  than  to  see  large  flocks  of 
these  birds,  in  the  spring  and  fall,  passing 
at  connderable  heights  in  the  air,  fiom 
the  south  in  the  former,  and  from  the 
north  in  the  latter  season.    I  have  seen, 
in  tlie  month  of  October,  about  an  hour 
after  sunrise.  10  or  15  of  them  descend 
ftK)m  a  great  height,  and  settle  on  the  top 
of  a  tiffl,  detached  tree,  appearing,  fit)m 
their  rilence  and  sedateness,  to  be  stran- 
gen  and  fhtigued.    After  a  pause  of  a  few 
minutes,  they  began  to  dress  and  arrange 
theur  plumage,  and  continued  so  employ- 

Digitized  by 




ed  for  10  or  15  minutes  more ;  then,  on  a 
few  warning  notes  being  given,  perhaps 
by  the  leader  of  the  party,  the  whole  re- 
mounted to  a  vast  heignt,  steering  in  a 
direct  line  for  the  south-west." 

Blue  Ridge  ;  one  of  the  mnges  of  the 
Alleghany  or  Appalachian  mountains, 
which  extends  from  the  river  Hudson  to 
Georgia,  and  intersects  tlie  state  of  Vir- 
ginia from  N.  £.  to  S.  W.,  dividing  it  into 
two  parts,  nearly  equal.  The  great  lime- 
stone valley  extends  along  the  N.  W. 
side  of  this  range.  The  most  elevated 
summits  of  the  Blue  Ridge  are  the 
peaks  of  Otter,  in  Bedford  county,  Vir- 

Blue-Stocking  ;  a  pedantic  female  ; 
one  who  sacrifices  the  characteristic  ex- 
cellences of  her  sex  to  learning.  The 
origin  of  this  name,  in  England,  is  thus 
given  by  Boswell,  in  his  Life  of  Johnson : 
"About  this  time  (1780),  it  was  much  the 
fashion  for  several  ladies  to  have  evening 
assemblies,  where  the  fair  sex  might  par- 
ticipate in  conversation  with  literary  and 
ingenious  men,  animated  with  a  desire  to 
please.  These  societies  were  denomi- 
nated hlue-stocking  dvbs^  the  origin  of 
which  name  was  as  follows: — One  of  the 
most  eminent  members  of  these  societies 
was  Mr.  Stillingfleet,  who  always  wore 
blue  stockings.  Such  was  the  excellence 
of  his  conversation,  that  his  absence  was 
felt  as  a  great  loss,  and  it  used  to  be  said, 
^We  can  do  nothing  without  the  blue 
stockings ;'  and  thus,  by  degrees,  the  title 
was  established."— In  Germany,  blue- 
stodiinff  {blau-sirumpfe)  signifies  a  traitor, 
a  slanderer,  an  infamous  lover,  &c.,  and 
the  term,  in  that  countiy,  is  said  to  be  de- 
rived from  the  blue  stockings  formerly 
worn  by  procurers. 

Blumauer,  Aloysius,  a  poet,  and  femous 
parodist,  bom  at  Steyr,  m  Austria,  above  tlie 
Ens,  in  1755,  studied  in  his  native  city,  en- 
tered (1772)  into  the  order  of  the  Jesuits  in 
Vienna,  hved  there  privately,  after  the  abo- 
lition of  his  order,  till  he  was  appointed 
censor,  which  place  he  resigned  in  1793, 
and  took  the  establishment  of  the  booksel- 
ler Graeffer,  in  which  he  had  been  concern- 
ed since  1786.  He  died  in  1798.  By  his 
iEneid  travestied,  he  distinguished  hunself 
as  a  burlesque  poet  It  is  a  poetical  farce, 
rich  in  burlesque  wit  and  droll  contrasts. 
These  qualities  are  also  to  be  found  in 
several  others  of  his  numerous  poems. 
Some  of  them  are  full  of  animation,  and 
are  written  in  a  pure,  manly  style.  At 
times,  his  wit  is  vulgar,  his  language  in- 
correct and  prosaic  A  collection  of  his 
works  appeauned  at  Leipac,  1801—3, 8  vols. 

Blumsnbacr,  John  Frederic,  doctor. 
This  profound  naturalist  is,  at  present, 
one  of  the  first  ornaments  of  the  univer- 
sity at  Gottingen,  where  he  has  lectured, 
for  50  years,  with  unabated  industry,  on 
natural    history,   phymology,   osteology, 
comparative  anatomy,  pathology,  and  3ie 
history  of  medical  literature,  to  very  nu- 
merous audiences.    He  has  written  on 
almost  all  these  sciences  with  acuteness, 
method  and  precision.    His  worics  bear 
the  stamp  or  his  peculiar  genius,  and 
some  of  them  have  been  several  times 
published.    His  masterly,  but,  at  present, 
somewhat  antiquated  &ndbuch  der  Jsta^ 
tutgetchichtt  (Compendium  of  Natural 
History)  was  published,  in  1825,  for  the 
11  th  time.    Of  his  Handbuch  der  Pkysio- 
logit  (Compendium  of  Physiology)  tnere 
is  an  Enghsh  translation,  the  second  edi- 
tion of  which  (1818)  is  also  remarkable 
for  being  the  first  book  ever  printed  by 
mechanical  power. — ^B.  was  bom  at  Go- 
tha.  May  11,  1752 ;  studied  in  Jena  and 
Gottingen,  where  he  received  his  degree 
of  doctor  of  medicine.  Sept  19, 1775.    In 
1776,  he  was  appointed  director  of  the 
cabinet  of  natunJ  curiosities  belonging  to 
the  university,  and  professor  extraordma- 
ry  of  medicine,  and,  in  1778,  ordinary 
professor  of  the  same.    In  1783,  he  un- 
dertook a  literary  journey  to  Switzerland, 
and,  at  a  later  period,  one  to  England, 
where  the  attentions  of  the  celebrated  sir 
Joseph  Banks  were  particularly  servifeea* 
ble  to  him.    He  possesses  an  excellent 
collection  of  books  and  engravings  illus- 
trating natural  history,  and  numerous  spe- 
cimens of  natural  curiositieSi  The  collec- 
tion of  skulls  is  not,  perhaps,  quailed  in 
the  world.    On  this  collection  is  founded 
his  CoUeciio  Craniorun  dkers.  ^erU,  if- 
lu8tr.j    with    engravings,  of  which   six 
numbers  (Gottingen,   1790—1820)  have 
appeared.    Schnader  called  a  newly-dis- 
covered species  of  plants  afler  his  name, 
Blim&nhackia  instgnis.    The  50th  anni- 
versaiy  of  his  professorship  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Gottingen  was  celebrated  Feb.  26, 

Boa  ;  the  name  of  a  genus  of  reptiles 
belonging  to  Cuvier*s  tribe  of  serptnis 
proper ;  having  the  tympanic  bone  or 
pedicle  of  the  lower  jaw  movable,  which 
is  itself  almost  always  suspended  to  an- 
other bone  analogous  to  the  mastoid,  at- 
tached to  the  skull  by  muscles  and  liga- 
ments, which  contribute  to  its  mobihty. 
The  branches  of  this  jaw  are  not  united, 
and  those  of  the  upper  jaw  are  attached 
to  the  intermaxillary  bone  only  by  Hga- 
ments,  so  that  these  animals  can  dilate 

Digitized  by 




the  mouth  sufficiently  to  swallow  bodies 
lareer  thap.  themselves.  Their  palatic 
arches  partake  of  this  mobility.  In  the 
species  of  this  tribe  DOt  possessed  of  ven^ 
om,  the  branches  of  the  upper  and  lower 
jaw,  throughout  their  entue  length,  as 
well  as  the  palate  bones,  are  armed  with 
pointed,  recurved,  solid  and  permanent 
teeth,  forming  four  nearly  equal  rows 
above,  and  twp  below. — The  ^nus  boa 
comprises  all  those  serpents  which,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  preceding  characters,  have 
the  scuta  on  the  under  part  of  the  tail  sin- 
gle ;  a  hook  on  each  side  of  the  vent;  the 
tail  prehensile ;  the  body  compressed  and 
largest  in  the  middle,  and  with  small 
scales,  at  least  on  the  posterior  part  of  the 
head. — The  species  properly  belonging 
to  this  genus  are  among  the  largest  of 
the  serpent  tribe,  some  of  them,  when 
full  grown,  being  30  and  even  40  feet 
long.  Though  destitute  of  fangs  and  ven- 
om, nature  has  endowed  them  with  a  de- 
See  of  muscular  power  which  renders 
em  terrible.  Happily,  they  are  not  com- 
mon in  situa^ons  much  frequented  by 
mankind,  but  are  chiefly  found  in  the 
vast  marshy  regions  of  Guiana,  and  other 
hot  parts  of  the  American  continents  Al- 
though sufficiently  active  when  fasting 
or  hungry,  they  hecome  very  sluggish 
and  inert  after  having  gorged  their  prey, 
at  which  time  they  are  most  easily  de- 
stroyed. In  order  to  obtain  their  food,  the 
hoa  of  largest  size  attach  themselves  to 
the  trunk  or  branches  of  a  tree,  in  a  situa- 
tion likelv  to  be  visited  by  quadrupeds 
lor  the  sake  of  pasture  or  water.  There 
the  serpent  swings  about  in  the  air,  as  if 
a  branch  or  pendent  of  the  tree,  until 
some  luckless  animal  approaches;  tlien, 
suddenly  relinquishing  its  position,  swifl 
as  lightning  he  seizes  the  victim,  and  coils 
his  body  spirally  round  its  throat  and  chest, 
until,  alter  a  few  ineffectual  cries  and  strug- 

fles,  the  animal  is  suffix^ated,  and  expires. 
Q  producing  this  effect,  the  serpent  does 
not  merely  wreathe  itself  around  its  prey, 
but  places  fold  over  fold,  as  if  desirous  of 
adding  as  much  weight  as  possible  to  the 
muscular  effi)rt:  these  folds  are  then 
gradually  tightened  vrith  enormous  force, 
and  speedily  induce  death.  The  animals 
thus  destroyed  by  the  larger  6ocb  are  deer, 
dogs,  and  even  bullocks.  The  prey  is 
then  prepared  for  beins  swallowed,  which 
the  creature  accomplisnea  b^  pushing  the 
limbs  into  the  most  convement  position, 
and  then  covering  the  sur&ce  with  a  glu- 
tinous saliva.  The  reptile  commences 
the  act  of  deglutition  by  taking  the  muz- 
zle of  the  prey  into  its  mouth,  which  is 

VOL.  II.  13 

capable  of  vast  extension ;  and,  by  a  soe- 
cesKon  of  wonderfUl  muscular  contract 
tions,  the  rest  of  the  body  is  gradually 
drawn  in,  -with  a  steady  and  regular 
motion.  As  the  mass  advances  in  the 
gullet,  the  parts ,  through  which  it  has 
passed  resume  their  former  dimensions, 
though  its  immediate  situation  is  always 
betrayed  by  external  protuberance. — As 
already  mentioned,  the  species  of  boa  are 
peculiar  to  the  hot  parts  of  South  Ameri- 
ca, though  nothine  is  more  common  than 
the  error  of  confounding  the  great  ser- 
pents of  India,  Africa,  &c.,  with  the 
proper  hocu  According  to  the  researches 
of  Cuvief,  all  the  boa,  at  present  well  de- 
termined, are  natives  of^  the  new  conti- 
nent The  great  serpents  of  the  old  con- 
tinent belong  to  the  genus  python  {D&udX 
and  will  be  treated  of  under  that  title.  It 
is  nevertheless  true,  that  PUny  has  spoken 
of  the  huge  serpents  of  India,  and  after- 
wards of  large  serpents  of  Italy,  which 
were  called  (kmb,  thus  named  from  the  cir- 
cumstance of  their  being  at  first  fed  with 
cow's  milk. — ^Among  the  most  celebrated 
species  is  the  boa  corutridor  (L.),  distin* 
guished  by  a  large  chain,  formed  alter* 
nately  of  large,  blackish,  irregular  hexag- 
onal spots,  witJi  pale,  oval  spots,  notch- 
ed at  their  two  extremities,  along  the 
back.  This  is  the  largest  species,  and  is 
usually  confounded,  by  casual  observers, 
with  the  python  Tigris  of  the  old  world. 
The  B,  cenchris  (L.),  and  the  B.  scytalty  et 
musina  (L.),  attain  to  nearly  an  equal  size 
with  the  constrictor  (from  20  to  30  feet 
long),  and  are  all  natives  of  the  torrid  and 
marshy  regions  of  America.  The  other  spe- 
cies are  of  smaller  size,  and  some  do  not 
much  exceed  that  of  the  largest  common 
snakes.  We  cannot  reflect  upon  the  natural 
history  of  these  great  reptiles,  witiiout  be- 
ing struck  with  their  pecuhar  adaptation  to 
the  situations  in  which  the^  are  oommoiK' 
ly  most  abundant  In  regions  bordering 
on  great  rivers,  which,  iSe  the  Oriaoco, 
&C.,  annually  inundate  vast  tracts  of  coun- 
try, these  serpents  Uve  securely  among 
the  trees  with  which  the  soil  is  covered, 
and  are  capable  of  enduring  very  pr^ 
tracted  hunger  without  much  apparent 
suffering  or  diminution  of  vigor.  Nox- 
ious as  such  districts  are  to  human  life, 
they  teem  with  a  gigantic  and  luxuriant 
vegetation,  and  are  the  fiivorite  haunts  of 
numerous  animals,  preyed  upon,  and,  to  a 
certain  degree,  restncted  in  their  increase, 
by  the  boa.  As  their  prey  come  within 
their  reach,^they  requue  no  deadly  appa- 
ratus of  poison  to  produce  their  destruc- 
tioD,  amce  nature  has  endowed  them  with 

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muscular  strength  suipenngthatof ahnost 
ereiy  other  creature,  in  proportion  to  their 
size.  Once  fidrly  involved  m  the  crushing 
folds  of  the  constridm-f  the  strength  of  the 
strongest  man  would  not  prove  of  the 
slightest  avail ;  indeed,  from  tlie  ease  with 
wmch  larger  and  more  powerful  crea- 
turoe  are  put  to  death  by  these  serpents, 
it  is  evident  that  any  number  of  unarmed 
jnen  would  act  very  unwisely  to  provoke 
a  combat  with  enemies  endowed  with 
powers  of  such  dreadful  energy. 

BoADicEA ;  queen  of  thelceni,  in  Brit- 
ain, during  the  reign  of  Nero.  Having 
bec^  treated  in  the  most  ignominious 
manner  by  the  Romans,  she  headed  a 
general  insurrection  of  tlie  Britons,  at- 
tacked the  Roman  settlements,  reduced 
London  to  ashes,  and  put  to  the  sword  all 
strangers,  to  the  number  of  70,000.  Sue- 
tdnius,  the  Roman  general,  defeated  her 
in  a  decistve  battle,  and  B.,  rather  than 
611  into  the  hands  of  her  enemies,  put  an 
end  to  her  own  life  by  poison. 

Boat  ;  properly,  a  vessel  propelled  by 
oars.  In  a  more  extensive  sense,  the  word 
is  applied  to  other  small  vessels,  which 
difibr  in  construction  and  name,  according 
to  the  services  in  which  they  are  em- 
ployed. Thus  they  are  light  or  stronsr, 
sharp  or  flat-bottomed,  open  or  decked, 
&c.,  according  as  they  are  intended  for 
swiflness  or  burden,  deep  or  shallow  wa- 
ter, &c — ^The  barge  is  a  long,  lieht,  nar- 
row boat,  employed  in  haii)ors,  but  unfit 
for  sea.— The  Umg-boat  is  the  lai^t  boat 
belonging  to  a  ship,  generally  furnished 
with  sails,  and  is  emploved  for  cruising 
short  distances,  bringing  heavy  articles  on 
board,  &c^— The  Umnen  is  more  flat-bot- 
tomed than  the  long-boat,  which  it  has 
generally  supersede(L— The  pinnace  re- 
sembles a  bar^,  but  is  smaller.— The 
CMUers  of  a  ship  are  broader  and  deeper 
than  the  barge  or  pinnace,  and  are  em- 
liloyed  in  carrying  hght  articles,  passen- 
^e^&c  on  board. — Yawls  are  used  for 
similar  purposes,  and  are  smaUer  than 
cutters. — ^A  gig  is  a  long,  narrow  boat, 
used  for  expecudon,  and  rowed  with  six 
or  eight  oars.— The  joUy-boai  is  smaller 
than  a  yawl,  and  is  used  for  going  on 
afaorb* — ^A  merchant-ship  seldom  has  more 
than  two  boats,  a  long-boat  and  a  yawL — 
A  uherry  is  a  light,  sharp  boat,  used  in  a 
river  or  harbor,  for  transporting  nessen- 
gera.— A  puni  is  a  flat-Dottomea  boat, 
chiefly  used  for  one  person  to  go  on  shore 
.fimm  small  vessels.— A  ikiff  is  a  small 
boat,  like  a  yawl,  used  for  passmg  rivers. 
— A  MoBti  is  a  flat-bottomed  boat,  used  in 
the  West  Indies  for  eanymg  hogsheads 

from  the  shore  to  ships  in  the  roads. — A 
fducca  is  a  large  passage-boat,  used  in 
the  Mediterranean,  with  fh>m  10  to  16 
banks  of  oars. — Seow  is  an  American 
word,  signifying  a  large,  flat-bottomed, 
heavy  boiat,  abmit  90  teet  lonff,  and  12 
vride.  In  some  parts  of  the  IL.  States,  it 
is  called  a  gondoku  (See  Canoe^  OaSley^ 

Boccaccio,  Giovanni,  whose  name 
alone,  as  Mazzuchelli  justly  says,  is  equiv- 
alent to  a  thousand  encomiums,  was  the 
son  of  a  Florentine  merchant  His  fhmily 
came,  originally,  from  Certaldo,  a  village 
in  Tuscany;  whence  he  gives  himself 
the  appellation  da  Certaldo,  He  was  the 
offspring  of  an  illicit  connexion  which  his 
fother  formed,  while  on  a  visit  of  busi- 
ness, at  Paris,  and  was  bom  in  that  city, 
1313.  He  eariy  removed  to  Florence, 
where  he  bej;an  his  studies,  and,  even  in 
childhood,  discovered  a  decided  fondness 
for  poetry.    In  his  10th  vear,  his  father 

Eut  nim  under  the  care  of'^a  merchant,  to 
e  educated  in  his  business.  With  him 
he  returned  to  Paris,  and  remained  there 
six  vears,  without  acquiring  any  fondness 
for  his  profession.  His  residence  of  eight 
years  at  Naples  viras  eoually  inefiectual 
to  this  punxMe.  Insteaa  of  attending  to 
trade,  he  formed  the  closest  intimacy  with 
several  learned  men  of  Florence  and 
.  Naples,  who  had  been  drawn  thither  by 
that  patron  of  the  arts,  king  Robert  There 
is  nothing  to  prove  that  he  shared  in  the 
fevor  of  the  prince ;  but  he  enjoyed  the 
particular  affection  of  a  natural  dau^htef 
of  his,  for  whom  he  composed  many  pieces 
in  prose  and  verse,  and  to  whom  he  often 
pays  homage  under  the  name  of  Fiam* 
metta.  Placed  in  fortunate  circumstances, 
with  a  lively  and  cheerfol  disposition,  of 
a  soft  and  pleasing  address,  the  fiivored 
lover  of  a  king's  daughter,  he  regarded 
with  more  aversion  than  ever  the  sta- 
tion for  which  he  had  been  intended. 
The  fondness  of  the  princess  for  poetry ; 
his  own  intimacy  with  scientific  and  tite- 
rary  men ;  the  tomb  of  Virffil,  near  Naples, 
which  he  used  to  visit  in  nis  walks ;  the 
presence  of  Petrarch,  who  was  received 
with  the  highest  dlsdncuon  at  the  court 
of  Naples,  and  who  went  from  that  city 
to  Rome,  to  be  crowned  with  the  poetic 
laurel ;  the  indmacy  which  had  arisen  be- 
tween the  two  poets ; — all  operated  power- 
fbUy  on  R,  to  strengthen  and  fix  his 
natural  inclination  for  poetry  and  litera- 
ture. After  living  two  years  at  Florence 
with  his  fitther,  he  returned  to  Napleau 
where  he  viras  very  gracioudly  received 
by  die  queen  Joanna.    It  is  thought  that 

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h  w»  DO  kn  to  gnti^r  the  voung  queeo^ 
than  his  Fiammetta,  that  he  wrote  his 
Dteamenmf  wluch  has  raised  him  to  the 
rank  of  the  fint  ItaUan  prose-writer.  On 
the  death  of  his  jfiuher,  becoming  master 
of  his  own  inclinations,  he  settled  at 
Florence,  where  his  first  woric  was  a  de- 
scription of  thcpkigue,  which  forms  the 
opening  of  the  Deeammm,  He  after- 
wants  wrote  the  life  of  Dante.  He  was 
chosen  to  inform  Petrarch,  at  Padua,  of 
his  recall  firom  exile,  and  the  restoration 
of  tlie  properly  bek>np^g  to  his  fiither, 
who  had  died  during  his  absence.  The 
friendship  of  these  two  men  of  genius 
continued  for  life.  When  B.,  some  years 
aflen  had  exhausted  his  fortune  in  the 
purchase  of  cosdy  books,  and  in  expen- 
sive pleasures,  he  found  in  Petrarch  the 
most  generous  assistance :  the  wise  coun- 
sels of  his  fiiend  wera  now  as  beneficial 
to  his  morals  as  they  had  been  to  his 
writings ;  in  fact,  to  bun  he  was  indebted 
for  the  change  which  took  place  in  his 
character.  A  dying  Carthusian  had  per- 
suaded him  to  renounce  all  the  pleas- 
ures of  the  world:  Petrarch  softened  his 
determination,  and  brought  him  back  to 
that  proper  ooedium  i^ch  maiks  the 
truly  wise  man.  New  troubles  in  Flor- 
ence induced  him  to  retire  to  Certaldo, 
where  he  owaed  a  small  estate.  There 
he  prosecuted  his  labors  in  tranquillity. 
He  now  composed  several  historical 
works  in  Latin.  Among  these  is  the 
first  modem  work  which  contains,  in  a 
collected  form,  the  mythological  notices, 
which  are  scattered  in  the  writings  of  the 
ancients.  He  was  well  Teroed  in  Greek, 
and  had,  at  his  own  expense,  brought 
Leontius  Pilatus  of  Thessalonica  fiom 
Venice  to  Ftorence,  and  maintained  bun 
three  yeais  at  his  boose,  in  order  to  learn 
Greek  of  him,  and  to  have  his  assistance 
in  explaining  the  poems  of  Homer,  and 
translating  them  into  Latin.  He  was  the 
first  who  procured  copies  of  the  Iliad 
and  Odyssey  from  Greece,  at  his  own 
expense,  and  spared  neitlier  cost  nor 
trouble  to  obtain  eood  Greek  and  Latin 
manuscriptsL  At  Sie  same  time,  he  used 
all  his  influence  to  excite  his  contem- 
poraries to  learn  the  Greek  language, 
and  substitute  the  study  of  the  ancients 
for  that  of  the  scholastic  philosophy. 
The  reputation  which  he  bad  gamed 
twice  procured  for  him  important  mis- 
sions to  pope  UrtMui  V.  Having  fulfilled 
these,  he  returned  to  Certaldo^  and  re- 
anmed  his  studies.  Here  he  was  attadced 
by  a  severe  and  lingering  disorder,  which 
ftielljr  left  him  in  a  state  of  debility  as 

painfiil  as  the  disease  itself.  Upon  his 
recovery,  he  was  charged  with  adifficcdt, 
but  very  flatterin(|[  trust  Dante  had  al« 
ways  been  the  object  of  his  highest  ad- 
miration. The  Florentines,  who  had 
once  persecuted  and  banished  that  illus- 
trious poet,  but  now  did  justice  to  his 
merits,  had  resolved,  by  way  of  atone* 
ment  to  his  memoiv,  to  estabush  a  public 
professorship  for  the  illustmtion  of  his 
poems,  whieh  were  eveiy  day  beicoming 
more  obscure,  as  the  distance  of  the  time 
when  they  were  written  became  greater. 
This  new  profevorsbip  was  conferred 
upon  B.,  who  devoted  himself  to  it  with 
so  much  ardor,  that  his  heal&  could  never 
be  firmly  reestablished.  This  received  a 
further  shock  from  the  death  of  his  in- 
structor and  dearest  friend  Petraroh.  He 
survived  him  not  much  more  than  ayear, 
and  died  at  Certaldo,  Dec.  21, 1375.  On 
his  tomb  was  placed  this  inscription,  com- 
posed by  himself: 

Hac  aob  mole  jaeent  cineres  ac  cwsa  Joannif^ 
Mens  sedet  aute  Deum  mentis  oniata  labonim, 
Monalis  vitie.    Genitor  Bocchaccius  ilH, 
Patria  Certaldami  sakUiun  fuit  alma  poesii. 

— ^B.  af^ars,  in  all  his  works,  to  be  a  poet 
of  the  richest  invention,  the  most  Hvely 
imagination,  andthetenderest  and  warm- 
est feeling.  In  prose,  he  is  a  perfect 
master  of  composition.  His  i>ec(tm«ron, 
which  contiJns  a  collection  of  a  hundred 
tales,  partly  borrowed  from  the  Proven^ 
poets,  is  the  worit  on  which  his  fiuiae 
chiefly  rails.  In  this  he  painted,  as  it 
were,  on  one  vast  canvas,  men  of  all 
ranks,  characters  and  ages^  and  incidents 
of  eveiy  kind,  the  most  extravagant  and 
comical,  as  well  as  the  most  touching  and 
tra^c;  and  improved  the  Italian  lan- 
ffuage  to  a  degree  of  excellence  never 
before  attained.  Of  his  other  worics,  we 
will  mention  only  the  following :  La  3Vr 
seidCy  the  first  attempt  towards  an  Italiaii 
epic,  and  written  in  oUaoa  rima,  of  which 
B.  is  considered  the  inventor;  Amorosa 
Fmone,  a  long  poem  in  terza  rtma  (the 
initial  letters  of  which  form  two  sonnets 
and  a  canzonet,  in  pruse  of  the  princess 
Maria,  his  mistress,  whom  he  here  ven- 
tures to  address  by  her  proper  name] ;  Jl 
FUoHnUo,  a  romantic  poem  m  ottaoa  rtma ; 
MmfaU  FUtolano^  in  the  same  measure ; 
Rime;  (most  of  his  sonnets,  canzonets, 
and  other  amatory  poems,  he  consigned 
io  the  flames,  after  reading  the  Italian 
poems  of  Petraroh ;  those  which  remaip 
appear  to  have  been  preserved  against  hiei 
vn&) ;  11  FUoeopOf  owero  anwrosa  FaHcOf  a 
hunting  romance;  L*amoro$a  FiammuA^ 
tOf  a  chamung  tale ;  VUrbano  (thought 

Digitized  by 




by  some  to  be  spurious) ;  I2Amdo  ossia 
NixMU  d^Amdo^  a'  mixed  composition, 
partly  in  prose,  and  partly  in  verse;  U 
Corhaeeio,  ossia  Laberinto  (PAmore,  a  pun- 
gent satire  against  a  lady  who  had  of- 
fended him ;  and,  finally,  OrigiiUy  vita  e 
Coshmi  di  Dante  Mtgkuriy  a  work  inter- 
esting for  the  characteristic  traits  which 
it  records;  and  his  Commenio  sopra  la 
Commedia  di  Damtty  which,  however,  is 
carried  no  farther  than  the  17th  canto  of 
Dante's  Hell.  His  Latin  works  are,  Dt 
Qenealogia  Deorum^  Ubri  xv;  De  Mon- 
Hum,  Lacuum,  Sylvarum,  Fluvwrum^  Stag- 
norum  et  Marium  Nbmimbus  Liber ;  lie 
Casibus  Virorum  et  Feminarum  iUustriuv^ 
Libri  iv;  De  daris  Mulieribus ;  and  Ec- 
logcR, — A  new  critical  edition  of  the  De- 
cameron, with  a  historical  literary  com« 
roentary,  and  the  life  of  B.,  was  published 
at  Paris,  1823,  in  5  vols. — In  the  ducal 
library  at  Florence,  among  the  manu- 
scripts collected  by  the  celebrated  Mag- 
llabecchi,  prof  Ciampi  lately  discovered 
a  memorandum-book  of  B.,  containing  a 
record  of  his  studies,  and  some  curious 
circumstances  relating  to  himself  and  a 
number  of  his  distinguished  contempora- 
ries.   It  has  been  published. 

BoccAO£,  Marie  Anne  du,  a  celebrated 
French  poetess,  member  of  the  acade- 
mies of  Rome,  Bologna,  Padua,  Lyons 
and  Rouen,  was  bom  in  Rouen,  1710, 
died  1802.  She  was  educated  in  Paris, 
in  a  nunnery,  where  she  discovered  a 
love  of  poetiy.  She  became  the  wife  of 
a  receiver  of  taxes  in  Dieppe,  who  died 
BOOB  after  the  marriage,  leaving  her  a 
youthful  widow.  She  concealed  her  tal- 
ents, however,  till  the  charms  of  youth 
were  past,  and  first  published  her  pro- 
ductions in  1746.  The  first  was  a  poem 
on  the  mutual  influence  of  the  fine  arts  and 
sciences.  This  gained  the  prize  fi^m  the 
academy  of  Rouen.  She  next  attempted 
an  imitation  of  Paradise  Lost,  in  six  can- 
tos ;  then,  of  the  Death  of  Abel ;  next,  a 
tragedy,  the  Amazons ;  and  a  poem  in 
10  cantos,  called  the  Columbiad,  Madame 
du  Boccage  was  praised  by  her  contem- 
poraries with  an  extravagance,  for  which 
only  her  sex  and  the  charms  of  her  per- 
son can  accoimL  Forma  Venus,  arte 
Minerva,  was  the  motto  of  her  admireiB, 
amonff  whom  were  Voltaire,  Fontenelle, 
and  Clairaut  She  was  always  surrounded 
by  distinguished  men,  and  extolled  in  a 
multitude  of  poems,  which,  if  collected, 
would  fill  several  volumes.  There  is  a 
great  deal  of  entertaining  matter  in  the 
letters  which  she  wrote  on  her  travels  in 
England  and  Holland,  and  in  which  one 

may  plainly  see  the  imfn^esBion  she  made 
upon  her  contemporaries.  Her  works 
have  been  translated  into  English,  Span- 
ish, German  and  Italian. 

BoccHERiifi,  Luigi,  a  celebrated  com- 
poser of  instrumental  mumc,  was  bom  in 
1740,  at  Lucca,  and  received  from  the 
abbot  Vanucci,  music-master  of  the  arch- 
bishop, his  first  insdruction  in  music  and 
on  the  violoncello.  He  fijrther  improved 
himself  in  the  art  at  Rome,  and  aftenvards 
went,  with  Filippo  Manfi-edi,  his  friend 
and  countryman,  to  Spain,  where  he  was 
loaded  with  honors  and  presents,  by  the 
king,  and  was  appointed  by  the  academy 
to  furnish  nine  pieces  of  his  composition 
annually,  which  he  continued  to  do  till 
his  death,  in  1805.  The  king  of  fmssia, 
Frederic  William  II,  who  was  a  great 
lover  of  the  violoncello,  and  admired  B.'s 
compositions,  settled  upon  him'  a  consid- 
erable pension,  on  condition  of  his  send- 
ing him  yearly  some  of  his  quartets  and 
quintets.  The  compositions  which  B. 
has  published  himself  consist  of  sympho- 
nies, sextets,  quintets,  quatuors,  trios,  du- 
ets and  sonatas  for  the  violin,  violoncello 
and  piano-forte.  He  never  composed  any 
thing  for  the  theatre,  and  of  church  com- 
positions we  find  but  one,  his  Slabat  Ma- 
ter, The  adagios  of  B.  excited  the  admi- 
ration of  the  coimoisseurs,  and  the  despair 
of  the  composers  of  his  time.  He  may 
be  regarded  as  the  precursor  of  Haydn,  as 
he  was  the  first  who  wrote  instmmental 
quartets,  of  which  all  the  parts  are  obli- 
goto,  and  determined  the  tme  character 
of  this  species  of  music.  His  melodies 
are  more  highly  esteemed  in  France  and 
Spain  than  in  Germany. 

BoccHETTA ;  a  narrow  pass  of  the  Apen- 
nines, leading  from  Lombardy  to  Genoa. 
It  is  defended  by  three  fortifications.  In 
the  Austrian  war  of  succession  (1746  and 
1747),  and  in  the  French  war,  towards 
the  end  of  the  18th  century,  it  was  the 
scene  of  several  important  events. 

BocHicA  was  the  founder  of  the  Indian 
empire  of  Cundinamarca.  The  inhabit- 
ants of  the  valley  of  Bogota  had  a  tradi- 
tion, at  the  period  of  die  Spanish  con- 
quest, that,  in  remote  times,  their  ancestors, 
the  Muisca  Indians,  lived  without  agricul- 
ture, laws  or  religion.  At  length  there 
appeared  among  them  a  venerable  old 
man,  of  foreign  aspect,  dress  and  maimers, 
who  taught  them  the  arts  of  life,  and  re- 
claimed mem  from  their  savage  condition. 
He  was  known  by  three  names — Bochi- 
ca,  JSTemqueteba  and  Zuke,  Accompany- 
ing him  was  a.  beautifijl  female,  named 
Chia,  who,  unlike  the  wife  of  Manco  €&• 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



■My  prided  henalf  in  thwafting  her  hus- 
Mod^  beneficent  purposes.  Making  the 
rirer  of  Bogoti  to  oveifiow  by  magic,  she 
deluged  the  whole  valley,  and  reduced 
the  inhabitants  to  the  necessity  of  fleeing 
to  the  mountains  for  safety.  Hereupon 
Bochica  expelled  the  malevolent  Chia 
firom  the  eaith,  and  she  became  the  moon. 
Then,  tearing  asunder  the  rocks  of  Te- 

auendama,  he  gave  the  waters  an  exit  by 
lese  celebrated  fiills,  and  fiieed  the  valley 
of  Bogota  from  inundation.  Introducing 
the  worship  of  the  sun,  and  persuadinff  the 
inhabitants  to  cultivate  the  soil,  he  laid  the 
foundations  of  a  state,  which  held  the  same 
rank,  in  this  part  of  America,  which  Peru 
did  ftrther  to  the  south.  The  institutions 
of  this  people  very  strikingly  resembled 
those  or  the  incas,  and  mrhaps  had  a 
coi|imon  origin ;  but,  at  the  time  of  the 
conouest  of  South  America,  they  consti- 
tuted a  distinct  people,  and  possessed  a  dis^ 
tinct  religion.  (See  Bo^ti^  CStntUnamarea, 
Mxdaca ;  Compagnom,  America,  xix,  107). 
BocKH,  Auffustus,  one  of  the  greatest 

Philologists  of  our  times,  was  bom  at 
Jarlsruhe,  1785,  studied  at  Halle,  and,  in 
Idll,  became  professor  of  classical  litera* 
ture  at  Berlin.  Two  works  will  immor- 
talize the  name  of  B.  with  the  students 
of  ancient  literature ;  first,  his  edition  of 
Pindar,  which  he  announced  to  the  pub- 
lic by  his  Sptdmen  EmeniaJli<mum  in  i'ui- 
^ioHCariiitna  (1810),  and  by  0&9enNiKone« 
Critica  in  Pindaric  Prim^  Olymp^  Carm, 
(1811;  the  larffe  Leipsic  edition,  1811 — 
1821,  is  in  3  vols.,  4to.).  A  new  arrange- 
ment of  the  Pindaric  measures  is  here 
proposed,  founded  on  deep  and  extensive 
researches  into  the  music  of  the  Greeks. 
Even  those  who  entirely  reject  the  hy- 
potheses of  this  philologist  cannot  but 
acknowledge  his  erudition,  and  admire 
his  acuteness.  The  other  work,  to  which 
we  have  alluded,  is  on  the  Political  Econ- 
omy of  the  Athenians  (4  books,  Berlin, 
1817,  2  vols.).  No  woriL  has  hitherto 
appeared  in  Germany,  which  throws  so 
much  light  on  the  political  life  and  public 
administration  of  any  ancient  people,  as 
this  of  B.  It  has  fiinushed  new  means 
fi>r  illustrating  the  Attic  oratora  and  histo- 
rians. B.  has  added  to  this  work  21  in- 
scriptions. Of  IflM  years,  he  has  been 
busily  engaged  in  preparing  a  vroik  under 
the  patronage  of  the  Beriin  academy  of 
science,  of  vvhich  he  is  a  member,  called 
Corpus  hucripUonum  Gnecarum,  of  which 
the  fiist  volume  appeared,  in  1825,  at  Ber- 
lin, in  fi>lio.  The  smaller  writings  of  this 
author  relate  chiefl  v  to  Plato  (of  whose 
woriu  he  promised,  some  time  siace,  to 

give  a  new  edition),  and  to  the  Platomc 

Bode,  John  Elert,  an  astronomer,  bom 
at  Hamburg,  1747,  early  discovered  m 
inclination  for  mathematical  science,  in 
which  his  &ther,  and,  afterwards,  the 
famous  J.  G.  BiJisch,  instructed  him.  He 
gave  the  fii^st  public  proof  of  his  knowlt 
edge  by  a  short  work  on  the  solar  ecHpse 
of  Aug.  5, 1766.  The  approbation  which 
this  received  encouraged  him  to  greater 
labors,  and  in  1768  appeared  his  Intnn 
duction  to  the  Knowledge  of  the  Starry 
Heavens  (9th  ed.  1822) ;  a  fiuniliar  trea-r 
rise  on  astronomy,  which  has  done  much 
for  the  extension  of  correct  views  upoii 
the  subject,  and  continues  to  do  so,  as  it 
has  kept  pace,  in  its  successive  editions, 
with  the  progress  of  the  science.  In 
1772,  the  Berlm  academy  chose  him  their 
ostronomer,  and,  ten  years  afterwards,  he 
was  made  a  manber  of  that  institution. 
His  best  works  are  his  Astronomical  Al-r 
manac  (commencing  1774)— a  work  indi»r 
pensable  to  eveiy  astronomer ;  and  his , 
large  Celestial  Atlas  (H!mmd$aU(u\  ii| 
20  sheets,  in  which  the  industrious  editor 
has  given  a  catalogue  of  17,240  stars 
(12,000  more  than  in  any  former  charts), 
B.  was  released  in  1825,  at  his  own  wish, 
irom  his  duties  in  the  academy  of  sciencci 
and  the  observatory  in  Berlin.  His  place 
was  filled  by  professor  Cncke,  foimerly 
astronomer  at  Gotha. 

BoniN,  Jean,  a  political  writer  of  the 
16th  century,  was  bora  in  1530  or  1529, 
at  Angers ;  studied  law  at  Toulouse ;  de^ 
livered  lectures  on  jurispradence  there, 
and  afterwaids  went  to  Paris  and  practise 
ed.  Being  unauccessfial  in  his  profession, 
he  turned  his  talents  to  literary  labora; 
was  invited  by  Henrv  III  to  his  court ; 
and  afterwards  traveUed  vrith  the  kmg's 
brother  Francis,  duke  of  Alencon  and 
Anjou,  to  Ffamders  and  England,  where 
he  had  the  gratification  or  hearing  lec^r 
tures,  in  Cambridge,  on  his  work  Ve  k( 
RipubKque  (originallv  written  in  French^ 
but  afterwards  translated,  by  B.  himself 
into  Latm).  When  the  duke  died,  he 
went  to  Laon,  married  there,  obtamed  f| 
judicial  office,  and  was  sent,  by  the  third 
estate  in  Vermandois^  1576,  as  deputy,  to 
the  estates  of  Blois^  Here  he  defended 
the  riffhts  of  the  people,  and  the  liberty  or 
conscience.  His  conduct  made  him  many 
enemies  at  court  He  also  prevailed  on 
the  city  of  Laon  to  declare  itself  for  the 
league,  m  1589,  representing  to  the  people, 
that  the  rising  of  so  many  tovnis  and  |Mir-r 
liaments,  in  favor  of  the  duke  of  Guise, 
lyas  not  a  rebdlion,but  rather  a  powerfiii 

Digitized  by 




political  resolution.  He  afterwards,  how- 
ever, submitted  to  Hemy  IV.  He  died, 
1596,  at  Laon,  of  the  plague.  His  great 
work  is  that  entitled  De  la  Ripubliquey  in 
which  he  gave  the  first  complete  essay 
towanis  a  scientific  treatise  on  politics, 
and,  guided  by  bis  own  experience,  sought 
to  strike  out  a  middle  course  between  the 
advocates  of  monarchy  and  democrac]^. 
His  Dhnonomame,  and  hid  Tfuatrum  Uni' 
versa  JSTatura  (Lvons,  1596),  show  how 
superstition  and  leaniing  w^ere  united  in 
his  character;  but  the  charge  of  atlieism, 
which  is  munded  particularly  on  a  work 
entitled  Hepiaplmneron^  proceeds  firom  the 
rehgious  indinerence  which  was  noticed 
in  h'un  by  his  contemporaries. 
Bodleian  Library.  (See  Libraries.) 
BoDLET, mr  Thomas;  the  founder  of 
the  Bodleian  library  at  Oxford.  He  was 
bom  at  Exeter,  in  1544,  and  educated 
partly  at  Geneva,  whither  his  parents,  who 
were  Protestants,  had  retired  in  the  reign 
of  queen  Mary.  On  the  accession  of 
Elizabeth,  they  returned  home,  and  he 
completed  his  studies  at  Magdalen  col- 
lege, Oxford.  He  afterwards  became  a 
fellow  of  Merton  college,  and  read  lectures 
on  the  Greek  langua^  and  philosophy. 
He  went  to  the  continent  in  1576,  and 
spent  four  years  in  travelling.  He  was 
afterwards  employed  in  various  embassies 
to  Denmark,  Germany,  France  and  Hol- 
land. In  1597,  he  returned  home,  and 
dedicated  the  remainder  of  his  life  to  the 
reestablishment  and  auffmentation  of* the 
public  library  at  Oxford.  This  he  accom- 
plished, procuring  books  and  manuscripts 
nimself^  both  at  home  and  abroad,  at  a 
great  expenae,  and,  by  his  influence  and 
persuasions,  inducing  tiis  fiiends  and  ac- 
quaintance to  assist  in  his  undertaking. 
Sir  Robert  Ck>tton,  sir  Henry  Savile,  and 
Thomas  Allen,  the  mathematician,  were 
among  the  principal  contributors  on  this 
occasion.  The  library  was  so  much  aug- 
mented, that  sir  Thomas  B.,  who  was 
knighted  at  the  accession  of  James  I,  was 
induced  to  erect  an  additional  structure 
for  the  reception  of  the  increasing  quan- 
tity of  valuable  books  and  manuscripts. 
He  died  in  London,  1612,  and  was  interred 
in  the  chapel  of  Merton  college,  in  the 
university.  He  bequeathed  neariy  the 
whole  of  his  property  to  the  support  and 
augmentation  of  the"  library,  which  has 
been  so  much  enriched  by  subsequent 
benefactions,  that  it  is,  at  present,  one  of 
the  most  magnificent  institutions  of  the 
kind  in  Europe.  (See  RdiquuB  Bodki- 
airuB^  London,  1703.) 
BoDMSB,  John  Jacob ;  a  celebrated  Ger- 

man poet  and  scholar,  bom  at  Greifensee, 
near  Zurich,  July  19,  1698.  Although 
he  produced  nothing  remarkable  of  his 
ovm  in  poetry,  he  helped  to  open  the  way 
for  the  new  German  hterature  in  this  de- 
partment. He  was  the  antagonist  of  Gott- 
sched,  in  Leipsic,  who  aspired  to  be  the 
literary  dictator  of  the  day,  and  had  em- 
braced the  French  theory  of  taste,  while 
B.  inclined  to  the  English.  He  has  the 
honor  of  having  had  Klopstock  and  Wie- 
land  among  his  scholars.  B.  was,  ibr  a 
longtime,  professor  of  historjr  in  Switzer- 
land. He  was  a  copious  and  indefati^ble 
writer,  entertained  many  incorrect  views, 
but  was  of  service,  as  we  have  already 
said,  to  the  German  literature,  which  was 
then  in  a  low  and  barbarous  state.  He 
died  at  Ztirioh,  1783. 

BoDONi,  Giambatista,  superintendent  of 
the  royal  press  at  Parma,  chief  printer  of 
his  Catholic  majesty,  i^ember  of  several 
academies  of  Italy,  knight  of  several  high 
orders,  was  bom,  17&,  at  Saluzzo,  in 
Piedmont,  where  his  father  owned  a 
printing  establishment.  He  began,  while 
yet  a  boy,  to  employ  himself  in  engraving 
on  wood.  His  labors  meeting  with  suc- 
cess, he  went,  in  1758,  to  Rome,  and  was 
made  compositor  for  the  press  of  the 
Propaganda,  By  the  advice  of  the  su- 
penntendent,  he  made  himself  acquainted 
with  the  Oriental  languages,  in  order  to 
qualify  himself  for  the  kmd  of  printing 
required  in  them.  He  thereby  enabled 
himself  to  be  of  great  service  to  tliis  press 
by  restoring  and  putting  in  place  the 
types  of  several  Oriental  luphabets,  which  . 
had  fallen  into  disorder.  The  infant  don 
Ferdinand,  about  1766,  had,  with  a  view 
of  difiusing  knowledge,  established  a  print- 
ing-house in  Parma,  afler  the  model  of 
those  m  Paris,  Madrid  and  Turin.  B.  was 
placed  at  the  head  of  this  establishment, 
which  he  made  the  first  of  the  kind  m 
Europe,  and  gained  the  reputation  of 
having  far  surpassed  all  the  splendid  and 
beautiful  productions  of  his  predecessors 
in  the  art.  The  beauty  of  his  type,  ink 
and  paper,  as  well  as  the  w^hole  manage- 
ment of  the  technical  part  of  the  work, 
leaves  nothing  for  us  to  vrish ;  but  the 
intrinsic  value  of  his  editions  is  seldom 
equal  to  their  outward  splendor.  His 
Homer  is  a  truly  admirable  and  magnifi- 
cent work ;  indeed,  his  Greek  letters  are 
the  most  perfect  imitations  that  have  been 
attempted,  in  modem  times,  of  Greek 
manuscript.  His  splendid  editions  of 
Greek,  Latin,  Italian  and  French  classics 
are  highly  prized.     He  died  at  Padua, 

tijgniv  pn 

sS,  isia 

Digitized  by  CjOOQ  IC 



Botes.    {BwBoi&MU.) 

BoEHME,  or  BoEHM,  Jscob ;  one  of  the 
most  renowned  mystics  of  modem  times; 
bom,  in  1575,  at  Altseidenberg,  a  village 
in  Upper  Lusatia,  near  G6rlitz ;  was  the 
son  of  poor  peasants;  remained  to  his 
10th  year  without  instmction,  and  em- 
ployed in  tending  catde.  The  beautiful 
and  sublime  objects  of  nature  kindled  his 
imajrination,  and  inspired  him  with  a 
(NTofound  piety.  Raised  by  contempla- 
tion above  his  circumstances,  and  undis- 
turbed by  exterior  influences,  a  strong 
sense  of  the  spuritual,  jmrticularly  of  the 
mysterious,  was  awakened  in  him,  and 
he  saw  in  all  the  workings  of  nature 
upon  his  mind  a  revelation  of  God,  and 
even  imagined  hunself  favored  bv  divine 
inspirations.  The  education  which  he 
received  at  school,  though  very  imper- 
fect, consisting  only  of  writing,  spelling 
and  readin|^  the  Bible,  supplied  new  food 
for  the  excited  mind  of  the  boy.  He  be- 
came afterwards  a  shoemaker;  and  this 
sedentary  life  seems  to  have  strengthened 
his  contemplative  habits  He  was  much 
interested  m  the  disputes  which  prevailed 
on  the  subject  of  Oryptocalvmism  in 
Saxony ;  though  he  never  took  a  personal 
part  in  sectarian  controversies,  and  knew 
no  higher  delight  than  to  elevate  himself 
undisturbed,  to  the  contemplation  of  the 
infinite.  B.  withdrew  himself  more  and 
more  from  the  world.  If  we  take  into 
view  his  retirement,  his  piety,  his  rich 
and  lively  ima^nation,  his  imperfect  ed- 
ucation, bis  philosophical  desire  fortmth, 
together  with  his  abundance  of  ideas,  and 
his  delusion  in  considering  many  of  those 
ideas  as  immediate  communications  of 
the  Deity,  we  have  the  sources  of  his 
doctrine  and  his  works.  His  writings 
are  very  unequal,  but  always  display  a 
profound  feeling,  and  must  be  judged 
with  indulgence  for  the  causes  just  men- 
tioned. In  1594,  B.  became  a  master 
shoemaker  in  Gorlitz,  married,  and  con- 
tinued a  shoemaker  during  his  hfe.  Sev- 
eral visions  and  raptures,  mat  is,  moments 
of  strong  enthusiasm,  led  him  to  take  the 
pen.  His  first  work  appeared  in  1616, 
and  was  called  Aurora,  It  contains  his 
revelations  on  God,  man  and  nature. 
This  gave  rise  to  a  prosecution  against 
him;  but  he  was  acquitted,  and  called 

rn,  from  all  sides,  to  contmue  writing, 
did  not,  however,  resume  his  pen 
until  1619.  One  of  his  most  important 
works  is.  Description  of  the  three  Princi- 
ples of  the  Divine  Being.  His  works 
contam  profound  and  lofty  ideas,  min- 
^ed  with  many  absurd  and  confused  no- 

tions. He  died,  afler  several  prosecutions 
and  acquittals,  in  1624.  Abraham  von 
Frankenberg  (who  died  in  165^),  his  bi- 
ographer and  admirer,  has  also  published 
and  explained  his  writings.  The  first  col- 
lection of  them  was  made  in  Holland,  in 
1675,  by  Henry  Betke ;  a  more  complete 
one,  in  1682,  by  Gichtel  (10  vols.,  Amster- 
dam!;  ^^'^  ^hom  the  followers  of  B.,  a 
religious  sect  highlv  valued  for  their  si- 
lent, virtuous  and  benevolent  life,  have 
received  the  name  GichteUans.  Another 
edition  appeared  in  Amsterdam,  in  1730, 
under  the  title  Theologia  revdata,  2  vols. 
4to.;  the  most  compfete,  in  6  vols.  In 
England,  also,  B.'s  writings  have  found 
many  admirers.  William  Law  published 
an  English  translation  of  them,  2  vols., 
4to.  A  sect,  taking  theur  name  fix)m  B^ 
was  likewise  formed  in  England,  and 
in  1697,  Jane  Leade,  an  enthusiastic  fid- 
mirer  of  his,  established  a  particular  soci- 
ety for  the  explanation  of  his  writings, 
under  the  name  of  the  Pkiladelphists,  It 
is  said  that  such  a  society  still  exists. 
John  Pordage,  an  English  physician,  is 
also  Avell  known  as  a  commentator  on  B. 
B(EOTiA ;  a  country  of  ancient  Greece, 
bounded  N.  by  Phocis  and  the  country 
of  the  Opuntian  Locrians;  E.  by  the 
Euripus,  or  strait  of  Euboea;  S.  by  Attica 
and  Memns ;  and  W.  by  the  Alcyonian 
sea  and  Phocis ;  but  the  boundaries  were 
not  always  the  same.  In  the  north,  it  is 
mountainous  and  cold,  and  the  air  is 
pure  and  healthy,  but  the  soil  is  less  fer- 
tile than  that  of  the  other  portion,  which, 
however,  is  infested  by  unhealthy  vapors. 
The  mountainous  part  in  the  north  was 
called,  in  earlier  tunes,  Aonia.  Among 
its  mountains  are  several  remarkable  in 
history  and  mythology:  Helicon  (now 
Sagara)y  the  mountain  of  the  Sphinx,  Uie 
TaumesBus,  Libethms  and  Petrachus. — 
The  chief  occupation  of  the  inhabitants 
was  agriculture  and  the  raising  of  catde. 
It  was  first  occupied  by  Pelasgian  tribes. 
In  the  time  of  Boeotus  (son  of  Itonus  and 
grandson  of  Amphictyon,  from  whom  it 
is  said  to  have  derived  its  name),  these 
were  subject  to  the  Hellenists.  It  was 
divided  into  small  states,  until  Cadmus 
the  Phoenician  founded  the  government 
of  Thebes.  In  later  times,  all  Greece 
worBhipped  the  Hercules  of  Thebes.  Af- 
ter the  death  of  the  Theban  king  Xanthus, 
most  of  the  cities  of  B.  formed  a  kind  of 
republic,  of  which  Thebes  was  the  chief 
city.  Epaminondas  and  Pelopidas  raised 
Thebes,  for  a  short  time,  to  the  rank  of 
the  most  powerful  states  of  Greece.  In 
B.  are  several  celebrated  ancient  battle* 

Digitized  by 




fields,  the  fonner  gloiy  of  which  has  be^ 
increased  bv  late  events,  namely,  Platiea 
(now  the  village  JTdUa),  whete  Pansanias 
and  Aristides  established  the  libemr  of 
Greece  by  their  victory  over  the  300,000 
Persians  under  Mardonius ;  Leuctra  (now 
the  vilhffe  PanqH)gia)y  where  Epanunon-. 
das  chedced  the  ambitious  Spartans ;  Co- 
lonea,  where  the  Spartan  Agesilaus  de- 
feated the  Thebans ;  andChsronea  (now 
Capranu),  where  Philip  founded  the 
Macedonian  greatness  on  the  ruins  of 
Grecian  liberty.  Near  Tontwra,  the  birth- 
place of  Cormna  (q.  v.),  the  best  wine 
was  produced;  here,  alM),  cocks  were 
bred,  of  remarkable  size,  beauty  and 
courage,  with  which  the  Grecian  cities, 
passionately  fond  of  cock-fighting,  were 
supplied.  Refinement  and  cultivation  of 
mind  never  made  such  progress  in  B.  as 
in  Attica.  The  Bceotians  were  vigorous, 
but  slow  and  heavy.  Several  Thebans, 
however,  were  worthy  disciples  of  Soc- 
rates, and  Epaminondas  distinguished 
himself  as  much  in  philosonhy  as  by  his 
military  talents.  The  people  were  par- 
ticularly fond  of  music,  and  excelled  in. 
it.  They  had  also  some  great  poets  and 
artists.  Hesiod,  Pindar,  the  poetess  Co- 
rinna,  and  Plutarch,  were  Boeotians. 

BoERHAAVE,  Hermann,  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  physicians  of  the  18th  century, 
was  bom,  Dec  13,  1668,  at  Woorhout, 
near  Leyden,  and  received  fit>m  his  &- 
ther  a  hberal  education.  Before  he  was 
11  years  old,  he  was  well  acquainted 
with  Latin  and  Greek.  An  obstinate  ul- 
cer on  his  left  thigh,  which,  for  7  years, 
resisted  all  medi(^  remedies,  was  the 
means  of  directing  his  thoughts  and  in- 
clinations to  the  study  of  medicine.  In 
1682,  he  was  sent  to  Leyden  to  study 
theology.  Here  he  gave,  at  the  age  of 
20,  the  first  public  proof  of  his  learning 
and  eloquence.  lie  pronounced  an  aca- 
demic oration  before  Grono^dus,  with 
whom  he  studied  Greek,  Qud  probatuTj 
bene  tnieUedam  a  Cicerone^  et  conftUaJtam 
esse  SenUntiam  Epicwi  de  sumnio  Bono 
(Leyden,  1690,  4to.)  In  this,  B.  attacked 
the  doctrine  of  Spinoza  with  so  much 
talent,  that  the  city  rewarded  him  with  a 
gold  medal.  In  1689,  he  received  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy,  and  main- 
tained an  inaugural  dissertation,  De  Dis- 
HneUone  Mentis  a  Corpore  (Leyden,  16^ 
He  now  commenced,  at  the  age  of  22, 
the  study  of  medicine.  Drelincourt  was 
his  first  and  only  teacher.  From  him  he 
recefved  only  a  little  instruction ;  and  it  is 
worthy  of  notice,  that  B.  learned  by  his 
own  soKtary  study  a  science  on  which 

he  was  afterwards  to  eteit  to  impoitsnt 
an  influence.  He  first  studied  anatomy, 
but  rather  in  the  works  then  in  viM^ue,  of 
Vesale,  Bartholin,  d&c,  than  in  tne  dis- 
secting room.  He  was  present,  indeed, 
at  most  of  the  dissections  of  Nucfc,  but 
still  the  want  of  a  practical  study  of 
anatomv  is  evident  in  all  his  writings^ 
The  innnence  which  he  had  in  improving 
anatomy,  notwithstanding  the  defect  we 
have  noticed,  must  be  tr^ed  to  the  close 
connesdon  of  this  mechanical  science 
with  physiology  and  medicine.  As,  in 
these  last,  he  made  use  of  mechanical 
illustrations,  his  example  induced  the  - 
anatomists  to  u)ply  themselves  to  an  ac- 
curate study  of^  the  forms  of  the  organSi^ 
as  may  be  noticed  in  all  the  anatomists 
of  that  time — Santorini,  Morgacni,  Val- 
salva, Winslow,  Albinus,  &c  After  this 
preliminary  study,  which,  in  ftct,  is  the 
groundwork  of  medical  science,  B.  read 
all  the  weiks,  ancient  and  modem,  on 
medicine,  in  the  order  of  time,  proceed- 
ing fix>m  his  contemporaries  to  Hippocra- 
tes, with  whose  superior  excellence  and 
correct  method  he  was  forcibly  struck  in 
this  course  of  reading.  He  also  studied 
botany  and  chemistiy,  and,  although  still 
]>reparing  himself  for  the  clerical  profes- 
sion, was  made,  in  1693,  doctor  of^  medi- 
cine at  Harderwick.  His  dissertation 
was  De^  UtiliUUe  explatwuhntm  Hxcremai- 
torum  tnJE^riSfUt  Signorum.  After  his 
return  to  Leyden,  some  doubts  being 
raised  as  to  his  orthodoxy,  he  finally  de- 
termined to  follow  the  profession  of  med- 
icine. In  1701,  the  umversitv  of  Leyden 
chose  him,  on  the  death  of  l)relincouit» 
to  deliver  lectures  on  the  theory  of  medi- 
cine ;  on  which  occasion,  he  pronounced 
his  dissertation  De  cmimendando  ^udio 
Htppocratico.  In  this,  with  an  enthusi- 
asm excited  by  the  study  of  Hippocrates, 
he  demonstrates  the  correctness  of  tbe 
method  pursued  by  that  great  man,  and 
establishes  its  exclusive  superiority:  it 
had  been  well  if  he  himself  had  never 
deviated  fix)m  it.  B.  now  began  to  devel- 
ope  those  great  and  pccuhar  exceUences, 
which  make  him  a  pattern  to  all  who 
undertake  the  office  of  instruction.  Pu- 
pils crowded  from  all  quarters  to  hear 
him.  In  1703,  he  delivered  another  dis- 
sertation, De  Usu  RaUocinii  mechamci  in 
Medieina,  Leyden,  1703.  In  this,  he  be« 
gan  to  deviate  fix>m  the  Hippocratic 
method,  and  to  introduce  the  first  prin- 
ciples of  a  defective  system,  to  which  his 
eminent  talents  gave  afterwards  exclusive 
currency.  In  1709,  the  university  of 
Leyden  was  at  leng^  enabled  to  reward 

Digitized  by 




him  for  his  Bervioes,  by  appointiDg  him 
professor  of  medicine  and  botany  in  Hot- 
ton's  place.  It  is  remarkable,  that,  on  this 
occasion,  he  delivered  a  dissertation,  ^ud 
rtmirgaUB  MedicimB  facUia  tuseritur  Sim- 
p&cUas^  which  deserves  to  be  placed  by 
the  side  of  those  m  which  he  recom- 
mends the  study  of  Hippocratea  In  this 
dissertation,  he  is  for  carrying  back  the 
science  to  its  original  simplicity — ^to  obser- 
vation and  experience— quite  contnuy  to 
the  spirit  which  guided  his  own  system. 
The  course  of  instruction,  to  which  B. 
was  now  devoted,  induced  bim  to  pub- 
lish two  works^  on  which  his  fame  still 
rests,  viz.  Inshtutiones  Medicfz  in  Ustts 
annua  Exercitationis  domesHcos;  and 
^korismi  de  cagnoscendia  et  curandiB 
Morbis  in  Usvm  Doctrvna  Mtdicinm,  In 
the  former,  which  is  a  model  of  compr^ 
hensive  erudition  and  clear  method,  he 
unfolds  his  system  in  its  full  extent:  in 
the  latter,  he  undertakes  the  classification 
of  diseases,  and  discourses  separately  on 
their  causes,  nature  and  treatment.  The 
professorship  of  botany,  which  he  also 
filled,  contributed  no  less  to  his  reputa- 
tion. He  rendered  essential  services  to 
botany  by  his  two  catalogues  of  plants  in 
the  ^rden  of  Leyden,  the  number  of 
which  he  had  very  much  increased.  We 
are  indebted  to  hun  for  the  description 
and  delineation  of  several  new  plants, 
and  the  introduction  of  some  new  spe- 
cies. In  1714,  he  was  made  rector  of  the 
university,  and,  at  the  close  of  his  term  of 
office,  delivered  an  oration,  De  compor 
rondo  ctrio  in  PhusicU,  one  of  his  best 

Sieces.  At  the  end  of  this  year,  he  took 
lidloo's  place  in  the  office  of  practical 
instruction,  in  which  he  was  employed 
more  than  10  years.  Anticipating  the 
great  advantages  of  clinical  institutions, 
and  wishing  to  unite  practice  with  theory, 
he  opened  an  hospital,  where  he  lectured 
to  his  pupils  twice  a  week,  on  the  history 
of  the  diseases  before  them,  confining 
himself  to  the  particular  phenomena  in 
each  case  presented  to  their  observation. 
Busily  occupied  as  he  already  was,  the 
university  conferred  on  him,  at  the  death 
of  Lemort,  the  professorship  of  chemistry, 
which  science  he  had  taught  since  1703. 
On  this  occasion  he  delivered  his  disser- 
tation De  Chtmia  swa  Errorea  expur- 
gante.  Although  the  relations  wliich  B. 
supposes  to  exist  between  chemistry  and 
medicine  are  ill-founded,  he  deserves 
credit  for  rendering  the  science  intelligi- 
ble and  familiar  in  his  excellent  works  on 
this  subject  His  Elements  of  Chemistry 
i%  perbapsy  his  finest  production,  and, 

notwithstan^g  the  entire  revolution 
which  has  taken  place  in  this  branch  of 
science,  is  still  highly  valuable.  His  ex- 
periments are  remarkable  for  their  accu- 
racy. The  part  which  treats  of  organic 
bodies  is  exceedingly  good  for  that  pe- 
riod. So  extensive  a  sphere  of  action 
gained  for  B.  a  fame  that  few  learned 
men  have  exijoyed.  People  came  from 
all  parts  of  Europe  to  ask  his  advice. 
His  property  amounted,  at  his  death,  to 
2,000,000  florins — a  very  extraordhiary 
fortune  for  a  man  of  his  profession  in 
Europe.  Peter  the  Great  visited  him  on 
his  travels,  and  a  Chiaese  mandarin  wrote 
to  him  with  the  address, "  To  Boerhaave, 
the  celebrated  phyacian  in  Europe."  In 
1722,  an  attack  or  the  gout,  accompanied 
with  a  stroke  of  the  apoplexy,  obliged 
him  to  remit  his  active  pursuits.  New 
returns  of  his  disorder,  in  1727  and  1729, 
compelled  him  to  resign  the  professorships 
of  chemistry  and  botany,  which  he  had 
held  for  20  years.  In  1730,  he  was  again 
appointed  rector,  and,  at  the  close  of  his 
term,  delivered  a  celebrated  address,  De 
Htmdrty  Medici  ServihUey  perhaps  the  best 
of  all  those  essays,  in  which  he  represents 
the  physician  as  the  servant  of^  nature, 
whose  activity  he  is  to  awaken  and  di- 
rect In  this  he  returned,  in  some  meas- 
ure, to  the  principles  of  Hippocrates, 
from  which,  indeed,  he  had  never  depart- 
ed far  in  practice.  In  1738,  liis  disorder 
returned  with  increased  violence,  and, 
afler  a  few  months,  put  an  end  to  lus  life, 
at  the  age  of  70.  The  city  erected  a 
monument  to  him  in  St  Peter's  church, 
with  his  &vorite  motto  upon  it — SirnpUx 

BoETHius,  Anicius  Manlius  Torquatus 
Severinus,  a  man  celebrated  for  his  vir- 
tues, services,  honors  and  tragical  end^ 
was  bom  about  470  A.  D.,  in  Rome  or 
Milan,  of  a  rich,  ancient  and  respectable 
family ;  was  educated  in  Rome,  in  a  man- 
ner well  calculated  to  develope  his  ex- 
traordinary abilities;  aflerwaras  went  to 
Athens,  which  was  still  the  centre  of 
taste  and  science,  and  studied  philosophy 
under  Proclus  and  others.  Returning  to 
Rome,  he  was  graciously  received  by 
Theodoric,  king  of  the  Ostrogoths,  then 
roaster  of  Italy,  loaded  with  marks  of  &- 
vorand  esteem,  and  soon  raised  to  the 
first  offices  iu  the  empire.  He  exerted 
the  best  influence  on  the  administration 
of  this  monarch,  so  that  the  dominion  of 
the  Croths  promoted  the  wel&re  and  hap- 
piness of  the  people  who  were  subject  to 
them.  He  was  lon^  the  oracle  of  his 
sovereign  and  the  idol  of  the  people. 

Digitized  by 




The  iiigiiest  honors  were  thought  inade- 

2uate  to  reward  hia  virtues  and  servicea. 
(ut  Theodorie,  as  he  ^w  old,  became 
irritable,  jealous,  and  distrustful  of  those 
about  him.  The  Goths  now  indulged  in 
all  sorts  of  oppresnon  and  extortion, 
while  B.  exerted  himself  in  vain  to  re- 
strain them.  He  had  aheady  made  ma- 
ny enemies  by  his  strict  integrity  and 
vigilant  justice.  These  at  last  succeeded 
in  prejudicing  the  king  against  him,  and 
rendering  him  suspicious  of  fi.  The  op- 
position of  B.  to  their  unjust  measures 
was  constnfed  into  a  rebellious  temper, 
and  he  was  even  accused  of  a  treasonable 
correspondence  with  the  court  of  Con- 
stantinople. He  was  arrested,  imprisoned 
and  executed,  A.  D.  524  or  526.— While 
he  was  at  the  helm  of  state,  he  found  rec- 
reation from  his  toilsome  occupations  in 
the  study  of  the  sciences,  and  devoted  a 
part  of  his  leisure  to  tiie  construction  of 
mathematical  and  musical  instruments, 
some  of  which  he  sent  to  Clothaire,  king 
of  France.  He  was  also  much  giv^n  to 
the  study  of  the  old  Greek  philosophers 
and  mathematicians,  and  wrote  •  Latin 
translations  of  several  of  them.  His  most 
celebrated  work  is  that  composed  during 
his  imprisonment.  On  the  Consolations  of 
Philosophy.  It  is  written  in  prose  and 
verse  mtermixed.  The  elevation  of 
tliougbt,  the  nobleness  of  feeling,  the  ease 
and  distinctness  of  style,  which  it  exhib- 
its, make  this  composition,  short  as  it  is, 
far  superior  to  any  other  of  the  age. 
(Principal  edition,  Basil,  1570,  folio.  A 
modem  one  of  some  value  appeared  at 
Glasgow,  1751, 4to.) 

BoETTCHER,  Johu  Fredcric,  the  invent- 
or of  tlie  DiWen  porcelain,  bom  Feb.  5, 
1682,  at  Schleiz,  in  the  Voifftland,  in  his 
15th  year  went  from  Magdeburg,  where 
he  received  his  early  education,  to  Berlin, 
as  apprentice  of  an  apothecary.  There 
he  devoted  his  nights  to  the  art  of  making 
gold.  His  want  of  sleep  rendered  him  so 
stupid,  during  the  day,  as  to  draw  u[>on 
him  many  reproof,  till,  at  last,  he  acquir- 
ed some  consideration  by  showing  little 
Eieces  of  gold,  which  he  pretended  to 
ave  made.  Oct  1, 1701,  he  changed,  as 
it  is  said,  in  the  presence  of  several  wit- 
nesses, 18  pieces  of  silver  into  fine  gold. 
As  this  was  much  talked  o(  the  king  de- 
sired to  see  him,  and  B.,  believing  he  was 
to  be  arrested  as  an  adept  (q.  v.^  fled  to 
Saxony.  The  king  of  Saxony  gave  him 
large  su  ms  of  money,  which  he  wasted,  still 
keeping  his  employer  in  suspense.  His 
ini^esty  finally  became  very  impatient  to 
fee  the  gold.    B.,  therefore,  in  1704,  at- 

tempted to  escape,  but  was  overtaken,  and^ 
with  the  assistance  of  one  Tschimhausen, 
who  had  discovered  a  kind  of  porcelain,  in- 
vented an  improved  composition  of  it,  with 
which  he  hoped  to  appease  the  king,  who 
spent  immense  sums  m  China  ware.  In 
1705,  B.  invented  the  Dresden  porcelam, 
which  has  since  become  so  famous.  He 
made  use  of  a  clay  found  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Meissen.  The  king,  upon  this, 
made  him  a  baron  of  the  empire  and  dl- 
reNCtor  of  the  new  manu&ctory  of  porce- 
lain in  Meissen,  though  he  was  often 
treated  as  a  prisoner,  lest  the  secret  should 
be  betrayed.  He  was  finally  removed 
fit)m  his  dignity,  on  account  of  his  im- 
moral life,  and  died,  March  13, 1719,  in 
the  greatest  poverty,  so  that  he  did  not 
even  leave  sumci^t  to  pay  the  expenses 
of  his  funeral. 

BooDANowiTscH,  Hippolyt  Federo- 
witsch,  the  Russian  Anaoreon,  VFas  bom 
in  1743,  at  Perewolotschna,  in  White  . 
Russia.  His  father  was  a  physician.  He 
was  demgned  for  an  engineer ;  went,  for 
the  purpose  of  studying  engineering,  to 
Moscow,  in  1754,  and  enteiid  an  acad- 
emy there ;  but  the  eoght  of  a  splendid 
play,  and  the  reading  of  Lomonossow's 

Eoems,  turned  his  inclination  to  poetry., 
[e  wished  to  become  an  actor,  but  the 
manager  of  die  theatre,  Cheraakow,  dis- 
suaded him  fix)m  his  puipose.  By  his 
advice,  he  applied  hinMelr  to  the  study 
of  the  fine  arts,  and  to  learning  foreien 
laneuages.  He  gained  patrons  and  firiends, 
and,  in  1761,  was  made  inspector  in  the 
university  of  Moscow,  and  afterwards 
translator  in  the  department  of  foreign 
afliiirs.  In  1762,  he  travelled  witb«ount 
Beloselsky,  as  secretary  of  legation,  to 
Dresden,  where  he  devoted  his  whole  at- 
tention to  the  study  of  the  fine  arts  and 
of  poetry,  till  1768.  The  beautifiil  pic- 
tures in  the  gallery  of  that  place  inspired 
him  to  write  his  Psyche  [Du8chmka\ 
which  appeared  in  1775,  and  fixed  hJs 
fame  on  a  lasting  foundation.  After  this, 
he  devoted  himself  to  music  and  poetry, 
in  solitaiT  study  at  Petersburg,  till  Cath- 
arine called  him  firoin  bis  retirement 
He  then  wrote,  on  different  occanons, 
several  dramatic  and  historical  pieces.  In 
1788,  he  was  made  president  of  the  im- 
perial archives.  In  1795,  he  took  leave 
of  the  court,  and  lived  as  a  private  man 
in  Litde  Russia.  Alexander  recalled  him 
to  Petersburg,  where  he  lived  till  1803^ 
He  was  as  remarkable  for  modesty  as  for 
genius,  and  a  man  of  childlike  goodness 
and  vivacity. 
BoootI,  at  the  time  of  the  Spanish 

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€0Dmi68t»  wa»  tbe  seat  of  empire  of  one 
of  the  most  civilized  states  of  America, 
that  of  the  Muisca  Indians.  Owing  to 
the  fertility  of  the  great  valley  of  Bogot4, 
which  has  been  thought  capable  of  sus- 
taining a  population  of  two  or  three  mil- 
lions, It  contained  a  comparatively  dense 
population  of  Indians,  whose  advances  in 
refinement  rendered  them,  in  a  certain 
sense,  the  rivals  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Cuzco,  They  traced  the  fi>undation  of 
their  religious  and  political  institutions  to 
Bochica,  whose  history  greatly  resembles 
that  of  Manco  Capac.  ^They  were  sub- 
dued by  the  Spanish  general  Gonzalo 
Ximenez  di  Quesada.  (See  Bochicoj 
CundinamarecLf  Mudgca;  Compagnoni,  t 
xix;  Hupiboldt;  Robinson's  Bogota.) 

BoeoTi,  or  Santa  F^  ds  Bogota  ;  a 
city  of  South  America,  the  capital  of  the 
republic  of  Colombia,  and  formerly  the 
capital  of  the  vice-royalty  of  New  Grena- 
da. Lon-W^lS^W.;  lat  4^36^  N.  The 
population  has  of  late  been  variously 
stated,  from  less  than  30,000  to  60,000. 
It  is  situated  in  a  spacious  and  luxuriant 
plain,  elevated  8721  feet  above  the  level 
of  the  sea,  and  lies  to  the  east  of  the  prin- 
cxpel  chain  of  the  Andes.  Two  small 
streams  flow  through  the  town,  which 
join  the  river  Funza,  or  Bogota,  at  a  short 
dis&mce.  The  citjr  contains  a  magnifi- 
cent ca&edral,  a  umversity,  a  mint,  an  hos- 
pital, and  various  other  public  buildings. 
The  streets  are  wide  and  well  pavol 
The  city,  by  reason  of  its  elevation,  en- 
joys the  temperature  of  perpetual  spring; 
the  mean  heat  being  57.74,  and  the  ther- 
mometer havinff  a  range  of  only  a  few 
degrees.  The  plains  around  Bogota  pro- 
duce two  regular  harvests  in  a  year. 

BoootX  or  Funza  river.  (See  Tequeu' 
damoy  CdLasnuAof.) 

Bohemia,  Bsheim,  Bojenhbiii,  has  its 
name  from  the  Boii,  a  Celtic  nation,  who 
setded  there  about  600  R  C,  under  their 
leader  Segovesus,  a  nephew  of  Ambiga- 
tus,  lunar  of  the  Bitur^es,  but  were  after- 
wards umoet  all  driven  out  by  the  Mar- 
comannL  About  the  middle  of  the  4th 
century,  BL,  then  inhabited  by  German 
nations,  enjoyed  a  settled  and  qmet  gov- 
ernment imder  its  dukes,  who  were,  as 
yet,  but  litde  known.  In  the  middle  of 
the  6th  cenmry,  a  numerous  army  of 
Sclavonians  (Csee^ottfe,  T^icfteeften,  as  the 
BolMmians  still  call  themselves),  viiio  had 
hitherto  inhabited  the  shores  of^the  Black 
Sea,  invaded  B.  (as  some  say,  under  the 
command  of  one  Zecko),  conquered  the 
eounliT,  and  put  it  under  cultivation. 
Aooorakig  V>  othenv  Zecko  wa»  entuely 

unconnected  with  the  Sclavonians,  and 
his  successors  were  hard  pressed  by  that 
people,  although  his  descendants  were 
never  quite  expelled  from  the  land.  The 
first  of  them  who  is  known  to  us  by 
name  was  Przemislas,  a  peasant,  whom 
the  princess  Libussa  espoused,  632,  and 
raised  to  the  "throne.    Although  Cbarle- 

Smasne  and  some  bf  his  successors  com- 
elled  B.  to  pay  tribute,  this  subjection 
id  not  continue  long.  In  840,  B.,  Si- 
lesia and  Moravia  were  free  firom  all  for- 
eign dominion,  and  governed  by  their 
own  dukes,  although  still  maintaining  a 
sort  of  confederacy  with  tbe  German  em- 
pire. In  1061,  rienry  IV  cave  the  title 
of  Awg  to  the  duke  of  B.,  which  was  not, 
however,  generally  recomised  till  the 
time  of  WxatiBlaus,  in  106o.  Afterwards^ 
about  1230,  Philip  conferred  the  royal 
dignity,  on  Przemislad  and  his  succeasors. 
It  was  confirmed  by  Frederic  II,  since 
whose  time  B.  has  remained  a  kingdom. 
The  male  descendant?  of  the  old  kings 
ceased  with  Wenzel  V,  in  1305,  on  whose 
death,  John  of  Luxemburg  obtained  the 
crown  by  marriage,  in  1310,  and  left  it  to 
his  descendants.  After  this,  Charles  IV 
(of  the  house  of  Luxemburg,  under  the 
name  of  Charles  I,  who  very  much  im- 
proved the  kin^rdom),  and  his  sons,  Wen- 
zeslaus  and  Sigismund  (the  latter  near- 
ly lost  B.  in  the  religious  war  with  the 
Hussites),  united  the  crown  of  B.  to  that 
of  the  German  empire.  After  Sigis- 
mund's  death,  1437,  B.  came  into  tbe  pos- 
session of  his  son-in-law,  Albert  of  Aus- 
tria, who  died  in  1439,  and  the  crown 
descended  to  his  son  Ladislaus,  bom  after 
his  death,  1440  (hence  sumamed  Pottkur 
miw),  who  being  at  the  same  dme  king  of 
Hungary,  B.  was  separated  again  from 
the  German  states.  After  his  death,  1457, 
the  people  chose  George  von  Podiebrad, 
who  had  been  rogent,  for  their  king,  in 
1458,  and,  in  1469,  when  he  was  excom- 
municated 'by  the  pope,  they  elected  the 
Polish  prince  Wladislaus,  who,  however, 
did  not  come  into  possession  of  the  throne 
till  the  death  of  Geoise,  m  1471.  He 
was  succeeded,  1516,  after  a  reign  of  45 
vears,  by  his  son  Louis.  These  were 
both  also  kings  of  Hungair.  Lewis  be- 
ing killed  m  a  battle  vriUi  the  Turks  near 
Mohatz,  in  1526,  B.  fell  to  the  house  of 
Austria.  The  brother-in-law  of  Louis, 
Maximilian's  second  grandson,  the  arch- 
duke Ferdinand,  succeeded  to  tiie  ciown. 
This  prince  desued  the  Bohemians  ta 
take  up  arms  in  the  Smalkaldic  wair 
against  the  elector  of  Saxony ;  but,  find* 
mg  them  avene  to  bis  wishes,  and  threats 

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<  ening  to  rebel  against  him,  he  oooducted 
lowiuds  them  with  great  harshness,  after 
the  victory  of  Chanes  V,  at  Miihlberg, 
V  and  declared  B.  an  abeolute  monarchy. 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Maximilian 
(1564),  and  he  by  his  sons  Rodolph  (1576), 
and  Matthias  (1612^  Towards  the  close 
of  the  reign  of  the  latter  prince,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  infringements  upon  the  re- 
ligious liberty  of  the  Protestants,  troubles 
arose,  which  threatened  the  house  of 
Austria  with  the  loss  of  B.  In  1619,  the 
people  invited  Frederic  V,  elector  of  the 
Palatinate,  to  the  throne,  to  the  exclusion 
of  Ferdinand  II,  who  had  been  ahneady 
crowned  kin^  during  the  life-time  of  his 
cousin  Matthias.  But,  when  the  victory 
at  Prague,  Nov.  9, 1630,  had  decided  the 
war  in  favor  of  the  emperor,  those  who 
had  joined  in  the  rebelhon  were  most  rig- 
orously dealt  with :  27  of  them  were  ex- 
ecuted, 16  banished  or  imprisoned  for  life, 
.and  tlieir  goods  confiscated.  The  sen- 
tence of  confiscation  was  also  extended 
to  those  who  had  already  died,  and  to  29 
who  had  escaped,  as  well  as  to  728 
wealthy  lords  and  knights,  who  had  vol- 
untarily acknowledged  their  offence. 
The  Protestant  religion,  which  was  held 
by  three  fourths  of  die  people,  was  rooted 
out ;  Rodolpb's  imperial  edict  ^vas  revok- 
ed (1627),  and  B.  reduced  to  an  absolute 
and  hereditary  monarchy,  and  the  Roman 
Catholic  faith  established  to  the  entire 
exclusion  of  all  others.  From  this  time 
B,  continually  declined.  History  hardly 
furnishes  a  parallel  instance  of  such  a 
complete  triuniph  of  mere  brute  force 
over  the  spirit  of^a  people.  The  house  of 
Hapsburg  has  to  answer  for  this  violation 
of  human  rights.  More  than  30,000  fam- 
ilies (185  of  which  were  of  the  rank  of 
lords  and  knights),  all  the  Protestant  min- 
isters and  teachers,  a  multitude  of  artists, 
tradesmen  and  mechanics,  who  refused 
to  become  Catholics,  emigrated  to  Saxo- 
ny, Brandenburg,  Holland,  Switzerland, 
&c.  In  the  mountain  and  forest  villages, 
however,  out  of  the  way  of  the  J^uits 
and  soldiers,  many  secret  Protestants  still 
remained.  Since  that  period,  the  Bohe« 
ipian  language  has  been  disused  in  public 
transactions.  In  the  30  ^eara'  war,  B. 
was  entirely  desolated;  it  lost  the  best 
of  its  strength  and  wealth.  When  Fer- 
dinand II  died,  in  1637,  there  remain- 
ed of  the  732  towns,  34,700  villages,  and 
3,000,000  of  inhabitants,  which  B.  con- 
tained in  1617,  only  130  towns,  a  little 
more  than^  6000  villages,  and  780,000  in- 
habitants! Afler  the  death  of  Charles 
VI  (1740),  Charies  Albert,  elector  of  Ba- 

varia, laid  claim  to  the  crown,  and  the 
oath  of  allegiance  was  taken  to  him  in 
Prague ;  but  Maria  Theresa  succeeded  in 
obtaining  possession  of  B.,  which  has 
remained  ever  since  one  of  the  richest 
jewels  in  the  Austrian  diadem. — ^The 
kingdom  of  Bohemia  is  bounded  on  the 
west  by  Bavaria,  on  the  east  by  Moravia 
and  Silesia,  on  the  north  by  Lusatia  and 
Misnia,  and  on  the  south  by  Austria  and 
Bavaria.  It  contains  20^200  square  miles, 
and  over  3^380,000  inhabitants  (of  whom 
2,170,000  are  Czechs,  and  more  than 
50,000  Jews),  in  286  large  towns  (Hadte), 
275  market-towns,  and  11^924  viUages. 
The  prevailing  religion  is  the  Roman 
Catholic ;  other  sects,  however,  are  toler- 
ated. The  language  of  the  country  is 
Bohemian,  a  diuect  of  the  Sclavonic :  in 
some  districts,  and  in  most  of  the  cities, 
Grerman  is  spoken.  R  is  surrounded  on 
all  sides  by  mountains,  is  covered  with 
large  forests,  and  considerable  pond& 
The  number  of  the  latter  is  reckoned  at 
20,000.  Its  plains  are  remarkably  fertile. 
The  largest  nvers  are  the  Elbe  and  the 
Moldau.  All  sorts  of  grain,  flax,  hops 
(the  best  in  Europe)  and  fiiiits  are  ex- 
ported. Wine  is  not  abundant,  but,  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Melnic,  of  pretty 
good  quality.  The  raising  of  sheep, 
horses,  swine  and  poultry  is  carried  on  to 
a  considerable  extent.  The  mines  yield 
silver  (1823, 13,873  marks),  copper,  excel- 
lent tin  (1800  cwt.),  mnetsand  other  pre- 
cious stones,  iron  (200,000  cwt.]^  cobalt, 
arsenic,  uranium  and  tunesten,  antimony, 
vitriol,  alum,  calamine,  siuphur,  and  coal 
in  abundance.  There  are  also  numerous 
mineral  springsf  150),  but  little  salt.  Man- 
ufactories of  difierent  kinds  are  establish- 
ed in  all  parts  of  the  countiy.  The  most 
important  of  these  are  the  linen,  cambric, 
lace,  thread  and  veil  factories,  and  others 
of  a  similar  kind.    These,  in  1801,  yielded 

goods  to  the  value  of  more  than  20,000,000 
orins:  half  of  this  amount  was  exported 
from  the  country.  The  woollen  manu- 
factories produced  an  amount  of  10,000,000 
florins.  The  woollens  have  advanced,  of 
late  years,  both  in  quantity  and  quality. 
The  Bohemian  glass  (there  are  78  glass- 
houses) is  the  best  in  Europe,  and  is  car- 
ried to  Spain,  America,  Russia  and  the 
Levant,  to  the  amount  of  2,500,000  florina 
Besides  these,  there  are  8  mirror  flictories. 
At  Tumau  there  are  manufiictories  of 
composition-stones,  porcelain  and  earthen 
ware,  &c.  Of  considerable  importance, 
too,  is  the  manu&cture  of  hats  of  the  fin- 
est sort,  of  paper,  of  silk  stuffi,  polished 
garnets,  musical  inBtrumenta,  and  manj 

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«tiier  aitides.  ^B.  contains,  besides  the 
eii^  of  Pra^e,  16  circles,  governed  by 
officers  appointed  yearly.  'The  most  im- 
portant places  are  the  cities  of  Buntzlau, 
Mekdk,  Tumau,  Reichenberg,  Trautenau, 
Kuttenberg,  Budweis,  Piken,  Carlsbad 
(q.  vX  JoacfaimstbaJ,  Teplitz  {a.  v.),  Eger ; 
the  &rtreases  of  K6niffingratz,  Josepb- 
stadt,  Tfaereaienstadt;  the  manu&ctunng 
town  of  Rumburff ;  the  villages  of  Ader- 
boch,  Sedlitz,  SeidschCitz,  PCdlna,  K6nig8- 
wart,  Fransensbninnen  (q.  v.),  Marien- 
bad  (q.  v.)^  &c.  For  internal  intercourse, 
there  are  excellent  highways,  extending 
1060  miles;  and,  in  1826,  a  rail-road  was 
laid  to  connect  the  Danube  with  the  Mol- 
daUd — ^The  Bohemians  of  all  ranks  are 
distinguished  for  their  public  spirit,  exert- 
ing itself  in  the  most  noble  and  useful 
plan&  In  1822,  they  had  2996  public 
establishments  for  education,  a  university, 
3  theological  academies,  26  gymnasiums, 
2961  common  schools,  and  a  conservatoiy 
for  music,  6709  teachers,  410,463  pupils; 
among  thena^  2055  students  in  the  nigh 
flchook  (See  prof  SchnabeFs  iStoluficd 
jSeanmt  of  Bohemia,) 

BoHEMiAif  Bkethren;  the  name  of  a 
Christian  sect  which  arose  in  Bohemia, 
about  the  middle  of  the  15th  century, 
fiom  the  remains  of  the  stricter  sort  of 
Hussites,  (q.  v.)  Dissatisfied  with  the  ad- 
vances towanu  popery,  by  which  the 
Calixtines  (q.  v.|  had  made  themselves 
Che  ruling  party  m  Bohemia,  they  refused 
Co  receive  the  compacts^  as  they  were  call- 
ed, i.  e.,  the  articles  of  agreement  between 
chat  par^  and  the  council  at  Basil  (30th 
Nov,  14^),  and  began,  about  1457,  under 
the  direction  of  a  clergyman,  Michael 
Bradatz,  to  foim  themselves  into  separate 
parishes,  to  hold  meetings  of  their  own, 
and  to  distinguish  themselves  from  the 
rest  of  the  Hussites  by  the  name  of  Bro- 
therSf  or  BrMen^  Umon ;  but  they  were 
often  confounded  by  their  opponents  with 
Che  Waldenaes  and  Picards,  and,  on  ac- 
count of  their  sedosion,  were  called  Cav- 
em-himUn  (ChiAemheimar).  Amidst  the 
hardships  and  oppreaaions  which  they 
fluflfered  fit>m  the  Calixtines  and  Catho- 
lics, without  making  any  resistance,  their 
uumbers  increased  so  much,  through  their 
constancy  in  thenr  belief  and  the  puriQr 
/of  then:  morals,  that,  in  1600,  their  par- 
ishes amounted  to  200,  nM)et  of  which 
had  chapels  belonging  to  them.  The  pe- 
culiarities of  their  religious  belief  are  seen 
in  their  confessions  of  fiuth,  especiallv 
cheir  opinions  with  regard  to  the  Lord% 
supper.  They  rejected  the  idea  of  tran- 
flUMtaatiatioDy  and  admitted  only  a  my»- 

VOL.  II.  14 

tical  spiritual  presence  of  Christ  m  the 
euchansu  In  other  points,  they  took  the 
Scriptures  as  the  mund  of  their  doctrines 
throughout,  and  tor  this,  but  more  espe- 
ciaUy  for  the  constitution  and  disciplme 
of  their  churches,  received  the  approba- 
tion of  the  reformers  of  the  16th  century. 
This  constitution  of  theirs  was  filmed 
according  to  the  accounts  which  remain 
of  the  oUlest  apostohc  churches.  They 
aimed  to  restore  the  primitive  purity  of 
Christianity,  by  the  exclusion  of  the  vi- 
cious fix)m  their  conmiunion^  and  by 
making  three  degrees  of  excommunica- 
tion, as  well  as  by  the  carefijl  separodon 
of  the  sexes,  and  the  distribution  of  the 
luembers  of  their  society  into  three 
•classes— the  beginners,  the  proficients 
and  the  perfect.  Their  strict  system 
of  superintendence,  extending  even  to 
the  mmute  details  of  domestic  life,  did 
much  towards  promoting  this  object.  To 
carry  on  their  system,  they  had  a  multi- 
tude of  officers,  of  different  degrees:  viz. 
ordaining  bishops,  seniors  and  conseniorS, 
presbyters  or  preachers,  deacons,  lediles 
and  acolytes,  among  whom  the  mana^- 
ment  of  the  ecclesiastical,  moral  and  civil 
afiairs  of  the  conimunity  was  judiciously 
distributed.  Theu*  first  bishop  received 
his  ordination  fiiom  a  Waldensian  bishop, 
though  their  churches  held  no  commun- 
ion with  the  Waldenses  in  Bohemia. 
They  were  destined,  however,  to  experi- 
ence a  like  fate  with  that  oppressed  sect 
When,  in  conformity  to  their  principle  not 
to  perform  miUtary  service,  they  refused 
to  take  up  arms  in  the  Smalkaldic  war 
against  the  Protestants,  Ferdinand  took 
their  churches  fit)m  them,  and,  in  1548, 
1000  of  their  society  retired  into  Pokind 
and  Prussia,  where  they  at  first  settled  in 
Marienwerder.  The  agreement  which 
they  concluded  at  Sendomir,  14th  April, 
1570,  with  the  Polish  Lutherans  and  Cal- 
vinistic  churches,  and  still  more  the  Dis- 
senters' Peace  Act  of  the  Polish  conven- 
tion, 1572,  obtained  toleration  for  them  in 
Poland,  where  they  united  more  closely 
with  the  Calvinists  under  the  persecutions 
of  the  Swedish  Sigismund,  and  have  con- 
tinued in  this  connexion  to  the  present 
day. — ^Their  brethren,  who  remamed  in 
Moravia  and  Bohemia,  recovered  a  cei> 
tain  degree  of  liberty  under  Maximilian 
II,  and  had  their  chief  residence  at  Ful- 
nek,  in  Moravia,  and  hence  have  been 
called  Marwian  Brethrtn,  The  issue  of 
the  30  years'  war,  which  terminated  so 
unfortunately  for  the  Protestants,  ^occa- 
sioned the  entire  destruction  of  their 
diiiiches,  and  then:  last  biahop^  Come- 

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nius  (q.  v.),  who  had  rendered  important 
services  in  the  education  of  youth,  was 
compelled  to  fly.  From  this  time,  they 
made  frequent  emigrations,  the  most  im- 
portant of  which  took  place  in  1722,  and 
occasioned  the  establishment  of  the  new 
churches  of  the  Brethren  by  count  Zin- 
zendorf.  (For  the  history  of  the  old 
churches  of  this  sect,  we  refer  the  reader 
to  Cranzen's  History  qf  the  BreQvrtn^  and 
to  Bchulz  On  the  Origin  and  Constituium 
of  the  Evangelical  Breihren^s  Church 
(Gotha,  1822),  a  sensible  and  impartial 
work.)  Although  the  old  Bohemian 
Brethren  must  be  regarded  as  now  ex- 
tinct, this  society  will  ever  deserve  re- 
membrance, as  a  quiet  guardian  of  Chris- 
tian truth  and  piety,  in  times  just  emerging 
from  the  barbarity  of  the  middle  ages;  as 
a  promoter  of  pure  morals,  such  as  the 
reformers  of  the  16th  century  were  una- 
ble to  establish  in  tlieir  churches;  and  as 
the  parent  of  the  esteemed  and  widely  ex- 
tended association  of  die  United  Brethren 
(q.  v.),  whose  constitution  has  been  mod- 
elled after  theirs. 

Bohemian  and  Bavarian  Forest. 
From  the  Fichtelgebirge,  southward,  to- 
wards the  confluence  of  the  Ilz  and  the 
Danube,  extends  a  ridge  of  mountains, 
covered  with  wood,  called  the  Bohemian 
Ihrestj  in  ancient  times  a  part  of  the  Sylva 
Hercynioj  the  highest  peaks  of  which  are 
the  Arber  (4320  feet  high),  Rachel  and 
others.  It  separates  Bavaria  and  Bohe- 
mia. The  great  abundance  of  wood  has 
occasioned  the  establishment  of  many 
^ass-houses,  forges,  &c  in  this  region. 
The  inhabitants  have  acquired,  in  their 
seclusion  from  the  world,  many  charac- 
teristic virtues  and  vices. 

Bohemian  Language.  The  Czechish 
(Bohemian)  dialect  was  the  first  of  the 
Sclavonic  idioms  which  was  cultivated 
scientifically.  '  This  dialect  is  spoken  in 
Bohemia,  Moravia,  with  slight  variations 
in  Austrian  Silesia,  in  half  of  Hungary, 
and  in  Sclavonia.  That  the  Czechish 
has  been  widely  spread  as  a  dialect  of  the 
Sclavonian,  is  proved,  as  well  by  its  anti- 
Guity,  and  its  degree  of  cultivation,  as  by 
the  size  of  the  countries  whose  nadonai 
language  it  is.  We  shall  conidder  first 
tlie  richness  of  the  vocabulary  of  this  lan- 
guage. This  richness  consists  in  the 
number  of  inflexions  of  the  syllables 
at  the  beginning  and  end  of  words. 
Thus  firom  the  single  radical  word  lyti 
(his)  there  are  more  than  110  derivatives ; 
nrom  the  radical  word  dige  se  (i  read  like 
ea),  sonifying  U  hcq^pens^  there  are  more 
than  95,  without  reckonmg  the  fi^equent- 

ative  verbs,  verbal  substantives  and  adjee* 
tives.  By  the  simple  prefixing  of  the 
letters  «,  to,  v,  z,  the  veifo  acquires  a  dif- 
ferent signification ;  e.  g.,  f-ren^  v^azytiy 
w-razyti^  convey  the  meanings  to  beat  downy 
to  beat  off,  to  heat  in.  Hence  this  lan- 
guage has  formed,  firom  native  roots,  all 
the  scientific  terms  of  theology,  jurispru- 
dence and  philosophy,  and,  vrith  every 
new  invention,  can  be  further  developed. 
A  proof  of  its  richness  is  to  be  found  also 
in  the  numerous  synonymes,  as  payee 
U  read  hke  the  Italian  ee^hthkoy  ^tta,  the 
bitch ;  hodmostj  dudognost^  dignity ;  hfwgy 
mrtoa,  manure ;  weSy  toe^mce,  didmOj  the 
village. — ^If  one  compares  the  B<^emian 
radi^  words  vrith  the  analogous  terms  in 
other  languages,  he  will  be  astonished  at 
the  numTOr  of  inflexions  and  derivations 
b^  which  the  language  of  the  Czechi  is 
distinguished.  A  ^reat  part  of  the  &cility 
with  which  it  receives  new  forms  and  a^ 
ditions  rests  upon  its  manifold  declensions 
and  its  numerous  tenses  and  pardciples. 
In  this  respect,  the  language  of%e  Bohe- 
mians excels  that  of  all  other  modem  na- 
tions, with  the  exception  of  the  other 
races  of  Sclavonic  origm.  In  the  variety  of 
declensions,  which  are  terminated  almost 
all  with  a  vowel,  are  inflected  only  at  the 
end,  and  aro  used  without  an  article  (see 
the  Gramnuo'  of  M^edly,  Prague,  1821]^ 
the  Bohemian  equau  the  precise  Latin ; 
for  instance,  mun  (two),  zene  (femma),  {z 
read  like  the  French  ci),  &c.  The  par- 
ticiples ffive  it  a  great  deal  of  pliability,  as 
they  unite  in  themselves  the  advanutge 
of  verbs  and  adjectives,  by  denoting,  as 
vexbal  adjectives,  at  once  the  quahty  of 
the  thin^  and  the  detexmination  of  the 
tinie,  saving  thus  the  use  of  the  relatives 
tohichf  who,  as,  and  the  prepositions  cfttr, 
since,  &c.,  by  which  periods  become  so 
dragguiff:  hence  its  conciseness. — ^An- 
other advantage  of  the  pHability  of  the 
Bohemian  language  is  the  means  which 
it  affords  of  compounding  words;  as, 
Samowlddce,  he  who  rules  alone;  HrO' 
nundddny,  the  ruler  of  the  thunder,  &c. 
The  Bohemian  expresses  the  compound 
words  of  the  Greeks  and  Germans  some- 
times by  a  particidar  form  of  the  adjec- 
tive, sometimes  by  particular  substantives ; 
as,  kostmc,  the  charnel-house ;  ehmdmee^ 
the  hop-yard;  dtJta,  the  rainbow. — An- 
other pecutiarity  is  the  great  variety  of 
diminutives,  by  which  not  only  small,  but 
agreeable  and  dear  objects  are  designat- 
ed ;  BBfOanaeek,  the  little  gentleman ;  tm- 
lenka,  me  much  beloved;  panenka^  th# 
litde  maid,  and  many  others:  also  tiie 
ways  of  ezpreaslBg  concisely  the  fiequent 

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nttning  of  a  thing ;  for  instance,  I\ranti$' 
kowati  at  {§  read  as  $ch),  to  use  fiequently 
the  name  Francis;  maceehowati  «e,  to  use 
fiequently  the  name  step-mother.  It  pos- 
sesses also  the  patronymic  nomis ;  for  in- 
stance, krafowec^  the  king's  son.  It  indi- 
cates concisely  that  an  action  is  complet- 
ed ;  as,  dopsiij  to  write  to  an  end.  It 
contains  the  inceptive  veifos ;  for  example, 
hrba;^  I  am  becoming  hunch-backed ; 
and  many  othera. — Secondly,  the  Bohe- 
mian language  has  much  expressiveness 
and  energy,  as  it  is  not  weakened  by  a 
number  of  articles,  auxiliary  words,  con- 
junctions and  words  of  transition,  but  is 
able  to  represent  the  objects  of  imagina- 
tion, of  pasabn,  and  all  the  higher  emo- 
tions of  the  p€»et  and  orator,  in  a  quick, 
rigorous  and  lively  manner,  by  its  orev- 
ity,  heapinff  together  the  most  significant 
words,  and  arranging  the  connexion  of 
the  parts  of  speech  according  to  the  de- 
gree of  feeling  to  be  expressed,  so  as  to 
give  the  style  spirit  and  energy,  or  gentle- 
ness and  equabdity.  The  Bohemian  des- 
ignates numy  objects  by  the  imitation  of 
natural  sounds.  Thus  the  names' of  many 
aniniAlg  are  taken  fifom  their  voices ;  as, 
kruiot  the  turkey;  kadma^  the  duck. 
Many  plants  he  names  from  their  effects ; 
as,  boMdaWj  hemlock  (fiiom  head-ache). 
The  conciseness  of  the  language  is  in- 
creased by  the  absence  of  auxiliaries  in 
the  ffreater  part  of  the  verbs ;  as,  dam,  I 
shall  give.  The  preterites,  in  the  third 
person,  singular  and  plural,  express  a 
meaning  still  further  condensed,  as  the 
variation  in  the  last  syllable  is  made  to 
designate  the  sex;  for  example,  psaly 
psalOf  jwdOf  he,  she,  it  has  written; 
psalij  puHyy' pscdoj  they  have  written; 
xorozen,  norozetut,  fuuvzeno,  he,  she,  it 
has  been  bom.  Thus  the  absence  of  the 
personal  pronouns  in  the  verbs,  of  the  ar- 
ticle in  the  substantives,  and  the  use  of 
many  participles  and  participial  forms,  give 
to  this  language  the  expressiveness  and 
power  of  the  LAtin.  In  like  manner,  the 
bohemian  saves  many  prepositions  and 
much  circumlocution  or  other  kinds,  by 
the  use  of  the  ttufrum^ito/,  agreeing 
with  the  Latin  ablative;  for  instance, 
f eccfym  mut  Uomu  mu  tff  al  (t  read  like 
U\  with  a  blow  of  the  sword  he  has  cut 
off  his  head.  This  language  is,  therefore, 
very  well  fitted  for  the  translation  of  the 
Ladn  classics.  By  the  use  of  the  part, 
prai.  aetmf  the  Bohemian  can  designate, 
as  well  as  the  Greek,  who  has  really  per- 
formed the  action  contuned  in  the  predi- 
cate of  the  accessary  clause,  which  the 
LaiiDf  with  his    ablative   absolute,   or 

participle   passive,   must   leave  always 
undefined   and   dubious;   for  instance, 

Uiviapot  UankXia  anoUt^as  ttctrponw  cai  tvv 
jfoi^os  KM  T*»  ;i^pi|^ariM'  artipa  us  lUXonownoov  ; 
Pindanu  vsUmawko  PasikUa  za  porueryka 
8yna  wfiho  a  geho  ^mtry,  tM  do  Pd^pim' 
nesu  ;  Pwdarus  constituto  PatieU  turn 
JUn  turn  honorum  tutore,  in  Pdopormesvm 
abitt.  This  contributes  to  the  perspicuity 
and  precision  of  the  Bohemian  language. 
Everv  notion,  moreover,  is  expressed  by  a 
peculiar  word ;  for  example,  the  verbs  ^H, 
gtjhati^  krdgeHj  rezati,  denote  to  cut  with 
the  scissors,  with  the  sickle,  with  the 
knife,  and  with  the  sithe ;  while  most  lan- 
guages use  one  verb,  to  cut,  in  all  these 
cases.  In  the  subtilty  of  grammatical 
structure,  the  Bohemian  is  like  the  Greek, 
and  has  the  advantage  over  the  Latin  and 
other  languages.  In  speaking  of  two 
hands,  two  eyes,  &c.,  the  dual  number  is 
used ;  e.  g.,  nice,  oci,  &c.  The  language 
is  also  capable  of  expressing  the  idea  of 
duration  referring  to  an  indefinite  past 
time,  like  the  Greek  aorist ;  for  instance, 
hxpowcd  dvmj  aU  nekaypU  ho,  which  we 
have  no  means  of  rendering  precisely,  for 
knqtowati  means  to  hvy,  and^aiipifi  means 
also  to  buy :  accordingly  the  phrase  would 
be,  literally,  he  bought  the  home,  and 
bought  Unotj  which  would  be  a  contra- 
diction: he  was  about  to  buy  the  hmue^ 
but  did  fwt  buy  it,  would  be  also  an  in<i 
correct  expression  of  this  idea,  for  the 
action  was  already  goinff  on-^he  was  al-^ 
ready  buying.  The  language  afibrds 
several  preterite  tenses,  which  are  dis« 
tinguished with  great  subtilty;  as,  prtd. 
aing.  unit,  (time  which  has  only  past 
once)~Aau/m,  he  has  bought  once ;  /Htw- 
quamperf,  primuni--4cupoumj  he  had  pur« 
chased  for  a  long  time;  plvsquamperf. 
8ecundumr'4cupowaioalj  he  had  purchased 
formerly  several  times ;  pluaquamperf, 
tertium^upowawdwal,  he  seldom  had 
purchased  m  former  times ;  where,  bv 
adding  the  auxiliary  verb  byl,  a  time  stiU 
longer  passed  may  be  expressed;  though 
this  is  very  seldom  used;  for  instance, 
byl  kupowawalj  he  had  purchased  in  times 
long  past  Another  advantage  of  tibe  lan-^ 
guage  consists  in  the  many  future  tenses 
by  which  the  Bohemian  denotes  not  only 
the  time,  but  also  the  duration,  and  the 
more  or  less  frequent  repetition  of  ^e 
action;  viz.  futurum  simplex — kaufjmy 
I  shall  purchase  once  ;^uruin  duratwum 
— for  instance,  budu  htpWMXtiy  I  shall  be 
purchasing  for  a  long  time ;  fut,  frequent 
tativum — budu  hqHno&toatiy  I  shall  pur- 
chase several  times ;  and  fut.  iteratwuM 
-^udu  hupowdwaH,  I  shall  be  purchasing 

Digitized  by 




very  often.  Not  less  manifold  in  sig- 
nification, and  equally  subtile  in  the  de* 
termination  of  time,  are  the  participles 
and  the  participial  constructions.  The 
determination  of  the  sex  and  the  number 
by  the  final  syllable  of  the  participle  gives 
the  Czechish  language  no  small  prefer- 
ence above  others.  The  Bohemian  can 
express  himself  as  elegantly  and  politely, 
and  at  the  same  time  as  concisely*  as  the 
Greek  with  his  optative;  for  instance, 
nechalo  foAo,  she  may  let  it  go ;  vcinU,  let 
him  do  it.  The  small,  connective  parti- 
cles of  speech,  which  the  Bohemian  has, 
in  common  with  the  Greek,  must  be  con- 
sidered as  so  many  touches  and  shadings, 
by  which  the  whole  idea  and  feeling  is 
more  distinctly  expressed.  The  Greek 
oAXa  fttvt  yapf  U,  rSf  &c.  agree  With  the 
Bohemian  de  pak,  wsak,  1%,  z,  f;  only  the 
three  latter  are  always  affixed  to  a  word. 
Finally,  the  free,  unrestrained  arrange- 
ment of  the  woids  contributes  much  to 
perspicuity,  as  the  Bohemian  is  less  fet- 
terea  than  any  of  the  other  modem  lan- 
guages to  a  particular  construction. — By 
a  happy  mixture  of  vowels  and  conso- 
nants, and  by  a  combinatiqp  of  the  latter 
fiivorable  for  the  pronunciation,  the  lan- 
guage has  also  much  euphony,  though 
manv  call  it  rough  on  account  of  the  r 
(read  rsh) ;  but  the  sound  of  entire  words, 
not  that  of  the  smgle  letters  which  com- 
pose them,  determines  the  roughness  or 
smoothness  of  their  pronunciation ;  be- 
sides, every  language,  on  account  of  the 
difference  of  the  feelings  which  it  has  to 
convey, — ^sonie  gentle,  others  harsh  and 
violent,-^ught  to  be  able  to  form  some 
harsh  sounds.  Tlie  terminations  of  the 
various  declensions  and  conjugations  are 
mostly  vowels,  or  the  smoother  conso- 
nants. In  general,  the  Bohemian  has  a 
natural  melody,  like  that  of  the  Greek ; 
for  the  tongue  stops  longer  on  a  syllable 
containing  a  long  vowel,  a,  i,j,  tc,  ^,  than 
on  one  containing  a  short  vowel.  In  the 
Bohemian  alphabet  of  42  letters  (a  num- 
ber in  which  it  is  surpassed  only  by  the 
Indian,  the  most  copious  of  known  alpha- 
bets, and  the  Russian,  which  comes  next 
to  it),  there  are  to  be  fbund  all  the  sounds 
of  the  other  languages.  The  English 
sound  of  U  the  Bohemian  expresses  ^ith 
c,  the  English  y  with  g,  the  ah  with  aa  or 
8j  the  Italian  ce  or  a  with  c,  the  French 
ge  and  gi  with  the  z,  the  Italian  u  with 
the  y,  tlte  gn  with  the  n,  the  English  w 
with  the  Wf  particularly  at  the  end  of 
words.  Hence  his  alphabet  enables  liim 
to  write  all  languages  so  as  to  give  their 
correct  pronunciation,  and  to  pronounce 

them  easily  and  well,  so  as  to  be  eonsid* 
ered  by  Frenchmen,  Germans  and  Ittd- 
ians  as  their  countryman.  He  never 
confounds  smooth  and  rough  letters ;  lus 
singing  is  easy  and  graceful,  and  the  Bo- 
hemian opera  pleases,  like  the  Italian,  as 
it  suppresses  no  syllables,  but  gives  a  full 
sound  to  each  word.  It  is  very  seldom 
that  combinations  of  difficult  consonants 
are  to  be  found  in  the  Sclavonic  idioms, 
and  these  may  be  softened  by  the  free- 
dom of  construction  which  the  language 
allows.  The  euphony  of  the  language  is 
also  the  reason  why  the  Bohemian  takes 
a  rank  in  music  inferior  only  to  that  of 
the  ItaUan.  Throughout  Europe,  Bohe- 
mian mu^cians  are  to  be  found :  the  dis- 
tu3guished  musicians  of  Austria  are  mostly 
from  Bohemia.  Taste  and  feeling  for 
music  almost  alvniys  keep  pace  with  the 
melody  of  the  language  of  a  nation. 

Bohemian  lAUrature  has  ^ve  periods. 
The  first  extends  from  the  mythological 
times  to  1409.  It  is  certain,  that,  among 
the  Sclavonian  tribes,  the  Czechi  were 
the  first  who  cultivated  and  fixed  their 
language.  (&ee  Sckwrnicois  and  Sclavonic 
Language,)  It  afibrds  no  written  docu- 
ments of  remote  antiquity,  unless  we  be- 
lieve the  Runic  characters  to  have  been 
in  use  before  the  introduction  of  Chris- 
tianity. We  know,  however,  that  the 
language  of  that  period  was  similar  to  the 
present,  firom  the  names  of  the  gods, 
dukes,  rivers,  cities,  mountains,  which 
have  been  preserved,  such  as  Perun, 
Frcemysl,  Boriwog,  Wltawa,  Bila,  Praha, 
Tetin,  iCrkonose.  The  Sclavonian  apos- 
tle Method,  and  the  philosopher  ConStan- 
tine,  called  Cyril,  made  the  Sclavonians 
in  Moravia  acquainted  with  Christianity. 
From  thence  it  penetrated,  under  duke 
Boirwog,  to  Bohemia,  and  ^us  the  peo- 
ple of  this  coimtiy  received  the  Grseco- 
Sclavonic  ritual  in  the  year  845.  The 
same  Constantino  invented  for  the  sounds 
of  the  Sclavonic  language  the  Cyrillic- 
Sclavonic  alphabet — Az,  Buky,  Wiedi, 
Glagol^Dobro,  &C.,  borrowed  mostly  from 
the  Greek.  In  later  times,  the  GlagoUtic 
alphabet  sprung  up,  of  which,  however, 
less  use  was  made.  When  the  Latin 
church  supplanted  the  Greek  in  Moravia, 
Bohemia  and  Pannonia,  the  Latin  alpha- 
bet came  also  into  iise,  instead  or  the 
C3rrilUc.  In  Bohemia,  the  Cyrillic  char- 
acter was  in  use  only  vnth  the  monks  of 
Sazawa,  who  observed  the  Sclavonic  ritu- 
al. King  Wzatislaus,  intending  to  intro- 
duce it  a^n  in  other  places^  and  asking 
the  permission  of  pope  Gregoiy  VII,  re- 
ceived a  refusal    As  the  Latins  endeav* 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



«red  to  annihilate  all  the  writinn  of  the 
old  litual,  and  the  Sclavonic  language 
vas,  in  many  cases,  obliged  to  give  way 
to  the  Latin,  Bohemian  literature  suffeEed 
from  popery  incalculable  injury:  henca 
we  pc^ss,  from  the  earlier  centuries,  but 
a  few  insignificant  remains  in  the  charao 
ters  above  mentioned.    In  the  10th  cen- 
tury, the  Bohemians  had  a  school  at  Ku- 
det,  in  which  they  learnt  Latin.    Their 
most  ancient  relic  is  the  hymn  (Hogjwimt 
PomiZicyiw)  of  bishop  Adalbert  ( Wegtech), 
a  native  &>hemiany  which  is  sung  to  the 
present  day,  even  b^  the  Russians  and 
roles.    Some  think  it  of  still  greater  an- 
tiquity.   From  the  11th  century,  we  have 
no  complete  works ;  but,  in  Liatin  docu- 
ments, Sclavonic  names  are  frequently 
found.     The  12th  and  13th   centuries 
were  more  fertile.  When  king  Wratislaus 
issued  the  summons  for  the  renowned 
expedition  to  Milan,  all  Prague  resound- 
ed with  the  songs  of  the  valiant  yoimg 
knights;  but  none   of  them  has  been 
preserved.     Zawis  Z.  Rozmberka  wrote, 
m  1290,  several  good  poems.    The  Bo- 
hemians possess  the  remains  of  a  collec- 
tion of  lyric-epic  national  songs,  without 
rhyme,  which  seem  to  have  been  of  great 
merit;  but  only  two  sheets  of  parchment, 
in  duodecimo,  and  two  small  strips,  have 
been  preserved.    Mr.  Hanka,  keeper  of 
the  Bohemian  national  museum,  discov- 
ered these  valuable  remtuns  in  a  room  in 
the  church  at  Koniginhof,  in  a  pile  of 
neglected  papers.     The  manuscript  ap- 
pears to  have  been  written  in  the  years 
1290  and  1310 :  some  of  the  poems  may 
be  still  older :  the  more  is  the  loss  of  the 
greater  part  of  them  to  be  regretted.   This 
whole  collection  consisted  of  3  books,  as 
may  be  concluded  from  the  inscription  of 
the  remaining  chapters  of  the  3d  book, 
which  are  inscribed  26th,  27tb,  28th.    14 
poems  are  preserved,  which  constitute 
those  3  chapters.    (See  Rukopi's  Krahd-^ 
worahf  wydany  od  Wac^  Hanky,  1819.) 
We  cannot  determine  the  subject  of  the 
first  song,  BoUslanjp^  by  the  part  which 
has  come  dovm  to  us ;  the  second  poem, 
Wxhori  Dvh^  calls  upon  duke  Udalnch  to 
drive  the  Poles  firom  Prague  (1003) ;  the 
third,  Bents,  celebrates  the  repulse  of  the 
Saxons  who  advanced  from  G6rlit;E ;  the 
fourth  relates  Jaroslaw  Sternberg's  victo* 
ly  over  the  Tartars,  near  Ohntitz,  in  1241 ; 
and  so  on*     Gothe  found  diese  nation- 
al songs  worthy  of  particular  attention, 
They  deserve,  perhaps^  to  be  placed  by 
the  side  of  Ossian's  poems.    A  Bohe- 
mian psalter,  and  a  legend,  in  rhyme,  on 
Uie  12  apostles  (the  latter  only  a  fragment 

of  70  verses,  at  Yienna),  have  also  been 
preserved ;  fike^se,  the  Complaint  of  a 
Lover  on  the  Banks  of  the  Muldau  (^Wel- 
tawa),  m  prose ;  a  firagment  of  a  history 
of  the  passion  of  Jesus,  in  rhyme ;  the 
hynrn  ^oaty  Jfadanae ;  besides  a  number 
of  poems,  sonfls,  &bles  and  satires,  in 
verses  of  four  feet,  also  in  rhyme.  The 
14th  centviry  is  more  productive.  Under 
the  emperor  Charles  IV,  who  promoted 
the  cultivation  of  the  Bohemian  language, 
the  university  of  Prague  was  founded,  in 
1348.  In  the  golden  bull,  he  commanded 
the  SODS  of  the  German  electors  to  learn 
the  Bohemian  language.  Under  his  son, 
the  emperor  Wenceslaus,  all  decrees  were 
written  in  Bohemian,  which  formerly 
were  in  Latin.  Prague  was  then  not 
only  the  most  populous  city  in  Germany, 
but  also,  on  account  of  its  splendid  coiut 
and  the  wealth  of  its  citizens,  the  centre 
of  the  arts  and  sciences.  Dalemil  Me^ 
zericky  wrote  a  history  of  Bohemia  in 
verse ;  Ondreg  Z.  Dube,  a  collection  of 
Bohemian  lavra,  in  3  vote. ;  Warinec  Z. 
Brezowa,  a  history  of  the  Roman  empe^  , 
rors,  and  translated  Mandeville's  Travels ; 
Pribik  Pulkawa,  a  Bohemian  history ; 
and  Benes  Z.  Horowic,  a  historv  of  the 
empire  to  the  time  of  WenzeL  This 
penod  affords,  also,  many  vocabularies, 
poems  and  songs;  also  a  translation  of 
the  hfe  of  Alexander  the  Great ;  the  Ufe 
of  the  emperor  and  kinj^  Charles  IV ;  the 
description  of  the  heroic  feats  of  Pliehta 
of  Zerotin,  and  of  the  battle  of  Cressv,  in 
1346,  and  an  account  of  the  death  of  king 
John,  which  celebrates  his  fimie  and  tha| 
of  tlie  oxher  Bohemian  heroes ;  a  descrip* 
tion  of  the  tournament  in  1315 ;  the  ex- 
pedition of  kin^f  John  against  count  Mat-r 
thias  of  Trenzcin,  &c^-*With  Hubs  com^* 
inenced  the  second  period,  fix)m  1409  to 
1500,  which  elevated  the  character  of  the 
Bohemian  language  and  nation.  The 
ossembled  fathers  at  Constance  and  B^e 
beheld  with  astonishment,  among  the  Bo-r 
hemian  nobilitv  and  citizens,  men  not 
only  distinffuished  for  then*  intrepidity, 
but  able,  also,  to  explain  with  profound 
learning  the  word  of  God.  The  Bohe- 
mian nobility  of  those  times  not  only 
wielded  with  a  vigorous  ann  the  national 
weapon  of  their  country  in  defence  of  the 
rights  of  the  nation,  but  stood,' also,  in  the 
firat  rank  of  scientific  cultivation.  The 
prevalence  of  religious  disputes  caused 
the  Bible  to  be  generally  read  and  under* 
stood.  <£nea8Bylviu8,  then  pope,  says,^ 
Pudeat  haluE  sacerdates,  quos  ne  $tmd 
mddem  novam  kgem  ccnitat  Ugiistj  apnd 
TafforiUu  vix  mtdiercuUm  inoefiiUf  qua 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


dt  N'ofso  TaUmetdo  et  veUri  respondere 
nesciat.  (Com.  in  Diet  Alpb.  Reg.,  sec. 
ii,  17.)  Huss  of  Hussinetz  translated 
Wickhffe's  book  Trialogus  into  the  Bo- 
hemian tongue,  and  sent  it  to  the  laymen 
as  presents.  The  treatise  of  the  six  er- 
rors he  caused  to  be  inscribed,  in  Bohe- 
mian, on  the  walls  of  the  chapel  of  Beth- 
lehem. He  wrote  his  first  collection  of 
sermons  when  at  the  castle  of  Kozy 
(1413),  besides  an  appeal  to  the  pope,  a 
commentary  on  the  ten  commandments, 
an  ^explanation  of  the  twelve  articles,  two 
sermons  on  the  Antichrist,  the  Triple 
Cord,  and  several  excellent  hymns.  His 
letters  from  the  dungeon  in  Constance  to 
the  Bohemians  were  translated  by  Lu- 
ther into  Latin,  accompanied  with  a 
?ire&ce,  and  printed  at  Wittenberg  in 
536.  He,  and  Jakobellus  and  Jerome, 
improved  and  distributed  the  Bohemian 
Bible,  of  whlt^h  several  copies  have  been 
preserved  to  our  times.  How  many  of 
4ii8  works  perished  by  the  hands  of  the 
Jesuits  is  unknown.  The  cruel  execu- 
tion of  the  Bohemian  martyrs  Huss  and 
Jerome,  for  their  faith,  was  considered 
by  their  cotmtiymen  as  an  outrage  upon 
the  whole  nation,  of  which  they  com- 
plained bitterly ;  many  satires,  also,  were 
written  at  that  time.  Of  Zisca  of  Troc- 
now,  one  of  the  greatest  generals  in  his- 
tory, several  letters,  and  his  rules  of  war, 
have  been  preserved.  From  this  period, 
there  have  come  down  to  us,  also,  several 
war-songs  of  the  Taborites;  as 
Keioz  gste  BorJ  bogotonfoy  a  zakona  gdio, 
(Who  are  you,  warriors  of  God  and  c?  his  law),  &c. 
Nitz  mmskow^  poskakugUt 
(Well  now,  ye  monks,  be  chaste),  &c. ; 

also  some  songs  of  Prague,  Martin  Lu- 
pac  undertook,  with  the  assistance  of 
some  learned  men,  the  labor  of  translating 
the  whole  New  Testament,  and  rendered 
it,  in  many  places,  more  correct  and 
plain.  The  church-service  was  now 
performed  entirely  in  the  Bohemian  lan- 
guage. The  bishop  of  the  Taborites, 
Nicholas  of  Pelhrimow,  wrote  a  Bohe- 
mian and  Latin  iheoloffical  tract  Kristan 
Prachatitzky  wrote  a  book  on  medicine ; 
Martin  Kabatnik,  a  Joiuney  to  Jerusalem ; 
P.  Prespole,  the  mining  laws  of  Kutten- 
berg  and  Iglaw,  which  have  since  be- 
come so  famous.  Johann  Rokycana,  H. 
Litomericky,  W.  Koranda  and  others 
wrote  different  works  on  religious  sub- 
jects. P.  Chelcicky  gave  an  explanation 
of  the  Lessons  of  the  Gospel  for  every 
Sunday ;  wrote  the  Net  of  Faith  [SU  Wjry% 
a  diacourae  on  the  13th  chapter  of  Reve- 
lation, of  the  beastand  its  image(0  iSie^me 

a  Ohrazn  Gegjm),  and  an  essay  ofn  the  lore 
of  God.    The  most  famous  book  of  his 
was  one  in  40  cfaapters,  which  he  called 
Kopyla  (Last).    Many  controversial  writ- 
ings of  this  period  might  be  mentioned. 
Bohuslaw  of  Sechtic  wrote   the  work 
Zrcadlo  wacho  Kregtanstwa  (Mirror  of  the 
whole  of  Christianity ).    In  diis,  the  differ- 
ence between  the  conduct  of  the  apostles 
and  of  the  Roman  bishops  is  represented 
by  various  drawings.    Thi^ee  other  draw- 
ings represent  Huss  preaching,  and  at  the 
stake ;  besides  16  leaves,  upon  which  the 
life  and  the  letters  of  Huss  are  contained. 
After  two  pictures,  of  which  one  repre- 
sents the  worship  of  the  Hussites,  the 
other  the  exj[)edition  of  the  Taborites, 
.  comes  a  satirical  letter  of  Lucifer:  an- 
other plate  represents  the  blind  hero  Zisca 
at  the  head  of  his  army,  under  which 
there  are  quotations  fit)m  the  Taborite 
war-song,  Neprdtd  se  ndekeyte — JVhio- 
risteck  se  nezcutawuffme  (Fear  not  the 
foes — Stop  not  for  plundering):  besides 
a  dialogue,  in  which  the  father  tells  his 
son  how  the  cup  and  the  law  of  God  had 
been  introduced  into  Bohemia.  The  whole 
consists  of  118  leaves,  of  which  88  have 
pictures.    Stibor  of  CTmburg  and  Towa- 
cow  wrote  the  veiy  ingenious  work  on 
the  possessions  of  the  clergy,  which  he 
dedicated  to  king  George,  in  1467,  and 
the  collection  of  the  rights  and  privileges 
of  the  margraviate  of  Moravia.    Walcow- 
sky  Z.  Knezmosta  wrotft  on  the  vices  and 
hypocrisy  of  the  clergy ;  P.  Zidek  wrote, 
in  3  vols.,  the  Art  of  Governing,  1471 
(Zprawa  Krdknoska),    The  first  volume 
treats  of  the  duties  of  a  king  with  regard 
to  the  public  welfare ;  the  second,  on  his 
personal  behavior ;  the  third  is  a  general 
view  of  history,  from  the  beginning  of  the 
world  to  the  time  of  the  author,  wherein 
frequent  hints  are  given,  as  to  what  a  king 
should  do,  and  what  avoid.  William  Cor- 
nelius of  Wsehrd  wrote  nine  books  on  the 
laws,  judiciary  ofiices  and  the  register  of 
lands  in  Bohemia.    King  George  was  the 
author  of  an  ordinance  respecting  meas- 
ures, money,  weights,  &c.    V.  M&dien(N 
wic,  who,  when  notary  at  Constance,  was 
an  eye-wimess  of  the  execution  of  Huss, 
wrote  an  account  of  his  life.    This  used 
to  be  read  in  the  Bohemian  churches. 
Procopius  continued  the  rhyming  chron- 
icles of  Dalemil.     J.  Lodkowic  related 
his  Journey  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  Sasek 
of  Mezyhor  wrote  Notes  and   Travels 
tlirough    Gerinany,    England,    France, 
Spain,  Portitgal  and  Italy,  of  the  Bohe- 
mian baron  Loew  of  Rozmital  and  Vlatna 
(whom  he  accompanied);  a  contribution 

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to  our  kno^dedge  of  the  manneiB  of  the 
15th  oentury,  which  was  puUished  by 
JofiL  Edak  Horl^,  in  a  German  transla- 
tion printed  at  firiinn,  1824.  M .  Gallus, 
Aibjk,  Chrifilan,  Zidek,  J.  Cemy»  J. 
Blowic  and  Siudel,  wrote  on  medicine, 
astrology  and  agricttlture.  As  early  as 
1447,  we  have  an  anonvmous  work  on 
the  grafting  of  trees.  We  have  also  the 
rhyming  legend  of  the  10,000  knights,  a 
translation  of  the  fikbles  of  iEsop,  the 
council  of  the  bcsasts  and  birds,  in  prose 
and  verse,  in  3  vols.  (Pkuj  Rada),  Each 
lesson,  which  flows  in  rhyme  from  the 
mouths  of  the  animals,  is  f>receded  by  the 
natural  history  of  the  animals  and  the 
moraL  It  was  printed  three  times  in  the 
Bohemian  language,  and  published  at 
Cracow  in  Latin  verse,  1521, 4to.  There 
is,  likewise,  a  satire,  in  132  verses,  on  the 
persecution  of  the  priests  of  the  Tabor- 
ites ;  the  Ma/Uraium  of  Hynek  of  Podie- 
brad,  die  younger  son  of  king  George; 
besides  several  vocabularies  and  roman- 
ces, among  which  is  TkadUctkj  which 
has  been  published  at  Vienna,  in  a  Ger- 
man translation.  Of  the  Bible,  14  trans- 
lations have  come  down  to  us,  besides  10 
of  the  New  Testament.  The  oldest,  of 
the  year  1400,  is  in  Dresden.  The  typo- 
graphic art  made  a  rapid  progress  in  Bo- 
hemia. The  first  printed  work  was  the 
epistle  of  Huss  f  x>m  Constance,  in  1459 ; 
the  second,  the  Trojan  War,  in  1468 ;  the 
third,  a  New  Testament,  in  1474*;  the 
whole  Bible,  in  1488 ;  the  first  almanac, 
in  1489.— The  thutl  age,  firom  1500  to 
1620,  may  be  called  the  golden  age  of 
the  Bohemian  language.  During  those 
dreadful  tumults,  in  which,  not  only  in 
this  kingdom,  but  also  in  the  neighboring 
countries,  populous  cities  became  heaps 
of  ashes,  and  innumerable  villages  en- 
tirelv  disappeared,  the  peculiar  inclination 
of  the  nation  to  investigation,  and  their 
predilection  for  science  and  art,  devel- 
oped themselves.  The  cultivation  of 
learning — ^in  other  countries,  with  only  a 
few  exceptions^  the  monopoly  of  the 
clergy — was,  in  this  fiivoured  land,  open 
to  the  whole  nation.  All  branches  of 
science  were  elaborated,  and  brought  to 
an  uncommonly  high  degree  of  improve- 
ment for  that  time.  The  purpose  of  this 
woric  does  not  allow  us  to  enumerate  all 
the  authors  of  this  age,  sinee,  under  Ro- 
dolph  II  alone,  there  were  more  than  150. 
Gregory  Hruby  of  Geleni  translated  the 
woik  of  Petraroh,  De  Ramdm  tOriuague 
Forhtna.  W.  Pisecky  transkted  from  the 
Greek  the  Exhortation  of  Isocrates  to 
Demon]):o9.  John  Amos  Gomenius  wrote 

54  works,  some  of  which  were  very  ex- 
cellent   He  published  his  Jamta  and  an' 
Orbi$  Pietiu,  which  were  translated,  in  his 
lifetime,  mto  11  languages,  have  passed 
through  innumerable  Mitions,  and  are 
not  yet  surpassed.    In  all  the  north  of 
Europe,  Comenius  attracted  attention  by 
his   projects   for  improving   education, 
which  were  deliberated  upon  even  by  the 
diet  of  Sweden  and  the  paniament  of  Eng- 
land.   The  hymns  of  this  and  the  earlier 
ages,  part  of  which  have  been  translated 
by  Luther,  may  serve  as  standards  for  all 
languages.    In  Prague  alone,  there  were, 
at  this  period,  18  printing-presses ;  in  the 
country-tovnis  of  B.  7,  and  m  Moravia 
also  7 :  many  Bohemian  books,  too,  were 
printed  in  foreign  countries,  as  in  Venice, 
Niirembci^,  Holland,  Poland,  Dresden, 
Wittenberg  and  Leipsic. — ^The  fourth  pe- 
riod begins  with  1620,  and  ends  with 
1774.     After   the  battle  at  the  White 
mountain,  the  whole  Bohemian  nation 
submitted  entirely  to  the  coni^ueror.   The 
population  of  most  of  the  cities  and  of 
whole  districts  migrated,  in  order  not  to 
be  false  to  their  fiiith.    More  than  70,000 
men,  and  almost  the  whole  of  the  nobility, 
all  the  Protestant  clergy,  scholars  and  ar- 
tists, in  general,  the  most  cultivated  part 
of  the  nation,  lefi  their  native  country. 
Of  these   emigrants,   the   greater  part 
formed  the  flower  of  the  army  of  count 
Mansfeld.    Hence  the  30  years'  war  de- 
populated Bohemia  more  than  any  other 
country,  since  these  fugitives  endeavored 
to  regain  their  native  country  by  repeated 
invasions.    Nothing,  however,  was  so  dis- 
advantageous to  Bohemian  literature  as 
the  introduction  of  monks,  who  were 
mostly  Italians,  Spaniards  and  Southern 
Germans,  who  condemned  every  Bohe- 
mian work,  as  heretical,  to  the  flames,  so 
that  individuals  boasted  of  having  burnt 
about   60,000  manuscripts,  which  they 
took   from   the   people  by  force,  afler 
searching  their  houses.    Such  works  as 
escaped    the  flames  were   shut   up  in 
monasteries,  in  carefully-secured  rooms, 
listened  with  iron  grates,  doors,  locks, 
bolts  and  chains,  and  often  inscribed  vrith 
the  warning  title  HelL    Instead  of  these 
excellent  remains  of  the  classical  times 
of  the  country,  they  gave  the  Bohemians 
nonsense  of  all  kmda ;  accounts  of  hell 
and   purgatory,  the   reading  of  which 
made  many  of  the  popula»9  maniacs; 
though   even  this  stun   was,  m  many 
cases,  burnt,  and  mostly  fbibidden.    The 
fugitives  estabUshed  at  Amsterdam,  Dres- 
den, Berlin;  Breslau  and  Halle,  printin(|^- 
preeses^  and  .sent  to  their  brethren  m 

Digitized  by 




Bohemia,  Moravk  SDd  Hungary,  a  num-* 
ber  of  books,  mostly  new  editions.   Some 
Bohemians,  who  observed  the  decay  of 
their  language,  strove  to  remedv  it;  as 
Pesina  Z.  Cechorodu ;  Joh.  Beckowsky, 
who  continued  the  Bohemian  history  to 
1620;  W.  Weseley,  who  wrote  a  work 
on  geometry  and  tr^onometry,  &c. ;  but 
the  decay  was  too  great  to  admit  of  being 
checked ;  the  nobifity  had  become  stnn- 
gers,  and  the   government   encouraged 
only  German  literamre.    From  this  time, 
therefore,  the  Bohemians  wrote  more  in 
the  German  languajie. — ^In  the  fifth  pe- 
riod, from  1774  to  1826,  a  new  ray  of  hope 
shone  on  Bohemian  literature ;   when, 
under  the  emperor  Joseph  II,  a  deputa- 
tion of  secret  Bohemian  Protestants,  trust- 
ing to  his  liberal  views,  made  him  ac- 
quainted with  the  great  number  of  their 
brethren  of  the  same  faith.    He  perceived 
the  necesnty  of  introducing  toleration, 
and  hundreds  of  thousands  of  Protestants, 
in  Bohemia  and  Moravia,  came  to  hght : 
their  concealed  works  were  printed  anew, 
their  classical  language  was  again  ac- 
knowledged and  cultivated*    This  is  done 
still  more  under  the  present  government, 
who  perceive  the  necessity  and  utility  of 
the  sclavonian  language,  which,  in  the 
Austrian  states,  is  spoken  by  14,000,000 
people,  and  of  which  the  Bohemian  is 
the  written  dialect    Under  this  protec- 
tion, many  men  of  merit,  minaful  of 
the  fkme  of  their  ancestors,  have  endeav- 
ored to  cultivate  anew  all  branches  of  the 
sciences,  and  to  reach,  if  possible,  their 
more  advanced  neighbors.    In  particular, 
the  members  of  the  Bohemian  society  of 
sciences,  of  the  national  museum,  and  of 
other  patriotic  societies,  above  all,  count 
Kollowrath-Iiebsteiosky  and  count  Cas- 
par of  Sternberg,  deserve  to  be  named 
with  high  respect — ^The  Bohemian  has 
natural  talents  for  mathematics,  as  Co- 
peruicus,  Vega,  Stmad,  Wydra,  Littrow, 
&Ci,  may  prove.    The  corps  of  Austrian 
artillery,  which  are  recruited  in  Bohemia 
and  Moravia,  have  alwa^  contained  men 
distinguished  for  acquaintance  with  this 
science.     In  philology  and  mu»ic,  the 
Bohemians  are  likewise  eminent     The 
teacher  of  Mozart  was  Kluck,  a  Bohe« 
mian.      Recently,   Adlab^t   Sedlaczek, 
eanon  of  a  chapter  of  the  Preemonstra-' 
tenses,  has  distinguished  himself  by  phyfrr 
ical  and  mathematical  compendiums  in 
the  Bohemian  lanj^uage.— Compare  the 
VoUstandigt  BohnMche  Litaratur  of  pro- 
fessor"   Jungmann    (Prague,    1825,    2 
BoiARDo,  Matteo  Maria,  count  of  Scan- 

diano,  was  bom  at  a  seat  belonging  to  his 
&milv  near  Ferrara,  in  1434.  From  1488 
to  14u4,  the  period  of  his  death,  he  was 
commander  of  the  city  and  castle  of  Ref- 

§10,  in  the  service  of  his  protector,  Eroole 
'Este,  duke  of  Modena.  This  accom- 
plished courtier,  scholar  and  knight  was 
particularly  distinguished  as  a  poet  His 
OHaaido  hnamaraio  (Scandiano,  1496) 
is  continued  to  the  79th  canto,  but  not 
completed.  He  immortalized  the  namet 
of  hjs  own  peasants,  and  the  charms  of  the 
scenery  at  Scandiano,  in  the  persons  of  his 
heroes  and  his  descriptions  of  the  beauties 
of  nature.  In  language  and  versification, 
he  has  been  since  surpassed  by  Ariosto, 
whom  he  equalled  in  invention,  grace,  and 
skilful  conduct  of  complicated  episodes. 
Bominichi,  Bemi  and  Agostini  new 
modelled  and  continued  the  work  of  B. 
without  improving  it  One  continuation, 
only,  will  never  be  forgotten— tiie  im- 
mortal Orkmdo  of  Ariosto.  In  some  of 
his  works,  K  was  led,  by  the  spirit  of  his 
times,  to  a  close  imitation  of  the  ancients; 
e.  g.,  in  his  Capitoli;  also,  in  a  comedy 
borrowed  firom  Lucian's  ISman;  and  in 
his  Latin  eclogues  and  translations  of 
Herodotus  and  Apuleiua  In  his  sonnets 
and  ccmzoni  (first  printed  at  Reggio,  1499), 
he  has  displayed  great  talents  as  a  lyric 

Boil  ;  to  heat  a  fluid  until  it  bubbles 
and  becomes  changed  into  vapor.  If  the 
requisite  heat  is  applied  a  sufficient  time, 
bubbles  continuallv  arise,  until  the  fluid  is 
entirely  consumed.  A  singular  circum- 
stance is  to  be  remarked,  that  the  fluid, 
in  open  vessels,  when  it  has  once  begun 
to  boil,  receives  no  increase  of  heat,  even 
from  the  hottest  fire.  The  reason  is  this, 
that  the  additional  caloric  goes  to  form 
steam,  and  ascends  with  it  into  the  air. 
The  steam  itself,  when  formed,  may  be 
raised  to  a  much  higher  degree  of  temper^ 
ature.  During  the  period  of  boiling,  the 
surface  of  the  fluid  exhibits  a  violent  un« 
dulating  motion,  and  the  stratum  of  air 
immediately  over  it  is  filled  with  vapor. 
The  noise  which  accompanies  boihng, 
arises^  vrithout  doubt,  firom  the  displacing 
of  the  steam-bubbles,  and  varies  very 
much  with  the  nature  and  situation  of 
the  vessel.  The  vaporization  of  fluids  i% 
very  probably,  nothing  more  than  a  me- 
chanical union  of  caloric  with  the  fluid. 
The  degree  of  heat  at  which  diflerent 
fluids  boil  is  very  diflerent  Spirits  boil 
at  the  lowest  temperature;  pure  water 
next;  at  a  still  higher  temperature,  the 
fixed  oils.  The  degree  of  heat  at  which 
a  fluid  boils  is  eaUed  its  hoQing  point. 

Digitized  by 




This  is  used  as  one  of  tfie  fixed  point»  in 
the  graduation  of  thermometers.  This 
point  is  uniform  only  in  case  of  complete 
twiling,  and  under  a  uniform  pressure  of 
the  atmosphere.  The  influence  of  this 
pressure  appears  from  experiments.  In 
an  exhausted  receiver,  the  heat  of  the 
human  hand  is  sufficient  to  make  water 
hoil ;  while,  on  the  contrary,  in  Papin's 
digester,  where  the  confinement  prevents 
evaporation,  it  may  be  heated  to  300  or 
400  degrees  without  boiling.  Under  the 
common  pressure  of  the  atmosphere,  the 
boiling  pomt  of  rain-water  is  212°  Fahren- 
heit ;  that  of  alcohol,  174° ;  that  of  mer- 
cury, 6G0° ;  that  of  etheis,  98°.  From  the 
experiments  of  prof  Robinson,  it  appears, 
that,  in  a  vacuum,  all  liquids  boil  about 
145°  lower  than  in  the  open  air,  under  a 
pressure  of  30  inches  of  mercury ;  water, 
therefore,  would  boil  in  a  vacuum  at  67° 
Ether  may  be  made  to  boil  at  the  com- 
mon temperature,  by  merely  exhausting 
the  air  from  the  vessel  in  which  it  is  con- 

BoiLEA0,  Despr^au^  Nicholas,  bom  in 
1636«  at  Crosne,  near  Paris,  commenced 
his  studies  in  the  colUge  d^JSarcowrt^  and 
continued  them  in  the  ealUge  de  Beau^ 
tfcd».  Even  in  his  early  youth,  he  read 
with  ardor  the  great  poets  of  antiquity, 
and  tried  his  own  powers  in  a  tragedy, 
though  with  little  sucCesa.  After  having 
completed  his  academical  studies,  he  en- 
tered upon  the  career  of  the  law ;  but 
soon  left  it  from  disinclination,  tried  some 
other  pursuits,  and  resolved,  finally,  to 
devote  himself  entirely  to  belles-lettres. 
His  first  satire,  Les  adieux  h  Paris,  made 
known  his  talents.  In  1666,  he  published 
seven  satires,  with  an  introduction,  ad- 
dressed to  the  king.  They  met  with  ex- 
traordinary applause;  for  no  erne,  be- 
fore him,  bad  written  with  such  ele- 
gance of  versification.  But  in  this,  and 
*  m  the  puiity  of  his  language,  and  the 
clearness  with  which  he  sets  forth  his 
luminous  principles,  consists  their  chief 
merit;  novel,  profound,  original  ideas, 
we  should  look  for  in  vain,  though  the 
pieces  are  not  destitute  of  graceful  touches 
and  delicate  strokes.  Thev  are  unequal 
in  merit  The  satires  Sur  t^quivoqae  and 
Siir  rUommt  have  undeniable  defects. 
That  on  Women,  which  he  wrote  at  a  more 
advanced  age,  is  monotonous,  and  de- 
ficient in  humor.  His  epistles,  in  which 
he  is  the  successful  rival  of  Horace,  are 
more  esteemed  at  the  present  day.  They 
display  a  graceful  versification,  a  natural 
ana  sustamed  style,  vigorous  and  well 
connected  ideas.    Thes^  were  followed 

b^  his  Art  Poitigm^  in  wluch  he  describes^ 
with  precision  and  taste,  all  the  dififerenl 
kinds  of  poetry  fwith  the  exception  of  the 
apologue),  and  lays  down  rules  for  them. 
In  regularity  of  plan,  happy  transitions, 
and  continual  elegance  of  8t^le,this  poem 
is  superior  to  the  Ar$  Poehca  of  Horace. 
It  was  long  reg:arded)  not  only  in  France, 
but  also  in  foreign  countries,  as  a  poetical 
code,  and  has  eveiy  where  had  a  &vora- 
ble  influence,  as  it  inculcates  purity  and 
regularity,  and  subjects  all  the  produc- 
tions of  poetical  genius  to  a  fixed  standard. 
B.'s  censures  of  Tasso  and  Quinault,  with 
some  other  equally  unfounded  opinions, 
display  a  narrowness  of  spirit  Ue  had 
many  opponents,  who  accused  film  of 
want  of  fertility,  invention  and  variety. 
To  refute  them,  he  wrote  his  Luiritty  a 
mock-heroic  poem,  which  is  still  un- 
rivalled in  the  eyes  of  the  French.  A 
music-stand,  'which  had  been  removed 
from  its  place,  bad  occasioned  dissensions 
in  a  chapter :  this  is  the  subject  of  B.'s 
poem,  1(1  which  his  art  of  making  petty 
details  interesting  deserves  as  much  praise 
as  the  other  exc^ences  of  his  poetry  al- 
ready enumerated.  In  his  life,  B.  was 
amiable  and  generous.  Louis  XIV  gave 
him  the  place  of  historiographer,  in  con- 
nexion with  Racine.  As  he  had  attacked 
the  academicians  in  several  of  his  writ- 
mgs,  he  was  not  received  into  theur  socie- 
ty until  1684,  and  then  only  by  the  inter- 
ference of  the  kinff.  He  died  in  1711, 
of  the  dropsy.  M.  de  St  Surin  has  pub- 
lished (Euvres  de  BoUeau,  with  a  com- 
mentary, Paris,  1824,  4  vols.  The  first 
volume  of  Daunou's  (member  of  the  in- 
stitute) (Euvres  Canutes  de  BoUeau,  with 
a  literary  and  historical  commentary,  ap- 
peared in  Paris,  1825. 

Boiler.  (See  Steam  and  Steam  Enr 

Bois-LE-Duc  (the  French  name  for  the 
Dutch  Hertogenbo^  also  Im  Bosh);  a 
fortified  city  in  the  province  of  North 
Brabant,  in  the  kingdom  of  the  Nether- 
lands, witii  3770  houses  and  13,300  in- 
habitants, at  the  confluence  of  the  Dom- 
mel  and  the  Aa,  which  form,  by  their 
junction,  the  Diest  Lon.  5°  9^  E. ;  lau 
51°  40^  N.  It  has  many  manufiictories, 
and  much  trade  in  com,  some  salt- 
works, a  lyceum,  10  Catholic  churches, 
4  Calvinistic,  1  Lutheran.  Godfrey,  duke 
of  Brabant,  founded  this  important  mili- 
tary post  in  1184.  The  fortincatious  now 
consist  of  strong  walls  and  seven  bastions, 
but  it  owes  its  security,  chiefly,  to  the  &- 
cility  with  which  the  whole  country 
around  can  be  laid  under  water  (the  new 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



canal  to  Maestricht  has  16  stuicea).    B.  is 
defended  by  several  forts  and  a  citadel. 
The  city  has  four  gates,  and  three  en- 
trances from  the  water.    The  cathedral 
is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  Netherlands. 
The  city  suffered  much  in  the  religious 
wars  of  the  16th  century,  and  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  Dutch  in  1629.    Sept  14, 
1794,  the  French  defeated  the  English 
here ;  Oct  9  of  the  same  year,  it  surren- 
dered to  Pichegru.    In  January,  1814,  it 
was  taken  by  the  Prussian  general  Billow. 
BoissEREE.    A  celebrated  gallery  of 
pictures  is  exhibited  in  Stuttgart,  which 
was  collected  by  the  brothers    Sulpice 
and  Melchior  Boisser^e,  and  John  Ber- 
tram, men  who,  animated  by  love  of  the 
arts,  began,  at  the  time  of  the  destrucdon 
of  the  monasteries,  during  and  after  the 
French  revolution,' to  purchase  old  pic- 
tures, and   afterwards  completed   their 
collection  by  the  addition  of  many  valua- 
ble paintings  of  the  old  German  schooL 
By  this  coUection,  the  brothers  Boisser^e, 
and  Bertram,  have  haj^pily  realized  the 
idea  of  a  historical  series  of  old  Grerman 
paintings.    It  is  to  their  endeavors  that 
we  owe  the  discovery,  that  Germany  pos- 
sessed, as  early  as  the  13th  century,  a 
school  of  painters  of  much  merit,  which, 
like  the  Italian,  proceeded  from  the  old 
Byzantme  school,  but  became,  in  the  se- 
quel, distinguished  by  excellences  of  its 
own.    We  owe  to  these  collectors,  also, 
the  restoration  to  favor  of  the  forgotten 
Low  German  masters,  and  a  just  estima- 
tion of  John  von  Eyck,  as  the  creator  of 
the  genuine  German  style  of  painting. 
By  this  collection,  the  names  of  von  Eyck, 
Wilhelm  von  K61n,  Hemling,  Goes,  Mec- 
kenem,  Wohlgemuth,  Schoen,  Mabuse, 
Schoorel,  ^nd  many  others,  have  attained 
deserved  honor.    The  most  distinguished 
connoisseurs  and  artists,  including  Gothe, 
Canova,  Dannecker  and   Thorwaldsen, 
have  stronffly  expressed  their  admiration 
of  ihis  collection.    The  proprietors  are 
publishing  a  work  consisting  of  excellent 
lithographic  prints  from  their  pictures. 
In  the  autumn  of  1820,  the  publication 
of  the  splendid  engravings,  illustrative  of 
the  cathedral  in  Cologne,  was  resolved 
on.    The  plates  surpass,  in  size  and  exe- 
cution, every  thing  which  had  appeared 
in  the  department  of  architectural  deline- 
atjons,  and  were  partly  made  in  Paris. 
(See  Boisser^e's  Geschichte  und  Beschrei- 
bung  dts  Doma  von  KUri,  Stuttgart,  1823.) 
BoissoNADE,  Jean  Frangois,  bom  at 
Paris,  1774,  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
Greek  scholars  in  France,  was  made  as- 
sistant professor  of  the  Greek  language 

in  the  university  of  Paris,  in  1809;  audi 
in  1812,  after  the  death  of  Larcher,  whom 
he  succeeded  in  the  institute,  principal 
professor.  The  king  made  him  a  mem- 
ber of  the  legion  of  honor  in  1814,  and, 
in  1816,  member  of  the  academy  of  in- 
scriptions. Bendes  valuable  contributions 
to  the  Journal  des  D&HdSy  to  the  Matvrt^ 
to  the  Magazin  Encyclopidiqite,  to  the 
BiograpkU  Umverselle^ajid  to  the  Notices 
et  Exiraits  (10  vols.),  we  are  indebted  to 
him  for  an  edition  of  the  Heroica  of  Phi- 
lostratus  (1806),  and  of  the  Rhetoric  of 
Tiberius  (181d).  Still  more  important 
are  his  editions  of  Eunapus'  lives  of  the 
Sophists,  of  Proclus'  Commentary  on  the 
Craiylus  of  Plato,  never  before  printed ; 
of  a  Greek  romance  by  Nicetas  Euffenia- 
nus,  &c.  He  compiled,  also,  a  French 
dictionary,  on  the  plan  of  Johnson's. 

BojACA,  Battle  of,  so  called,  from 
having  been  fought  near  the  bridge  of  the 
small  town  of  Bojaca,  not  &r  mm  the 
city  of  Tunja,  between  the  Spaniards, 
under  Barreyro,  and  the  united  forces 
of  Venezuela  and  New  Grenada,  com- 
manded by  Bolivar.  It  occurred  August 
7th,  1819,  and  was  deciinve  of  the  inde- 
pendence of  New  Grenada*  Among  the 
republicans,  generals  Anzuategui,  Paez 
and  Santander  distinguished  themselves ; 
and  the  Spaniards  sustained  a  total  de- 
feat, their  general,  most  of  their  officers 
and  men  who  survived  the  battle,  together 
with  all  their  arms,  ammunition  and 
equipments,  falling  into  the  hands  of 
Bolivar.  So  complete  was  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  Spanisn  army,  that  the  vice- 
roy instantly  fled  from  Santa  F^,  leaving 
even  the  public  treasure  a  prey  to  the 

Bole  ;  a  fossil  of  a  yellow,  brown,  or  red 
color,  often  marked  with  black  dendrites ; 
found  in  difterent  parts  of  Bohemia,  Si- 
lesia and  Stiria,  also  in  Lemnos,  and  at 
Sienna  in  Italy.  It  is  made  into  pipes 
for  smoking,  and  vessels  for  cooling  water 
in  hot  weather.  The  terra  sigwata  is 
nothing  but  bole. 

BoLEYN,  or  BoLEN,  Auuc,  second  vrife 
of  Heniy  VIII  of  England,  was  the 
youngest  child  of  sir  Thomas  Boleynand 
a  daughter  of  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  She 
was  TOrn,  according  to  some  accounts,  in 
1507,  but,  according  to  other  more  prob- 
able ones,  in  1499  or  1500.  She  attended 
Mary,  sister  of  Heniy,  on  her  marriage 
with  Louis  XII,  to  France,  as  lady  of 
honor.  On  the  return  of  that  princess, 
after  the  kingl's  death,  she  entered  the 
service  of  queen  Claude,  vrifb  of  Francis 
I,  and,  after  her  death,  that  of  the  duchen 

Digitized  by 




of  AIen<?oii,  nster  of  the  French  king. 
Younj^,  beautiful,  gay  and  witty,  she  was 
an  ob|ect  of  great  attraction  in  the  gallant 
court  of  Francis  I.  She  returned  to  Ens- 
land  about  1525  or  1527,  and  became  lady 
of  honor  to  the  <]ueen,  whom  she  soon 
supplanted.  The  kmg,  passionately  enam- 
orea  of  her,  found  an  unexpected  opposi- 
tion to  his  wishes,  and  Anne  firmly  de- 
clared that  she  could  be  had  on  no  terms 
but  those  of  marrisAe.  She  knew  that 
the  kinff  already  memtated  a  divorce  from 
his  wife,  Catharine  of  Aragon ;  but  she 
also  knew  what  difficulties  the  CathoUc 
religion  opposed  to  the  execution  of  this 
plan.  Cranmer  oflRdied  his  services  to 
Drinff  about  the  accomplishment  of  the 
kin^s  wishes,  and  thus  gave  the  first  oc- 
casion to  the  separation  of  England  fix)m 
the  Roman  church.  But  the  unpetuous 
Henry  did  not  wait  for  the  ministers  of 
his  new  religion  to  confirm  his  divorce: 
on  the  contrary,  he  privately  married 
Anne,  Nov.  14,  1532,  navinff  previously 
created  her  marchioness  of  rembroke. 
When  her  pregnancy  revealed  the  secret, 
Cranmer  decku^d  the  first  marriage  void, 
and  the  second  valid,  and  Anne  was 
crowned  queen  at  Wesuninster,  with  un- 
paralleled splendor.  In  1533,  she  became 
the  mother  of  the  fiimous  Elizabeth.  She 
could  not,  however,  retain  the  afRsctions 
of  the  king,  as  inconstant  as  he  was  tvran- 
nical;  and,  as  she  had  supplanted  her 

aueen,  while  lady  of  honor  to  Catharine, 
he  was  now  supplanted  herself  by  Jane 
Seymour,  her  own  lady  of  honor.  Sus- 
picions of  infidelity  were  added  to  the 
dis^t  6f  Hennr,  which  seem  to  be  not 
entu^ly  unfounded,  although  the  judicial 
process  instituted  against  her  was  whoUv 
irregular.  In  1535,  she  was  imprisoned, 
accused,  and  brought  before  a  jury  of 
peers.  Smeaton,  a  musician,  who  was 
arrested  with  others,  confessed  that  he 
had  enjoyed  the  queen^s  fiivors,  and.  May 
17, 1536,  she  was  condemned  to  death  by 
26  judges.  Anne  in  vain  affirmed  that 
she  had  lone  before  been  contracted  to 
the  duke  of  Northumberland,  and,  there- 
fore, had  never  been  the  lawful  wife  of 
Henry.  Cranmer  in  vain  declared  the 
marriage  void.  The  sentence  of  death 
was  executed  by  the  command  of  the  in- 
flexible Henry,  who  esteemed  it  a  great 
exercise  of  clemency  to  substitute  the 
scafiTold  for  the  stake.  The  last  day  of 
the  life  of  this  unhappy  woman,  May  19, 
1536,  presents  manj  interesting  moments. 
She  sent  for  the  wife  of  the  lieutenant  of 
the  Tower,  threw  herself  upon  her  knees 
before  hei^  and  said,  ^  Go  to  the  princess 

Mary  (daughter  of  Catharine)  in  my  name, 
and,  in  this  position,  beg  her  forgiveness 
for  all  the  sufferings  I  have  drawn  upon 
her  and  her  mother."  **  She  sent  her  last 
message  to  the  king,"  says  Hume,  **  and 
acknowledged  the  obligations  which  she 
owed  him  in  unifbmuy  continuing  his 
endeavors  for  her  advancement"  "From 
a  private  gentlewoman,  you  have  made 
me,  first,  a  marchioness,  then  a  queen; 
and,  as  you  can  raise  me  no  higher  in 
this  world,  you  are  now  sending  me  to  be 
a  saint  in  heaven." 

BoLiifOBROKE,  Henry  St  John,  viscount, 
bom  in  1672,  at  Battersea,  near  London, 
of  an  ancient  &mil^,  the  members  of 
which  had  disdnguielied  themselves  in 
military  and  civil  offices,  received  an  edu- 
cation adapted  to  his  rank,  and  completed 
his  studies  at  Oxford,  where  he  early  ex- 
hibited uncommon  talents,  and  attracted 
general  attention.  On  entering  the  world, 
he  displayed  a  rare  union  of  brilliant  parts 
and  elegance  of  manners,  with  beauty  of 
person,  dignity  and  afiab^^,  and  such 
fascinating  eloquence,  that,  according  to 
the  unanimous  testimony  of  his  contem- 
poraries, nobody  could  resist  him.  Unfor-f 
tunately,  the  pasdons  of  his  youth  oppos- 
ed the  developement  of  his  talents ;  and, 
in  his  23d  year,  he  was  distinguished  prin- 
cipally as  an  accomplished  libertine.  His 
parents,  suppoone  that  marriage  would 
nave  a  salutary  influence  upon  him,  pro- 
posed to  him  a  lady,  the  heiress  of  a  mil- 
lion, who  united  with  a  charming  figure  a 
cultivated  mind  and  noble  birth.  But  the 
young  couple  had  hved  but  a  short  time 
together,  when  irreconcilable  disputes 
arose  between  them,  in  consequence  of 
which  they  separated  for  ever.  Another 
plan  was  adopted  to  give  a  better  direction 
to  the  impetuous  character  of  B.  By  the 
influence  of  his  father,  he  obtained  a  seat 
in  the  house  of  commons.  Here  his  elo- 
quence, his  acuteness,  and  the  strength  of 
his  judgment,  attracted  universal  attention. 
His  former  idleness  was  changed  at  once 
into  the  most  incessant  activity.  In  1704, 
ho  was  made  secretary  of  war,  and  came 
into  immediate  connexion  with  the  duke 
of  Marlborough,  whose  talents  he  discern- 
ed, and  whose  enterprises  he  supported 
¥rith  all  his  influence.  When,  however, 
the  whigs  gained  the  ascendency,  B.  gave 
in  his  resignation.  Now  followed,  as  he 
said  himself  the  two  most  active  years  of 
his  life,  in  which  he  devoted  himself  to 
study,  but  by  no  means  neglected  public 
afiSiirs.  He  continued  to  maintain  a  con- 
stant intercourse  with  the  queen,  who 
preferred  him  to  her  other  counsellois. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



The  whig  ministiy  was  overthrowD,  to 
the  astonishment  of  aU  Europe ;  and  B. 
received  the  department  of  foreign  afiairs, 
in.  which  post  he  concluded  me  peace 
of  Utrecht,  of  which  he  was  always 
proud,  and  which  gained  him  general 
admiration.  In  concluding  this  peace, 
every  thing  was  unfavorable  to  him — ^the 
whigs,  the  peers,  the  bank,  the  East  India 
societv,  Marlborough,  Eugene,  the  empe- 
ror, Holland,  the  jealousy  of  all  the  Euro- 
pean powers,  the  wealmess  of  his  ovm 
queen,  the  uresolution,  imprudence,  and 
even  the  envy  of  his  colleagues.  B.  after- 
wards became  a  prey  to  the  impetuosity 
of  his  passions,  and  exhibited  a  vereatility 
of  conduct  that  has  rendered  his  loyalty, 
his  patriotism  and  his  whole  character 
suspected.  The  collision  of  the  whigs 
and  tories  produced  such  a  general  excite- 
ment, that  the  ministers  were  attacked, 
the  peace  was  decried  as  disastrous,  and 
the  Protestant  succession  was  declared  in 
danger.  At  this  moment,  a  &tal  conten- 
tion broke  out  between  the  lord  high 
treasurer  (the  earl  of  Oxford)  and  fi., 
immediately  afler  the  conclusion  of  the 
]>eace.  Swift,  the  friend  of  both,  but  par- 
ticularly intimate  with  the  lord  hi^h  treas- 
urer, accused  B.  of  having  principally 
contributed  to  the  ruin  of  their  party,  fiie 
this  as  it  may,  queen  Anne,  provoked  to 
the  utmost  by  Oxford,  dismissed  him  four 
days  before  her  death,  and  made  B.  prime 
minister.  But  the  death  of  Anne  changed 
the  whole  scene.  George  I  of  Hanover 
ascended  the  throne,  and  the  whigs  tri- 
umphed more  completely  than  ever.  B., 
who  could  not  impose  on  the  Hanoverian 
court  by  his  plausible  pretences,  and  who 
was  as  much  envied  as  he  was  hated,  was 
dismissed  by  kins  Greorge,  while  yet  in 
Germany,  and  fled  to  France,  upon  leam- 
iuf  that  the  opposite  parly  intended  to 
brmg  him  to  the  scaflbld.  James  III,  the 
Prt&nderf  as  he  was  called,  invited  him  to 
Lorraine,  and  made  him  his  secretary  of 
state.  But,  when  Louis  XIV  died,  B. 
lost  all  hope  of  the  success  of  the  Pretend- 
er, and  repented  of  having  entered  into  so 
close  a  connexion  with  nim.  Whatever 
the  feelings  and  plans  of  B.  may  have 
been,  his  intentions,  with  regard  to  James 
III,  were  doubtless  honest  Nevertheless, 
the  latter  deprived  him  of  his  dignity,  and 
transferred  it  to  the  duke  of  Ormond. 
Thus  it  was  die  strange  fate  of  B.  to  be 
charged  with  treachery,  both  by  the  king 
and  the  Pretender,  (men  were  made  to 
him  by  kinff  George,  on  condition  of  his 
revealing  the  secrets  of  the  Pretender, 
This  proposal  he  at  first  declined,  but 

afterwards  yielded  so  far  as  to  promise  a 
decisive  blow  against  the  cause  of  the 
Pretender,  on  condition  of  the  total  obliv- 
ion of  what  had  already  passed,  and  of  an 
entire  confidence  for  the  future.  Wal- 
pole,  however,  was  afiaid  of  B.'s  influence 
in  parliament,  and  opposed  his  recalL  B., 
in  order  to  forget  nis  situation,  applied 
himself  to  vmting  philosophical  consola- 
tions after  the  manner  of  Seneca,  but 
soon  found  sweeter  ones  in  his  marriage 
with  a  rich  and  amiable  lady,  niece  of 
madame  de  Maintenon.  In  1^23,  the  par- 
liament, which  had  been  so  hostile  to  B., 
was  at  length  dissolved,  and  he  was  per- 
mitted to  return  to  England.  His  estates, 
however,  were  not  restored  until  two 
years  after,  by  a  particular  act  of  pariia- 
ment.  On  his  return,  he  lived  at  first 
retired  in  the  country,  maintaining,  how- 
ever, a  correspondence  vrith  Swijft  and 
Pope.  But  no  sooner  was  the  voice  of 
opposition  heard  in  parliament,  than  he 
hastened  to  London,  and,  as  the  restora- 
tion of  his  seat  in  the  house  of  lords  was 
still  denied  him,  attacked  the  ministry 
during  eight  years,  in  the  journals  or  in 
pamphlets,  with  great  success.  He  drew 
upon  himself  powerful  enemies,  against 
whom  he  directed  his  Treatise  on  Parties, 
which  is  considered  as  his  masterpiece. 
He  then  returned  to  France,  with  the  in- 
tention, as  even  Swift  supposed,  of  throw- 
ing himself  into  the  arms  of  the  Pretend- 
era  party,  agednst  which  charge  Pope 
defended  him,  and  declared  that  he  had 
himself  advised  his  noble  fiiend  to  leave 
an  ungrateful  country,  by  which  he  was 
suspected  and  persecuted.  In  France,  B. 
wrote,  17d5,  his  Letters  upon  History, 
which  are  admired  even  at  the  present 
day,  but  in  which  the  individual  character 
of  the  author  appears  to  the  exclusion  of 
general  views,  and  which  were  blamed,  in 
particular,  for  attacking  revealed  religion, 
which  he  bad  once  warmly  defended.  In 
1729,  in  the  midst  of  his  contest  vrith 
Walpole,  he  had  suggested  to  Pope  his 
Essay  on  Man,  assisted  him  in  the  com- 
position, and  supplied  him  with  the  most 
important  materials.  His  feelings  finally 
carried  him  back  to  his  country,  where 
he  wrote,  1738,  his  Idea  of  a  Patriot 
King,  under  the  eyes  of  the  heir  apparent 
He  died  in  1751,  in  his  80th  year,  after  a 
long  and  dreadful  disease,  during  which 
he  composed  Considerations  on  the  State 
of  the  Nation.  He  bequeathed  his  manu- 
scripts to  the  Scotch  poet  Mallet,  who 
published  them  in  1753;  but  scarcely  had 
they  appeared,  when  a  general  cry  was 
raised  against  them,  on  account  of  their 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



nyoltnig  atlackB  on  ChiMamty.  They 
were  preeeiited  by  the  grand  juiy  of 
Westminster  as  subversive  of  religion, 

S>vemment  and  morality.  B.  was  oapa- 
e  of  inspiring  the  wannest  fiiendsoip 
and  the  bitterest  enmity.  He  was  accus- 
ed of  immoderate  ambition,  and  of  a  proud, 
passionate,  envious  and  implacable  tem- 
per. His  memoirs  are  useful,  as  iilustrat- 
mg  English  history  during  the  first  quar- 
ter of  the  18th  century. 

Bolivar,  Simon,  the  great  military 
captain  of  South  America,  and  the  most 
prominent  individual  yet  produced  ))y  the 
revolution  in  the  late  Spanish  colonies, 
was  bom  in  the  city  of  Caraccas,  July  24, 
1783.  Ifis  fiither  was  don  Juan  Vicente 
Bolivar  y  Ponte,  and  his  mother,  doiia 
Maria  Concepcion  Palacioe  y  Sojo,  both 
of  noble  ana  distinguished  families  in 
Venezuela.  Afler  acquiring  the  first  ele- 
ments of  a  liberal  education  at  home,  B. 
repaired  to  Europe,  in  jpursuit  of  more 
extended  means  of  caimng  knowledge, 
visiting  Havana  and  Mexico  on  his  way. 
He  completed  his  studies  in  Madrid,  and 
then  spent  some  time  in  travelling,  chiefly 
in  the  south  of  Europe.  He  was  particu- 
Icurly  attracted  to  the  capital  of  France, 
where  he  was  an  eye-witness  of  some  of 
the  later  events  of  the  revolution,  and 
there,  probably,  conceived  the  idea  of 
liberatmg  fads  countiy  from  the  tyranny 
of  Spain.  Returning  to  Madrid,  he  mar- 
ried the  daughter  of  don  N.  Toro,  uncle 
of  the  marquis  of  Toro,  in  Caraccas,  and 
embariLed  with  her  for  America,  intend- 
ing to  dedicate  himself^  for  a  while,  to 
domestic  life  and  the  superintendence  of 
his  large  estate.  But  the  premature  and 
sudden  death  of  his  wife,  who  fell  a  vic- 
tim to  the  yellow  fever,  djspeUed  his  vis- 
ions of  domestic  happiness ;  and  he  again 
visited  Europe  as  a  relief  to  his  sorrow 
for  her  loss.  On  his  return  home,  he 
passed  through  the  U.  States;  and  the 
lesson  of  liberty  was  not  without  its  fiuits ; 
for,  on  his  arrival  in  Venezuela,  he  em- 
barked in  the  plans  and  intrigues  of  the 
patriots,  and  pledged  hinoself  to  the  cause 
of  independence.  Being  one  of  the  chief 
promoters  of  the  movement  in  Caraccas 
of  April  19k,  1810,  which  is  considered  as 
the  beginning  of  the  revolution,  he  re- 
ceived a  colonel's  commission  from  ihe 
flopreame  junta  then  established,  and  was 
assoeioled  with  don  Luis  Lopez  Mendez, 
for  the  purpose  aif  communicating  inteUi- 
flenoe  of  me  change  of  government  to 
Cheat  Britain.  He  took  part  in  the  &st 
military  operations  of.  the  Venezuelan 
patriots  after  the  declaration  of  indepen- 

VOL.  II.  15 

dence,  July  5,  1811,  serving  under  Mi- 
randa in  an  expedition  against  a  body  of 
persons  in  Valencia,  who  thus  early  took 
a  stand  opposed  to  the  revolution.  Afler 
the  earthquake  of  Mareh,  1812,  tiie  war  was 
commenced  in  earnest  by  the  advance  of 
Monteverde  with  the  Spanish  troops ;  and 
the  command  of  the  important  post  of 
Puerto  Cabello  was  intrusted  to  B.  Bfit, 
unfortunately,  the  Spanish  prisoners  iu 
the  castle  of  San  Felipe,  which  com- 
manded the  town,  corrupted  one  of  the 
patriot  officers,  and  obtained  possession 
of  the  casde ;  so  that  B.  was  compelled  to 
evacuate  the  place.  This  mishap  con- 
tributed greatly  to  produce  ll>e  submission 
of  Miranda,  which  left  Venezuela  in  the 
full  control  of  Monteverde,  M^ny  of 
those  persons,  who  Were  deeplv  cdmrait- 
ted  in  tlie  revolution,  now  sought  to  leave 
tlieir  country;  and  B.  succeeded  in  ob- 
taining a  passport  and  escaping  to  Cura- 
Qoa.  Unable,  however,  to  remain  a  cold 
spectator  of  the  events  occurring  on  the 
continent,  he  renaired  to  Carthagena,  iu 
September,  1812,  and,  with  otlier  cnii- 
grents  from  Caraccas,  entered  into  the 
service  of  the  patriots  of  New  Grenada. 
They  gave  him  the  command  in  the 
small  town  of  Baranca,  nominally  under 
tlie  orders  of  Labatut,  the  republican  gov- 
ernor of  Santa  Marta ;  but  B.  could  not 
be  content  with  the  obscure  part  which 
must  have  fallen  to  him  had  he  remained 
at  Baranca.  Instead  of  this,  he  under- 
took an  expedition  against  Tenerif%,  a 
town  hiffher  up  on  the  river  MagdaJena, 
occupied  by  the  Spaniards,  captured  it, 
and,  gathering  forces  on  the  way,  he 

Sroce^ed,  on  his  own  responslbiti^,  to 
[ompox,  driving  the  Speuiiards  before 
him  from  all  their  posts  in  tlie  U])])er 
Magdalena,  and  finally  entering  the  city 
of  Ocaiia  in  triumph,  amid  the  acclama- 
tions of  the  inhabitants,  whom  he  deliv- 
ered. These  happv  and  successfiil  move^ 
ments  now  turned  the  public  attention 
upon  him ;  and  he  was  invited  to  march 
upon  Cucut4,  and  attempt  to  expel  the 
Spanish  division  commanded  by  Correa. 
This  operation,  also,  he  achieved,  without 
any  loss,  by  the  celerity  and  skill  of  his 
movements,  and  now  conceived  tlie 
great  and  boM  proiect  of  invading  Vene- 
zuela with  his  little  army,  and  delivering 
it  from  the  powerful  forces  under  Monte- 
verde. The  congress  of  New  Grenada' 
Satified  him  in  this  respect,  and  gave 
m  a  commisnon  of  brigadier ;  but 
many  obstacles  were  thrown  in  his  way 
by  colonel  Manuel  Castillo,  commandant- 
general,  undev  the  congress,  in  due  prov- 

Digitized  by 




ince  of  PamplcMUi,  which  led  to  an  uree- 
oncilable  dinerence  between  theni.  At 
lenffth,  haviiiff  overcome  a  multitude  of 
difficulties  which  retarded  his  advance, 
and  driven  Correa  from  the  valleys  of 
Cucuta,  he  commenced  his  march  for 
Venezuela,  with  a  small  force  of  but  little 
more  than  500  men,  but  accompanied  by 
excellent  officers,  some  of  whom  after- 
wards acquired  great  celebrity,  such  as 
Rivas,  Jirardot,  Urdaneta  and  d'£luyar. — 
Heedless  of  the  accusations  of  rashness 
lavished  on  his  enterprise,  B.  plunged  into 
the  province  of  Merida.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  provincial  capital  rose  upon  the 
Spaniards  on  learning  the  news  of  his 
approach.  He  hastily  reestablished  the 
republican  autliorities  tliere,  while  his 
van-guard  was  proceeding  upon  Trujillo, 
under  JirardoL  A  sin^e  engagement 
took  place  in  Carache,  where  JiFardot 
defeated  a  strong  corps  of  royalists  under 
/  Cailas,  after  which  the  provinces  of  Me- 

rida and  Trujillo  remamed  wholly  free 
from  the  Spaniards.  B.  had  detached 
from  his  troops  a  small  body  under 
colonel  Briceuo  for  the  occupation  of 
Vaiinas.  Briceiio  was  defeated  ;  and, 
falling  into  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards, 
was  shot  in  cold  blood,  with  17  of  his 
companions,  and  many  of  the  patriots  of 
Varinas,  by  the  Spanish  commandant 
Fiscar.  Meanwhile,  B.  obtained  authen- 
tic intelligence  of  tlie  horrid  and  shame- 
less cruelties  and  oppressions  every  where 
perpetrated  in  Venezuela  by  Monteveitie 
and  his  subordinate  officers,  analogous  to 
the  butcheries  of  Fiscar.  Exasperated  by 
tlie  knowledge  of  these  events,  he  issued 
the  &mous  decree  of  guerra  a  muerU, 
condemning  to  death  all  the  Spanish 
prisoners  who  might  fall  into  his  bands. 
But  he  is  not  of  a  cruel  or  sanguinary 
temper;  and  this  decree  seems  to  have 
been  intended  rather  to  intimidate  the 
royalists  than  hterally  to  be  put  in  execu- 
tion. His  army  increasing  daily,  he  sep- 
arated it  into  two  divisions,  committing 
one  of  them  to  the  charge  of  Rivas,  and 
both  rapidly  advanced  upon  Caraccas 
through  the  provinces  of  Trujillo  and 
Varinas.  Several  engagements  ensued, 
in  which  the  patriots  were  successful; 
and,  at  length,  the  decisive  victory  of 
Lastoguanes,  in  whicli  the  flower  of 
Monteverde's  troops  were  completely  de- 
feated, lefl  open  the  road  to  Caraccas. 
Monteverde  shut  himself  up  in  Puerto 
Cabello,  and  B.  lost  no  time  in  marching 
upon  the  capital,  whicli  was  evacuated 
by  the  Spaniards  without  a  strugde,  and 
enteied  in  triumph  by  B.,  Aug.  %  1813. 

Meantime,  Muiuo  had  eflfoeted  the  libei^ 
ation  of  the  eastern  provincet  of  Venezu- 
ela, of  which  the  patriots  had  regained 
entire  possession,  excepting  onl^  the  for* 
tress  or  Puerto  Cabello.-^At  this  period, 
tlie  whole  authority  in  Venezuela  centred 
in  B.,  as  the  commander  of  the  liberating 
army,  and  the  oppressions  of  some  of  b£ 
subordinate  officers  excited  loud  com- 
plaints. NevertbelesB,  convinced  of  the 
necessity  of  having  Ae  resources  of  the 
country,  at  such  an  emergency,  in  the 
hands  of  a  single  individual,  it  was  re- 
solved, in  a  convention  of  the  principal 
civil  and  miUtary  officers,  assembled  at 
Caraccas,  Jan.  2, 1814,  to  confinn  the  dic^ 
tatorial  powers  which  circumstances  had 
aheady  tluiown  upon  B.  A  desperate 
contest  now  ensued  between  the  royalist 
and  patriot  parties  and  forces;  and  to 
narrate  the  part  which  B.  took  therein, 
would  be  to  relate  the  history  of  the  war. 
Suffice  it  to  say,  that,  ailer  various  vicis- 
situdes of  fortune,  B.  was  beaten  by 
Boves,  in  a  battle  fought  in  the  plains  of 
La  Puerta,  near  Cora,  and  compelled  to 
embark  for  Cumana,  with  the  shattered 
remnant  of  his  forces ;  so  that  Caraccas 
was  retaken  b^  the  Spaniards  in  July, 
1814,  and,  before  the  end  of  the  year, 
the  royalists  were  again  undisputed  mas- 
ters of  Venezuela.  Once  more,  therefore, 
B.  appeared  in  Cartha^na  tfs  a  fugitive, 
and  proceeded  to  Tunja,  where  the  con- 
gress of  New  Grenada  was  ntting,  to  give 
an  account  of  his  brilliant,  but,  in  the  re- 
sult, disastrous  expedition.  Notwithstand- 
ing his  misfortunes,  and  the  efibrts  of  his 
personal  enemies,  he  was  treated  with 
great  consideration,  and  received  the  ap- 
plause merited  by  one  who  bad  needed 
only  resources  proportionate  to  his  tal- 
ents to  have  accompliahed  the  permanent 
deUverance  of  his  country^ — When  B. 
arrived  at  Tunja,  the  congress  was  or- 
ganizing an  expedition  against  the  city 
of  Bogota,  for  the  purpose  of  compelling 
tlie  province  of  Cundmamarca  to  accede 
to  tlie  general  union  of  the  provinces  of 
New  Grenada,  and  thus  put  an  end  to  the 
collision  which  divided  the  means  and 
crippled  the  exertions  of  the  republicans. 
Every  conciliatory  measure  having  failed 
to  e^ect  a  union  of  the  provinces,  the 
government  had  recourse  to  arms.  B. 
was  intrusted'  with  the  delicate  tadt  of 
commanding  the  forces  of  the  union  upon 
this  bcc4ision,  and  marched  against  Santa 
F6  earlv  in  December,  1814,  at  the  head 
of  nearly  3Q00  troops.  He  invested  the 
city,  drove  in  the  outposts,  obtamed  pos- 
sessioQ  of  the  subuifas  by  stonn,  and  was 

Digitized  by 




prepariog  to  aaHiuh  the  great  squaro, 
where  the  dictator  Alvarez  and  the  troops 
of  OundinainarBa  were  posted,  when  the 
latter-  capitulated,  I>ecember  12,  and  be- 
imme  suDJect,  thenceforth,  to  the  general 
government  of  New  Grenada,  which  was 
peaceably  transferred  to  Bogota.  Thecon> 
gress  passed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  B.  for 
the  wisdom  and  courage  with  which  he 
had  directed  the  campaign,  and  brought 
it  BO  speedily  to  a  happy  termination; 
and  the  inhabitants  of  the  city  themselves 
expressed  their  approbation  of  his  person- 
al conduct — Previous  to  this  time,  Santa 
M arta  had  fellen  into  the  possession  of 
the  royalists,  in  consequence  of -the  inca- 
pacity of  Labatut ;  and  the  general  gov- 
ernment justly  appreciated  the  impor- 
tance of  regain  iog  it.  R  was  accordingly 
employed  upon  this  service,  and  was  to 
receive  the  necessary  munitions  of  war 
from  the  citadel  of  Carthagena;  but  the 
rivalry  and  jealousy  of  the  military  com- 
mandant Castillo,  the  origin  of  which  we 
have  already  explained,  defeated  all  his 
plans.  Indignant  at  Castillo's  conduct 
in  refusing  him  the  requisite  supplies,  B., 
after  the  season  for  acting  against  Santa 
Marta  to  advantage  had  been  wasted  in 
ruinous  delays,  invested  Carthagena  with 
his  troops,  hoping  to  intimidate  Castillo 
ante  submission,  or,  if  not,  to  reduce  him 
to  reason  by  force.  But,  m  the  midst  of 
these  wretched  dissensions,  wherein  both 

C'es  listened  too  much  to  resentment, 
illo  arrived  at  the  isle  of  Margarita 
with  an  overwhelming  force  from  Spain ; 
cuid  B.,  avrsre  that  all  further  views  upon 
Santa  Marta  were  hopeless,  threw  up  his 
command,  and,  finding  that  he  could  not 
be  usefiiUy  employed  at  Carthagena,  em- 
iMirked  for  Jamaica,  m  May,  1815,  to  wait